Imatges de pÓgina

studied at several German universities, he alle otto principali Arti dell'Oreficeria, taught moral philosophy and the Oriental l'altro in Materia dell'Arte della Scoltura languages at Weissenfels. In 1673, he (best edition, 1731). His style is free, was made rector of the school at Weimar, strong and original, and the academy and afterwards of the seminaries at Zeitz della Crusca often quotes him as a classic. and Merseburg, and, finally, professor of CELLULAR SUBSTANCE, or CELLULAR eloquence and history at Halle, where he MEMBRANE (tela cellulosa or mucosa of died in 1707. He published a great num- Latin writers), is the medium which conber of ancient authors, with learned anno- nects and supports all the various parts tations and very accurate indexes, as, for and structures of the body. Any person instance, the letters of Cicero and of Pliny, may gain a general notion of this subCornelius Nepos, Curtius, Eutropius, Sex- stance by observing it in joints of veal, tus Rufus, Velleius Paterculus, the 12 an- when it is inflated by the butchers. It cient panegyrişts, Minucius Felix, Silius consists of an assemblage of fibres and Italicus, &c. His own compositions re- laminæ of animal matter, connected with late to ancient history and geography, each other so as to form innumerable cells Roman antiquities, and the Latin lan- or small cavities, from which its name of guage.

cellular is derived. It pervades every part CELLINI, Benvenuto; a sculptor, en- of the animal structure. By joining tograver and goldsmith ; born at Florence, gether the minute fibrils of muscle, tendon in 1500, where he died in 1570; distin- or nerve, it forms obvious and visible guished particularly by his works in gold fibres. It collects these fibres into large and silver, which have become very rare, fasciculi, and, by joining such fasciculi, or and are sold at present at immense prices. bundles, to each other, constitutes an enOf a bold, honest and open character, but tire muscle, tendon or nerve. It joins tovain and quarrelsome, and impatient of gether the individual muscles, and is colencroachment and dependence, he was lected in their intervals. It surrounds often entangled in quarrels, which fre- each vessel and nerve in the body, often quently cost his antagonists their lives. connecting these parts together by a firm He himself incurred great dangers, was kind of capsule, and, in a looser form, joinput into prison, and was saved only by his ing them to the neighboring muscles, &c. boldness and the powerful protectors When condensed into a firm and compact whom his talents as an artist procured structure, it constitutes the various memhim. At the siege of Rome (if we believe branes of the body, which, by long macerahis own account, given in his autobiogra- tion in water, may be resolved into a loose, phy), he killed, with one cannon shot, the cellular texture. In the bones, it forms the constable of Bourbon, and, with another, basis or ground-work of their fabric, a rethe prince of Orange. He was afterwards ceptacle, in the interstices of which the imprisoned on the charge of having stolen earth of bone is deposited. As cellular the jewels of the papal crown, which were substance is entirely soluble in boiling intrusted to him during the siege, and was water, it is considered, by chemists, as that released only by the interference of Fran- peculiar modification of animal matter cis I, whose court he visited, and executed termed gelatine. In consequence of its there several works. He afterwards re- solution by the united agencies of heat turned to Florence, and, under the pat- and moisture, the muscular fibres separate ronage of Cosmo, made a Perseus with from each other, and form the other structhe head of Medusa, in bronze, which is tures of the body. This effect is seen in still an ornament of the market-place; meat which is subjected to long boiling or also a statue of Christ, in the chapel of stewing for the table, or, indeed, in a joint the Pitti palace, besides many excellent which is merely over-boiled. It forms a dies for coins and medals. In his 58th connexion and passage between all parts year, he wrote his own life in Latin, with of the body, however remote in situation equal candor and vanity. It has been or dissimilar in structure ; for the cells of translated, in a masterly manner, by Gőthe, this substance every where communicate, into German. There is also an English as we may collect from facts of the most translation by doctor Nugent, 1771; new common and familiar occurrence. In edition by Thomas Roscoe, 1822. It emphysema, where air escapes from the contains striking descriptions of Cellini's lungs wounded by a broken rib into the own adventures, and of the characters of cellular substance, it spreads rapidly from the persons with whom he came in con- the chest into the most remote parts of tact. Among his other writings, the most the body, and has even been known to important are Due Trattati, uno intorno gain admission into the eye-ball. A similar diffusion of this fluid may be effected and 1485, he studied under the tuition of by artificial inflation.

