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of the old city and the new, or Clement- which are well authenticated, death has city, and is, in general, well built. There followed within a few minutes ; under are several fine public buildings. An ordinary circumstances, a few hours is the aqueduct, constructed by the last elector, longest term that intervenes from the inbrings the finest water from a height near fliction of the bite till the death of the Metternich, over the Moselle bridge, into sufferer, where prompt measures for his all quarters of the city. The chief articles relief have not been resorted to. So nuof commerce are the Moselle wines and

merous are these dreadful vipers in some French wines. About one mile from the parts of India and Africa, that they are city is a building, formerly a Carthusian frequently found in dwelling-houses, and, monastery, which is well worthy the at- in some instances, have taken up their tention of travellers, on account of the quarters in the beds. Death of necessity view which it affords of the two rivers on must follow, under such circumstances, which the city stands. This building is should the animal be alarmed or irritated now changed into a fort called Hunnen- by any sudden motion. In case a bite is kopf. On the other side of the Moselle received from this (or, indeed, any other) fort Francis is situated. These two forts venomous creature, the first thing to be protect the city on the left bank of the done is to make a firm and well-sustained Rhine, and some other fortifications are to pressure beyond the wound, on the side be added. These works, with those of nearest the heart. The excellent experithe strong fortress of Ehrenbreitstein (q.v.), ments of doctor Pennock, which have will render Coblentz one of the strongest been already referred to, prove that a suffortresses, and a very important defence ficient degree of pressure thus kept up to Germany, particularly to the Prussian will prevent the poison from affecting the monarchy. The confluence of the two system; and this is rendered evident by rivers has always given Coblentz great the good effects derived from ligatures military importance, even in the time of applied around bitten limbs, above the the Romans, who built a strong camp wound, by the natives of India, though here. On the road from Coblentz to Co- such ligatures generally act but imperlogne is the monument of general Mar- fectly. The good effects of pressure, comceau, mentioned by lord Byron in Childe bined with the advantage of withdrawing Harold's Pilgrimage.

the poison, will be obtained by applying a COBRA DA CAPELLO; the Portuguese well exhausted cupping-glass over the trivial name of the vipera naja; the hooded wound; a substitute for which may alsnake, or viper, of the English ; serpent à most always be made of a drinking glass, lunettes of the French ; a reptile of the small bottle, &c., if proper cups be not at most venomous nature, found in various hand. It would be well for persons travdegrees of abundance in different hot elling or residing where these vipers are countries of the old continent, and in the common, to be provided with a bottle of islands adjacent. The species of the yi- volatile alkali

, or spirits of hartshorn, per kind are all remarkable for the man- which, applied to the wound several times ner in which they spread out or flatten a day, and taken internally, in doses of 30 the sides of the neck and head when dis- to 40 drops, repeated according to cirturbed or irritated. In the cobra da capello, cumstances, will avert the injurious conthe conformation necessary to this action sequence of the poison. To heighten the is found in the most perfect condition, as curiosity of the multitude, the jugglers of the animal is provided with a set of ribs India select these venomous reptiles for or bony processes, moved by appropriate their exhibitions, and, having extracted muscles on the sides of the neck, which, their fangs, keep them in cages or baskets, when expanded, give the anterior part of to exhibit as dancing snakes. When the the body the appearance of an overhang- cage is opened, the juggler begins playing ing arch or hood; on the middle of which, upon a pipe or other instrument; whereposterior to the eyes, is a greenish-yellow upon the viper assumes the erect attitude, mark, resembling the rim of a pair of distends its hood, and remains balancing spectacles. From this mark the French itself in this position until the music is name is derived. When disturbed by the suspended. It is, however, most probaapproach of an individual, or any noise, ble, that this viper, in common with lizthe cobra raises the anterior part of its ards and other animals, is peculiarly afbody, so as to appear to stand erect, ex- fected by musical sounds. Á friend, who pands its hood, and is prepared to inflict a passed a considerable time in the kingdom deadly wound. So exceedingly poison- of Ava, informed us, that a cobra entered ous is its bite, that, in numerous instances a room while a gentleman was playing on

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VOL. III.

