« AnteriorContinua »
ry. The oldest carriages used by the ladies burn with a bright flame; those in which in England were called whirlicotes. The the carbon predominates burn less vividly. mother of king Richard II, who accompa- Numerous varieties of coal exist, deriving nied him in his flight (1360), rode in a car- distinctions partly from their state of agriage of this sort. But coaches, properly so gregation, but principally from the proporcalled, were first introduced into England tions of their bitumen and carbon. Exfrom Germany or France, in 1580, in the cepting the anthracite, they may be treated reign of queen Elizabeth, and the first seen of under the two divisions of black coals and in public belonged to Henry, earl of Arun- brown coals.-- The color of brown coal, as del. In 1601, the year before the queen's its name imports, is brown: it possesses a death, an act was passed to prevent men ligneous structure, or consists of earthy from riding in coaches, as being effemi- particles. The color of black coal is black, nate; but they were in common use, in Lon- not inclining to brown, and it does not don, about the year 1605. Twenty years possess the structure of wood.—The variafterwards, hackney-coaches were intro- eties of brown coal are the following :duced. They were prohibited in 1635, and, bituminous wood, which presents a ligneous in 1637, only 50 hackney-coachmen were texture, and very seldom any thing like licensed. The number of coaches was conchoidal fracture, and is without lustre; increased by degrees, and, in 1770, as many earthy coal, consisting of loose, friable paras 1000 were licensed. The duty on coaches ticles; moor coal, distinguished by the want in England in 1778, the number then kept of ligneous structure, by the property of being 23,000, amounted to £117,000. The bursting and splitting into angular fragtotal duty on coaches in England, in 1785, ments, when removed from its original was £154,988; in Scotland, only £9000. repository, and the low degree of lustre The French invented the post-chaise, the upon its imperfect conchoidal fracture; use of which was brought into England by common brown coal, which, though it still Tull, the well-known writer on husbandry. shows traces of ligneous texture, is of a In Switzerland, coaches were a rarity as more firm consistency than the rest of the late as 1650.—Philadelphia (q. v.) surpasses varieties, and possesses higher degrees of all other places in America in the manu- lustre upon its more perfect conchoidal facture of coaches. The manufacture of fracture. Some varieties of black coal elegant coaches is a proof of much wealth immediately join those of brown coal. and mechanical skill in a place; many They are, pitch coal, of a velvet-black coldifferent artists being employed in their or, generally inclining to brown, strong construction, who become skilful only lustre, and presenting, in every direction, when the demand for their work is con- a large and perfect conchoidal fracture; siderable. A very large sort of coaches, slate coal, possessing a more or less coarse, called omnibus, has lately come into use in slaty structure, which, however, seems to Paris, and still later in London. They be rather a kind of lamellar composition serve as means of communication between than real fracture; foliated coal, resembling different parts of the city, and contain a it, only the laminæ are thinner; and coarse large number of passengers, with quanti- coal in like manner, only the component ties of newspapers, furniture, &c. The particles are smaller, and approach to a fare at Paris is very cheap. Quite recent- granular appearance; cannel coal, withly, a stage-coach began to run from Paris out visible composition, and having a flat, to Orleans, containing 60 passengers. conchoidal fracture in every direction, with
COAHUILA Y TEXAS; a state or province but little lustre, by which it is distinguishof Mexico, bounded E. by Tamaulipas, S. ed from pitch coal. All these kinds are by New Leon, S. W. by Durango, W. by joined by numerous transitions, so that it Chihuahua. Its northern boundary and often becomes doubtful to which of them extent are not well defined. It is watered by we should ascribe certain specimens, the Rio del Norte and its branches. The though they undoubtedly are members of chief towns are Montelovez and Saltillo.
this species.—As the preceding varieties COAK. (See Coal.)