Rodolph Agricola, at Heidelberg, and beCelsus, Aurelius Cornelius, lived, prob- came a philologist and Latin poet. He ably, under the reign of Augustus. He then travelled to Italy, where he attended has been called the Roman Hippocrates, the lectures of the most learned teachers because he imitated the Greek physician, of his time. On his return through Iland introduced the Hippocratic system lyria, Hungary and Poland, he was taught into Rome. He also wrote on rhetoric, astronomy and astrology by Albertus Bruthe art of war and agriculture. He is, tus, and met with the most favorable rehowever, best known as a medical writer. ception at the German courts. In Nu-His style is elegant, concise, and, never- remburg, he was crowned by the emperor theless, very clear. His work on medi- Frederic III (1491), on account of the cine is an inexhaustible source, from reputation which he had acquired by his which other good authors have drawn Latin poems, being the first German poet materials for writings, both medical and who received this honor. He afterwards surgical. He has furnished subsequent travelled for 10 years, visiting all the uniwriters with a multitude of authorities for versities in Germany, and found, at length, the support of their different theories, but a resting-place in Vienna, where Maximilhas suffered much arbitrary interpretation. ian I appointed him, in 1501, professor of Hippocrates and Asclepiades are the two poetry and rhetoric, and president of the authors whom he has followed most. faculty established for the study of clasMore than 59 editions of his 8 books De sical antiquities. He left a history and Medicina had appeared in 1785; the first description of Nuremburg, a poem on the at Florence, 1478, fol. : the best is by situation and manners of Germany, sevKrause, Leipsic, 1766: that of Targa was eral philosophical, rhetorical and bioprinted at Padua, 1769, 4to., and one at graphical works, and a number of poems. Verona, 1810, 4to.

He considered the study of languages, CELTE (they called themselves, also, not, like other philologists of his time, as Gael, or Gales ; see Gael); one of the an object of pursuit in itself, but only as a four chief nations which inhabited Gallia. means for obtaining an acquaintance with Their territory extended from the extreme - those sciences which have a more immepoint of Brittany to the Rhine and the diate bearing on the business of life, Alps. The Romans, therefore, called the among which he placed history and gewhole country Celtica, or Galatia. They ography first. His plan for a great literaleft Asia at some distant period, and, at ry society (sodalitas Celtica), for which he the time of Tarquinius Priscus, came, un- had already obtained grants of privileges der Bellovesus, to Upper Italy, and large from the emperor, was interrupted by his numbers of them spread over several death in 1508. Only the Rhenish society, countries of Europe. In Spain, they be- which he founded in Heidelberg, outlived came mingled with the Iberians, whom him. they conquered. Internal wars weakened CELTIBERI, or CELTIBERIANS; inhabitthem; and commerce with the Romans, ants of Celtiberia, a country along the and with the people of Marseilles, made Iberus, in the north-east part of Spain. them more civilized. The Italian Celtæ They formed the most numerous tribe in were subjected, 220 B.C., by the Romans. Spain, and originated from Iberians mixed The Boii united themselves with the with Celts. They were brave, and their Helvetii ; the Illyrian Celtæ with the Illyr- cuneus was formidable even to the Roians. Their government was aristocrat- mans. They despised agriculture. After ical. The nobles formed a national as- a long resistance to the Romans, they were, sembly. The commons were regarded at last, in the Sertorian war, subjected to as little better than slaves. They were their sovereignty, adopted their manners, large, and of great bodily strength, impet- language, dress, &c. They were divided uous in their attacks, but not well able to into six tribes—the Bellones, Arevaci, Peendure hardships. A huge sword, gen- leudones, north of the Durius; and the Luerally of copper, was their chief weapon. sones, Belli and Ditthi, more to the south. Their priests, the Druids (q. v.), enjoyed CEMENTATION; a chemical process, in the greatest authority.