the flute, and advanced gently towards nay, and the English at Dunkirk; and, in him so long as the music continued; consequence of this, Coburg was again whenever it was suspended, the animal defeated at Fleurus and Aldenhoven. He halted, and when it was entirely stopped, retreated over the Rhine, gave up his comit gradually withdrew. This circumstance mand, and died in his native city in 1815. induced them to spare the viper, which COBURG, SAXE, prince Leopold of. uniformly made its appearance on several (See Leopold, and Charlotte Augusta.). successive days when the flute was played. Cocagna ; an annual public festival inWith the exception of the spectacle mark stituted by the government of Naples, in on the back of the neck, and its distensi- which food and wine in fountains and ble hood, the cobra is not especially dis- from barrels are given to the people. tinguished from other vipers. Its colors Hence it is said of a country of comfort are dull, being a dark-greenish-brown, and plenty, “ It is the land of Cockaigne." lighter towards the inferior parts. Something similar were the congiaria of

COBURG; a Saxon principality in cen- the ancient Romans.Mats de cocagne ; tral Germany, bounded by a number of masts besmeared with soap for the public other small German principalities. The amusement, which those who have courcountry is mostly mountainous, with fer- age for the enterprise endeavor to climb, tile plains : minerals and forests abound for the sake of a prize which is fixed on in it. According to the law of August, the top. 1821, regulating the constitution of the Coccini, Henry, born, 1644, at Bremen, principality, there is a body of representa- studied at Leyden in 1667, and, in 1670, tives, who have a voice in legislation, and in England; was, in 1672, professor of law particularly in the imposition of taxes. at Heidelberg, and, in 1688, at Utrecht; in According to the law of Dec. 11, 1809, the 1690, regular professor of laws at Frankfeudal privileges were to be abolished by fort on the Oder; repaired to the Hague, degrees. Coburg has one vote in the gen- in 1702, without giving up his office, on eral assembly of the diet, and is bound to occasion of the disputes as to the heredifurnish a contingent of 800 men to the tary succession of the house of Orange ; forces of the German confederation. The received for his services, in 1713, the rank duke of Saxe-Coburg received, in the di- of baron of the empire, and died in 1719. vision of the former dukedom of Gotha- As a lawyer, he was the oracle of many Altenburg (edict of Nov. 15, 1826), the courts, and his system of German public duchy of Gotha, and several smaller terri- law (juris publici prudentia) was almost tories ; so that the dominions of the pres- a universal academical text-book of this ent duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha comprise science. Cocceii did not owe his profound 969 square miles, and 139,440 inhabitants, juridical learning so much to skilful teachof which 201 square miles and 83,000 in- ers, for he had only heard lectures on the inhabitants are comprised in the principality stitutes, but to his great industry, which he of Coburg and its dependencies, which carried to such an extent, that he allowed were subject to the duke previous to the but a few hours each night to sleep, lived large accession of territory just men- with the utmost temperance, and even tioned.

abstained several years from taking dinCoburg, the capital of the above duke- ner. He was mild, obliging, and of an dom, is situated in the beautiful Itzgrund exemplary honesty and disinterestedness. (valley of the Itz), with 8100 inhabitants, His disputations Exercitationes curiose, an excellent school (gymnasium illustre), and Dissert. varii Argumenti, form 4 vols. several manufactories, two fairs, and con- 4to.; his Consilia et Deductiones, 2 vols. siderable trade.