of coal consist of variable proportions of Coal consists essentially of carbona- bitumen and carbon, they, of course, must ceous matter, and, in one variety, the blind vary in their inflammability. Several vacoal (see Anthracite), this is nearly pure; rieties become soft, and others coke, when but, in the greater number of the varieties kindled, or, in other words, allow of the of coal, there is present a soft, bituminous separation of the bituminous from the carmatter, which communicates to them some bonaceous part. We perceive this sepapeculiar properties. Those which contain ration in its combustion in a common fire; much bitumen are highly inflammable, and the coal, when kindled, swelling and soft
ening, exhaling a kind of bitumen, and been separated. In the beginning of the burning with smoke and light ; while, French revolution, the French authors after a certain period, these appearances used this expression, by way of contempt, cease, and it burns only with a red light. to denote the confederation of several The separation is effected more completely powers against France; the word alliance by the application of heat in close vessels: appearing to them, perhaps, too noble for the bitumen is melted out, and there is the object. From that time, the word has disengaged ammonia, partly in the state been received into diplomatic language; of carbonate with empyreumatic oil
, and but there is generally some idea of rethe coal gas (a variety of carbureted hy- proach connected with the use of it. The drogen), often mixed with carbonic acid diplomatists of the continent of Europe and sulphureted hydrogen, the carbona- have made this distinction between alliance ceous matter being, in a great measure, and coalition, that the former is more left, forming coke.—The decomposition of general, the latter is directed against a coal is carried on, on a large scale, with a particular enemy, for a distinct object. view to collect the products; the gas being The first coalition against France was used to afford an artificial light, which is concluded between Austria and Prussia clear, steady, easily regulated, and eco- for the preservation of the constitution of nomical; the bituminous matter, or inin- the German empire, and for checking the eral tar, being applied to the uses for which progress of the French revolution (7th vegetable tar and pitch are employed, and of Feb., 1792). The separate peace with the coked coal being used in the smelting Prussia, concluded at Bàle (5th of April, of metallic ores, and for various other pur- 1795), and the line of demarcation for the poses, where an elevated and steady tem- north of Germany, were the first steps to perature is needed.—Coal, excluding an- the dissolution of the German empire. thracite, has been supposed to be of vege- The next coalition is that of 1793. Gertable origin. There is a remarkable grad- many declared war (22d of March), and was uation from bituminated wood to perfect afterwards joined by Portugal, Naples, coal. In some varieties, the structure, and Tuscany, and the pope. In addition to even the remains, of plants are apparent, this, a treaty of alliance was concluded at and its chemical composition agrees with London, between Great Britain and Rusthat of vegetable matter. It is difficult to sia. The third is the triple alliance entered determine, however, in what manner it has into at St. Petersburg, by Russia, Austria been formed, or by what operations the and Great Britain (28th of Sept., 1795), at a vegetable matter, from which it has origi- time when several princes of the empire nated, has been so far modified, as to have withdrew their troops. This coalition was assumed the properties under which it ex- dissolved by the peace of Campo-Formio, ists. And there are many geologists who between Austria and France, in which, at regard it, in common with anthracite, as an the same time, a general congress for the original mineral deposit.—The varieties conclusion of peace with the whole emcalled slate coal, foliated coal, coarse coal, pire was appointed at Rastadt (9th of Dec., cannel coal, and pitch coal, occur chiefly in 1797, to April, 1799). The negotiations the coal formation; some varieties of pitch which took place here were declared null coal, also the moor coal, bituminous wood, by Austria ; for, during them, a new coaliand common brown coal, are met with in tion (the fourth) had been formed between the formations above the chalk; the earthy Russia, the Porte (23d of Dec., 1798) and coal, and some varieties of bituminous England. Austria and Naples, also, were wood and common brown coal, are often induced to join it. Separate treaties of included in diluvial and alluvial detritus. peace dissolved it again, viz.