which a metal (and often other bodies) is CELTES, Conrad; born, in 1459, at Pro- placed in connexion with other substances, tuch, in Franconia. His original name often in layers (stratum super stratum), in was Meissel, which he changed into Cel- close vessels, that the former may be septes Protucius. He ran away from his arated from its combinations, or changed parents, and studied in Cologne. In 1484 (frequently oxydated), at a high temperature. The substance with which the metal such as limestone, marbles, chalk and or other body is surrounded is called shells. By this process, the carbonic acid cement-powder. In cementing gold, the is driven off, and quicklime is obtained. alloy is beaten into thin plates,

and placed The quicklime is slaked by mixture with in alternate layers, with a cement contain-.. water, after which it swells and cracks, ing nitrate of potass and sulphate of iron. becomes hot, and assumes the form of a The whole is then exposed to heat, until a white and impalpable powder. This is a great part of the alloying metals are re- hydrate of lime, and contains about three moved by the action of the nitric acid parts of lime to one of water. When inliberated by the nitre. Iron is cemented tended for mortar, it should be immediwith charcoal-powder and other sub- ately mixed with sand, and used without stances, and thereby converted into steel. delay, before it imbibes carbonic acid anew Glass is changed, by cementation with from the atmosphere. The lime adheres gypsum, into Réaumur's porcelain. Cop- to and unites the particles of the sand. per is cemented with a powder of cala- Cements thus made increase in strength mine and charcoal, and thereby converted and solidity for an indefinite period. Fresh into brass. The copper obtained from the sand, wholly silicious and sharp, is the best. sulphate of copper, by precipitation with That taken from the sea-shore is unfit for iron, is called cement-copper.

making mortar, as the salt is apt to deliCEMENTS. The substances used for pro- quesce and weaken the mortar. The ducing cohesion between different materi- amount of sand is always greater than als are very various. They are mostly, that of the lime. From two to four parts however, soft or semi-fluid, and harden in of sand are used, according to the quality the course of time. The number employed of the lime and the labor bestowed on it. is very great. We can mention only a few. Water cements, called also Roman cements, The joints of iron pipes, and the flanges harden under water, and consolidate alof steam-engines, are cemented with a most immediately on being mixed. Commixture composed of sulphur and muri. mon mortar dissolves or crumbles away if ate of ammonia, together with a large laid under water before it has had time to quantity of iron chippings. The putty of harden; but certain rocks, which have an glaziers is a mixture of linseed oil and argillaceous as well as a silicious characpowdered chalk. Plaster of Paris, dried ter, communicate to lime or mortar the by heat, and mixed with water, or with property of hardening in a very few minrosin and wax, is used for uniting pieces utes, both in and out of water. The of marble. A cement composed of brick- ancient Romans, in making their water dust and rosin, or pitch, is employed by cements, employed a peculiar earth, obturners, and some other mechanics, to con- tained at the town of Puteoli. This they fine the material on which they are work- called pulvis Puteolanus. It is the same ing. Common paint, made of white lead that is now called Puzzolana. It is eviand oil, is used to cement China-ware. So dently of volcanic origin. The Dutch, in also are resinous substances, such as mas- their great aquatic structures, have mostly tic and shell lac, or isinglass dissolved in employed a substance denominated tarras, proof-spirit or water. The paste of book- terras, or trass, found near Andernach, in binders and paper-hangers is made by the vicinity of the Rhine. It is said to be boiling flour. Rice-glue is made by boil- a kind of decomposed basalt, but reseming ground rice in soft water to the con- bles Puzzolana. It is very durable in wasistence of a thin jelly. Wafers are made ter, but inferior to the other kinds in the of flour, isinglass, yeast and white of eggs, open air. Baked clay and the common dried in thin layers upon tin plates, and greenstone afford the basis of very

toleracut by a circular instrument. They are ble water cements, when mixed with lime. colored by red-lead, &c. Sealing-wax is Some of the ores of manganese may be composed of shell lac and rosin, and is used for the same purpose. Some limecommonly colored with vermilion. Com- stones, calcined and mixed with sand and mon glue is most usually employed for water, also afford water cements, usually uniting wood, and similar porous sub- in consequence of containing some argilstances. It does not answer for surfaces laceous earth. Some cements, of great not porous, such as those of the metals, hardness and permanency, have been oband is not durable if exposed to water. tained from mixtures, into which animal The cements mostly used in building are and vegetable substances enter, such as composed of lime and sand. Lime is pro- oil, milk, mucilage, &c. The name of cured by burning substances in which it maltha or mastic is given them. They exists in combination with carbonic acid, are not much used.