the peace of The coal seams alternate with beds of Lunéville with Austria and Germany (9th slaty clay and common clay, sandstone, of Feb., 1801), that of Florence with Nalimestone, sand, &c. They are often as- ples (28th of March, 1801), that of Paris sociated with vegetable organic remains, in with Russia (8th of Oct., 1801), of Paris slaty clay; sometimes, also, with shells, and with the Porte (9th of Oct.), and of Amiens having iron pyrites intermixed with them. with Great Britain (25th of March, 1802). Bituminous coal is so universally distrib- Of all these states, Great Britain first deuted, that it is unnecessary to attempt the clared war against France (18th of April, enumeration of its localities. It abounds, 1803), and, in April, 1805, new negotiain the U. States, in Pennsylvania, Virginia, tions were begun between England, RusOhio, and the Western States generally. sia, Austria and Prussia, for another coali
COALITION, in chemistry; the reunion tion (the fifth) against France. At Petersor combination of parts which had before burg, the two first powers contracted to effect a general confederation of the Euro- The right to bear arms thus became a dispean states against France, for the restora- tinctive mark of gentle birth. In France, tion of peace and the political balance, and the feudal privileges and nobility were for the foundation of a federative system abolished by the revolution. Under Naadapted to secure the rights of nations. poleon, the imperial noblesse wore a. cerAll the powers were to be invited to join tain number of feathers, indicative of their this confederacy. In the same year, it rank; a simple chevalier, 1; a baron, 3; was partlv dissolved by the peace of Pres- a duke, 7. burgi with Austria (26th of Dec., 1805), COBALT occurs alloyed with arsenic, and completely, by the peace of Paris nickel and other metals, and mineralized with Russia (20th of July, 1806). Prussia, by oxygen and by arsenic acid. It is obwhich till then had not taken an active tained, after the ore has been roasted and part, thought herself strong enough to calcined, in the state of an oxide, impure encounter France single-handed. The from the presence of other metallic oxides. accession of England and Russia (besides When this oxide is obtained in a state of the previous junction of Saxony, and, purity, and reduced to the metallic state, probably, of other temporizing cabinets) we are presented with a metal of a white produced the sixth coalition. The peace color, inclining to gray, and, if tarnished, of Tilsit (7th and 9th of July, 1807), put an to red, with a moderate lustre. Its fracend to this union; and the peace at Vien- ture is compact; it is hard, brittle, and of na (14th of Oct., 1809) terminated the a specific gravity of 7.8. Like nickel, it is Austrian coalition with England (the sev- sensibly magnetic, and is susceptible of enth). Finally, we may mention under being rendered permanently so. It unthis head the last great alliance against dergoes little change in the air, but absorbs France. It consisted first of Russia and oxygen when heated in open vessels. It England, but was increased in succession is attacked with difficulty by sulphuric or by the addition of Spain and Portugal, muriatic acid, but is readily oxidized by Sweden, Prussia, Austria, the German means of nitric acid. There are but two princes with few exceptions, Naples, and, oxides of cobalt known. The protoxide at last, Denmark. It ended with the is of an ash-gray color, and is the basis of peace of Paris (31st of May, 1814). The the salts of cobalt, most of which are of a return of Napoleon, however, in 1815, pink hue. When heated to redness in open revived it. From this sprung the “holy vessels, it absorbs oxygen, and is converted alliance” of Russia, Austria and Prussia, into the peroxide. It may be prepared by which was joined by the king of France, decomposing the carbonate of cobalt by at Aix-la-Chapelle (q. v.), in 1818. In heat, in a vessel from which the atmosEngland and the U. States of North Amer- pheric air is excluded. It is easily known ica, the word coalition is used to denote by its giving a blue tint to borax when the union of several parties or their leaders melted with it
, and is employed in the arts, against another party; but it always ex- in the form of smalt, for communicating a presses something odious. Thus, for in- similar color to glass, to earthen ware, and to stance, the party of Pitt denounced the porcelain. Smalt, or powder blue, is made coalition of Fox and North.
by melting three parts of fine white sand, Coat oF ARMS; 1. the surcoat worn or calcined flints, with two of purified by a knight; 2. the ensigns armorial of a pearl-ash and one of cobalt ore, previously family; so called, because originally worn calcined, and lading it out of the pots into on some part of the armor. Their origin is a vessel of cold water; after which, the to be referred to the age of chivalry, when dark-blue glass, or zaffre, is ground, they were assumed as emblematic of the washed over, and distributed into different adventures, love, hopes, &c., of the knight, shades of colors, which shades are occaand were useful for distinguishing indi- sioned by the different qualities of the ore, viduals, whom it was difficult to recognise, and the coarser and finer grinding of the covered, as they were, from head to foot, powder. Smalt, besides being used to with armor. This, perhaps, may even stain glass and pottery, is often substituted, have been the origin of the usage. As in painting, for ultra-marine blue, and is every thing else became hereditary in Eu- likewise employed to give to paper and rope,-estates, dignities, titles, privileges — linen a bluish tinge. The muriate of so the favorite emblem of the knight became cobalt is celebrated as a sympathetic ink. the adopted badge of the family, the fig. When diluted with water, so as to form ures or characters employed in them began a pale pink solution, and then employed to receive names, and the language and as ink, the letters which are invisible in the science of heraldry (q. v.) was formed. cold, become blue, if gently heated. It is