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CEMETERY. In the article Burying- not far from the barrière des Amandiers. Places, we have given the history of the This city of the dead has a superficies of custom of interring the dead, and shall more than 51 arpents, and contains a great only mention, in this place, two cemete- variety of tombs, some of a touching simries, perhaps the most interesting which plicity, with the marks of unaffected grief, ever existed. One of them is the com- while others remind us of the words of St. mon place of burial of the ancient Egyp- Augustine: “ Curatio funeris, conditio septians, which was situated beyond the ultura, pompa exequiarum, magis vivorum lake Acherusia, or Acharejish, the name solatia quam subsidia mortuorum.” Colof which signified the last condition of umns, obelisks, pyramids, funeral vases, man, and which probably is the founda- monuments of all kinds, and flowers, cover tion of the Greek fables respecting lake this cemetery, but point out a few only of Acheron. On the borders of lake Ache- those who rest in this last abode of many rusia, a tribunal, composed of 42 judges, generations. Here repose Heloise and was established, to inquire into the life Abelard, the conqueror of Esslingen, Deand character of the deceased. Without lille, Molière, La Fontaine and Foy, amid this examination, a corpse could not be a crowd of philosophers, artists, warriors, carried to the cemetery beyond the lake. politicians, and individuals from the ordiIf the deceased had died insolvent, the nary walks of life. From this place you court adjudged the corpse to his creditors, look down on the bustle of the gayest city in order to oblige his relations and friends in the world. A chapel in the buryingto redeem it. If his life had been wicked, ground affords the finest view of Paris. they refused his body the privilege of sol- CENCI, Beatrice, called the beautiful emn burial, and it was consequently car- parricide, was the cause of the exterminaried and thrown into a large ditch made tion of the noble family of Cenci. Murafor the purpose, which received the appel- tori, in his Annals (vol. 10, pt. 1, 136), lation of Tartar, on account of the lamen- relates the story as follows: Francesco tations which this sentence produced' Cenci, a noble and wealthy Roman, after among the surviving friends and relations. his second marriage, conducted towards The Greek Tartarus had its origin in this the children of his first marriage in the Egyptian Tartar. If no accuser appear- most shocking manner, procured the ased, or the accusations were found ground- sassination of two of his sons, on their reless, the judges decreed the regular burial, turn from Spain, by banditti, and, what is and the eulogium of the deceased was still more horrid, seduced and debauched pronounced amongst the applauses of the his youngest daughter, a maiden of singular bystanders. In this, his talents, virtues, beauty. Beatrice discovered this shockaccomplishments, every thing except his ing crime to her relatives, and even sought rank and riches, were praised. To carry to obtain protection froin pope

Clement. the corpse to the cemetery, it was neces- It appears, however, that this was not sary to cross the lake, and to pay a small granted; for, when the guilty father consum for the passage. This circumstance tinued his former treatment, with aggraalso was transplanted into the Greek my- vated wickedness, she joined with her thology. The cemetery was a large plain, brother Giacomo, and procured the death surrounded by trees, and intersected by of the monster, by two assassins, as he canals, to which was given the appellation slept. The guilty parties were discovered, Elisout, or Elisiæns, meaning rest. Ev- confessed the murder on the rack, and ery one recognises, in this description, the were condemned by the pope to be torn Greek Charon, his boat, his ferry-money, to pieces by horses. In vain did the learnand the Elysian fields. The whole cere- ed Farinaceus (celebrated for his Quesmony of interment seems to have con- tiones) exert himself to obtain a mitigation sisted in depositing the mummy in the of their punishment by a lively represenexcavation made in the rock, or under tation of the depravity of the deceased. the sand which covered the whole Elisout: According to other accounts, Beatrice and then it seems that the relations of the her relatives appear to have had little or deceased threw three handfuls of sand, no share in the murder of the old Cenci; as a sign to the workmen to fill up the but a tissue of villany and baseness gained cavity, after uttering three loud farewells. belief to the false testimony of two ban(See Lectures on Hieroglyphics and Egyp- ditti against the Cenci family. So much tian Antiquities, by the marquis Spineto, is certain, that, Sept. 11, 1599, Beatrice London, 1829.)- Another cemetery of Cenci and her sister were executed with a great interest is that of Père Lachaise (see sort of guillotine, called mannaia. Giacomo Lachaise), in the north-west part of Paris, was killed with a club; the younger brother was pardoned on account of his youth; founded, may have been beneficial, but but the estates of the family, to which is wholly inconsistent with our ideas of belonged the villa Borghese, since so individual liberty. In the different govfamed for its treasures of art, were confis- ernments of Europe, censors are persons cated, and presented by the reigning pope, appointed by the government to adminisPaul V, of the house of Borghese,

to his ter the censorship of the press. (q. v.) family. In the palace of Colonna, at Rome, CENSORSHIP OF Books. (See Books, travellers are shown an excellent painting, Censorship of.) said to be by Guido Reni, as the portrait CENSUS; with the Romans, one of the of the unfortunate parricide; and this most important institutions of the state, charming picture of the beautiful girl has and the foundation of its future greatness been the means of spreading over all Eu- It was introduced by king Servius Tullius, rope the tale of horror connected with it. B. C. 577. All Roman citizens, both in

CENIS, Mount; a mountain belonging the city and in the country, were obliged to the Alps, in the county of Maurienne, to report the amount of their property, the in Savoy. Its height is stated to be 8670 number of their children, slaves, &c., unfeet above the level of the sea. It is famous der penalty of losing their property and for the road which leads over it from Sa- their liberty. According to the statement voy to Piedmont. (See Alps, Roads over.) thus given in, Servius Tullius divided the On the mountain is a plain, called Made- citizens into six classes, and those again leino, and a lake, with an hospital, called into centuries. (q. v.) The first class conLa Ramasse. The lake contains trouts of sisted of those whose fortunes amounted 16 pounds weight. This plain is surround- respectively to at least 100,000 asses or ed by higher

peaks covered with snow. pounds of copper. The property of the (See Alps.) Benvenuto Cellini's journey second was at least 75,000; that of the over the Alps, in the 16th century, Eve- third, 50,000; that of the fourth, 25,000; lyn's, in the 17th, lady Mary Wortley's of the fifth, 11,000 asses : all the rest and Horace Walpole's, in the 18th, are all belonged to the sixth class. (See As.) interesting; but the danger has been re- Each class had a particular kind of arms, moved by Napoleon's road.

a particular post in the army,

&c. This CENOBITE. (See Anchoret, and Monas- division produced the most important

consequences for Rome. At an earlier CENOTAPH (from the Greek Kevorádiov, period, the poor citizens were obliged to called also Kevípior); a monument erected pay the same taxes, and render the same in honor of a deceased person, but not services in war, as the rich; and the most containing his body, as is implied from important branches of the public administhe terms keròs, empty, and rápos, a tomb. tration were in the hands of the ignorant Some of these monuments were erected and passionate mob. The heaviest burin honor of persons buried elsewhere, oth- dens in war and in peace were, by this ers for persons whose bodies were not in- institution, transferred to the rich, and the terred. The ancients believed that, when chief direction of public affairs was placed the body was not buried, the soul could in the hands of the first class, which connot be admitted into the abodes of the tained, according to the rule of division blessed. When a body could not be established by Servius Tullius, as many found, it was supposed that some rest was centuries as all the rest. The citizens of afforded to the sufferer by erecting him the lowest class, who had no property, or a cenotaph, and calling out his name three very little, were hardly counted as a class, times with a loud voice. Such monu- so that the ancient authors often mention ments were distinguished by a particular only five classes. In the course of time, sign, usually a piece of a shipwrecked the original divisions suffered some alteravessel, to denote the death of the deceased tions, but the institution remained essenin a foreign land. The Pythagoreans tially the same. This census was repeated erected cenotaphs to those who had quit- every fifth year, at first by the kings, afterted their sect, as if they were actually dead. wards by the consuls, and, finally, by the

CENSORS were magistrates at Rome,' censors. At a later period, however, it who kept a register of the number of the was not always taken at the fixed time, people and of their fortune, and (from and was often entirely omitted. After the 442 B. C.) regulated the taxes. At the termination of the census, an expiatory same time, they watched over the man- sacrifice was offered, called suovetaurilia. ners of the citizens. They were chosen - In the U. States, the census has again every fifth year. This institution, at the become an institution of great political period of simple manners in which it was importance, as it affords the basis of the


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