prepared by dissolving one part of zaffre till 1791, when the regiment was relieved in two of diluted nitric acid, with the aid and sent home. Serjeant-major Cobbett of heat, adding to it of muriate of soda one here left the service, and terminated his part, and diluting with 20 parts of water. military career. In 1792, he first came to The peroxide of cobalt is of a black color, the U. States, after a short visit to France. and is easily formed in the way already He began his career in Philadelphia, as a mentioned. It does not unite with acids; writer of political pamphlets, under the and, when digested in muriatic acid, the well known name of Peter Porcupine ; proto-muriate of cobalt is generated with soon after engaged in the business of a the disengagement of chlorine. When bookseller in that city, and published, aí strongly heated in close vessels, it gives off the same time, a daily newspaper, called oxygen, and is converted into the protox- the Porcupine. The French interest, ide. - Ores of cobalt : 1. White cobalt ore, which then prevailed in the U. States, he or bright white cobalt ore, consists, princi- opposed with great violence, mingling the pally, of cobalt and arsenic. Its color is tin- coarsest personal abuse with the severest white, liable to tarnish, with little lustre. political invective. Having been conIt occurs massive and crystallized, in victed for a libel on doctor Rush, and con.. cubes and in octohedrons. It is hard and demned in $5000 damages, he left the brittle. Specific gravity, 7.3 to 7.7. Be- country, and returned to England in 1800. fore the blowpipe, it melts, and gives an Here he published the Works of Peter arsenical smoke and odor. It forms a Porcupine, containing a faithful Picture of metallic globule, and gives to borax a blue the U. States, &c. (London, 1801, 12 vols., color. It occurs chiefly in primitive rocks, 8vo.), consisting of selections from the and is frequently accompanied with bis- Porcupine, with remarks illustrating them, muth. It is found most abundantly in and of his other personal and political Germany, Sweden and Norway, and also writings, previously published in America. occurs in several other European coun- This work was dedicated “to a declared tries. 2. Gray cobalt ore is an alloy of co- enemy of republicans and levellers." In balt with arsenic and iron, and is some- it, doctor Priestley (Observations on Priesttimes accompanied with small portions of ley's Emigration), doctor Rush (in the nickel and bismuth. Its color is light- Rush-Light), doctor Franklin, &c., were gray ; liable to tarnish. It occurs massive unsparingly abused. He soon after estabor disseminated, and is never crystallized. lished the Weekly Political Register (comIt has been found in the U. States, at menced in 1802), which has been conducted Chatham, Conn., but has not, bitherto, with considerable talent, but great bitterbeen wrought advantageously. It also ness. In 1810, he was convicted of a libel occurs in Bohemia, Saxony and France. with intention to excite a mutiny, and con3. Red cobalt ore is a hydrated arseniate demned to confinement in Newgate, and of cobalt, of a beautiful peach-blossom red to pay a fine of £1000. Although the color. It occurs massive, disseminated, fine was paid by a subscription among his and in minute crystals. It accompanies friends, he addressed a letter to the king in other ores of cobalt.
1828, praying his majesty to restore him the COBBETT, William, a notorious political sum. In 1815, he became the champion writer in England and America, was born of Napoleon, whom he had previously in 1766, in the county of Surry, England, assailed with the utmost vehemence. In the son of a farmer, from whom he re- 1817, he again visited America ; but we ceived the rudiments of his education- soon after find him in England, where, reading, writing and arithmetic. In 1783, in 1819, he published his Year's Residence he left the plough for London, where he in America. He was never naturalized in became “an understrapping quill-driver,” the U. States, objecting to the oath reas he calls himself, to an attorney in quired, abjuring all allegiance to any other Gray's Inn. This employment not suiting power. He now connected himself with his restless disposition, he enlisted as a the party called radicals; and we often common soldier in 1784, and remained in find him haranguing at public meetings England a year, spending his leisure hours with great success; but, a convicted libelin reading and study, particularly in the ler on both sides of the Atlantic, twice study of grammar. He wrote out the cast out by his own country, and as often whole of Lowth's grammar two or three rejected by America, alternately praising, times, got it by heart, and repeated it every abusing, calumniating and panegyrizing morning and evening. He then sailed to the same party, his inconsistency and selfjoin his regiment in America, and remained contradictions have much diminished his there, in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, influence, notwithstanding his great ad
dress and his popular eloquence. Besides clusion of the peace of Teschen. In 1790, his works already mentioned, the prin- he was sent to Brabant to treat with the cipal are Parliamentary Debates, from insurgent Netherlanders ; but the states 1803–10–11, 20 vols. 8vo.; Maitre An- refused to receive him, on which he reglais, or English Grammar for the Use of tired to Luxembourg, where he published Frenchmen, which has obtained great a declaration, by which the emperor of reputation in France, where it has passed Germany revoked all those edicts which through many editions (the examples, il- had caused the insurrection, and reëstablustrating the rules, are severe attacks on lished the previous state of affairs. His royalty); his Life, written by himself failure on this occasion probably prevented (1816); Treatise on Cobbett's Com* (1828); him from being again employed till 1801, (the title-page of this work is printed on when he was sent ambassador to Paris, paper made of the husks of Indian corn). through the credit of his cousin, and reIn the latter part of 1829, he was engaged mained there till 1805. He died Aug. 30, in delivering lectures on the causes of the 1810. He was the last of the family of existing distress in England, and the best Cobentzl. means of relieving it.
Cobi (in Chinese, Shamo); a great desCOBENTZI, Louis, count of, son of countert in the central part of Asia, extending John of Cobentzl, a diplomatist in the from the sources of the Indus and Ganges, Austrian service, was born at Brussels in beyond those of the Amour, from 23 to 1753. He entered first into the military 24 degrees of longitude in length, and vaservice of Austria, was appointed minister rying from 3 to 10 degrees of latitude in at Copenhagen, after the revolution of breadth. But little is known of this im1771, and at the court of Frederic the mense region, of about 847,000 square Great, from 1775 to 1778. In 1779, he miles in extent. Its great elevation, and was sent on an embassy to Catharine II the salt with which it is impregnated, of Russia, whose favor he secured by his render it very cold. The frightful unigallantry, and by composing and taking formity of vast fields of sand and gravel is part himself in comedies at her private hardly broken by the small rivers, lined Theatre. In 1795, he concluded a grand with narrow tracts of pasture, by the salt triple alliance between Russia, England lakes, and a few fertile oases interspersed and Austria, against the French republic. here and there, like islands in the ocean. Being recalled to Vienna the following A few. little hills rise out of the general year, he was again employed in political level, which extends all around the travelnegotiations. He was one of the plenipo- ler, as far as the eye can reach. The tentiaries who signed the treaty of Campo- small Mongolian horses wander about Formio, between Austria and France, in in large droves, and the wild djiggetai October, 1797, and was also sent to the snatches a hasty meal from the pastures. congress of Rastadt.
In the following The camel is commonly used by the Monyear, he held a conference, at Seltz, with gols to transport burdens. Francis de Neufchateau, a member of the COBLENTZ (anciently Confluentia, from executive directory, respecting the insult its situation at the confluence of the Rhine offered to Bernadotte at Vienna. He then and Moselle), formerly the residence of returned to Petersburg, whence he was the elector of Treves, then chief place of summoned, and sent to Lunéville ; and the French department of the Rhine and there concluded a treaty of peace with Moselle, now the capital of the Prussian France, in February, 1801. A few months circle of government (Regierungsbezirk) of after, he was appointed minister of state Coblentz (belonging to the province of and vice-chancellor for the department of the Lower Rhine), containing 1928 square foreign affairs at Vienna. In 1805, he miles, with 337,470 inhabitants, is situated followed the Austrian court to Olmütz, on a most charming spot. Opposite Coand died at Vienna in 1809.
blentz is Thalehrenbreitstein, a small place COBENTZL,John Philip,count de, cousin on the right bank of the majestic river, at of the last mentioned individual, was born the foot of the rock, on which the Prusin Carniola in 1741. He was made a coun-' sians rebuilt the fortifications of Ehrensellor of finance in 1762, and afterwards breitstein, and rendered it one of the most privy counsellor at Brussels. In 1779, he remarkable productions of military archiwas employed as a diplomatist at the con- tecture. Over the Moselle is a bridge of * By this term this modest gentleman designates From this bridge
there is one of the finest
536 paces, resting upon 14 arches of stone. Indian corn or maize, the cultivation of which he has been endeavoring to introduce among his views on the Rhine. Coblentz (1050 countrymen.
houses and 14,900 inhabitants) consists