in folio; his Grotius illustratus, 3 vols. in COBURG. Frederic Josias, duke of Saxe- folio.—His eldest son, Samuel, baron of Coburg, an Austrian field-marshal, was Cocceii, born, 1679, at Heidelberg, was, born in 1737 ; in 1788, took Choczim, and, in 1702, professor at Frankfort on the in connexion with the Russian general Oder, and rose, through many degrees, to Suwaroff, defeated the Turks at Focsani the dignity of grand chancellor of all the in 1789, and conquered Bucharest. In Prussian dominions. He died in 1755.1793, he commanded against the French, Charles Louis Cocceii, who died in 1808, was victorious at Aldenhoven and Neer- in Prussia, was the last of this distinwinden, took Valenciennes, Condé, Cam- guished family. bray and Landrécy; but when the duke Coccus, in zoology; a genus of insects of York separated himself from the Aus- of the order of heteroptera, family gallintrians in order to besiege Dunkirk, Coburg secta. Generic character : antennæ filiwas beaten at Maubeuge, Clerfayt at Tour- form, of 10 or 11 articulations in both sexes, shorter than the body ; rostrum to their importance as an article of compectorale, conspicuous only in the females; merce, arising from their use in the arts, males with two large incumbent wings; that the insects of this genus are particufemales apterous, subtomentose, fixed, and larly interesting. When it is considered becoming gall-shaped or shield-shaped that the most brilliant dyes and the most after impregnation. These little insects beautiful pigments, as well as the basis of are remarkable for many peculiarities in the most useful kinds of cement, are their their habits and conformation. The males product, it will be acknowledged, that to are elongated in their form, have long, large none of the insect tribe, except, perhaps, wings, and are destitute of any obvious to the bee and the gall insect, are we more means of suction; the females, on the indebted than to these singular and appacontrary, are of a rounded or oval form, rently insignificant little beings. Kermes, have no wings, but possess a beak or the scarlet grain of Poland, cochineal, lacsucker, attached to the breast, by which lake, lac-dye, and all the modifications of they fix themselves to the plants on which gum-lac, are either the perfect insects they live, and through which they draw dried, or the secretions which they form. their nourishment. At a certain period The first mentioned substance is the coccus of their life, the females attach themselves ilicis. It is found in great abundance to the plant or tree which they inhabit, upon a species of evergreen oak (quercus and remain thereon immovable during the coccifera), which grows in many parts of rest of their existence. In this situation, Europe, and has been the basis of a crimthey are impregnated by the male ; after son dye from the earliest ages of the arts. which, their body increases considerably, It was known to the Phænicians before in many species losing its original form, the time of Moses; the Greeks used it and assuming that of a gall, and, after de- under the name of Kokkos, and the Arabians positing the eggs, drying up, and forming under that of kermes. From the Greek à habitation for the young. This change and Arabian terms, and from the Latin of form is not, however, constant to all name vermiculatum, given to it when it the species, which has given rise to a di- was known to be the product of a worm, vision of the genus into two sections :: have been derived the Latin coccineus, the those which assume a gall shape, in which French cramoisis and vermeil, and the the rings of the abdomen are totally ob- English crimson and vermilion. The early literated, are called kermes by some au- Jews, the Greeks, the Romans, and, until thors; and those which retain the distinct lately, the tapestry-makers of Europe, have sections of the abdomen, notwithstanding used it as the most brilliant red dye known. the great enlargement of the body, are The scarlet grain of Poland (coccus Poloncalled true cocci, or cochineal. They are icus) is found on the roots of the scleranthus impregnated in the spring, after having perennis, which grows in large quantities passed the winter fixed to plants, particu- in the north-east of Europe, and in some larly in the bifurcations, and under the parts of England. This, as well as sevsmall branches. Towards the commence- eral other species, which afford a similar ment of summer, they have acquired their red dye, have, however, fallen into disuse greatest size, and resemble a little convex since the introduction of cochineal. This mass, without the least appearance of valuable and most important material is head or feet, or other organs. Many spe- the coccus cacti (Lin.), a native of Mexico, cies are covered with a sort of cottony and an inhabitant of a species of cactus, down. Each female produces thousands called nopal, which was long thought to of eggs, which are expelled by a small be the cactus cochinilifer (Lin.), but which aperture at the extremity of the body. As Humboldt considers a distinct species. soon as they are produced, they pass im- The trees which produce the cochineal mediately under the parent insect, which are cultivated for this purpose in immense becomes their covering and guard ; by numbers; and the operation of collecting degrees, her body dries up, and the two the insects, which is exceedingly tedious, membranes flatten, and form a sort of is performed by the women, who brush shell, under which the eggs, and subse- them off with the tail of a squirrel or stag. quently the young ones, are found coc- The insects are killed by being thrown cated. Soon after the death of the moth- into boiling water, placed in ovens, or er, the young insects leave their hiding- dried in the sun. Those which are killed place, and seek their nourishment on the by the latter method fetch a higher price, leaves, the juices of which they suck from the white powder, covering the insect, through the inflected rostrum, placed be- being still retained, and thus preventing, neath their breast.—But it is with a view in a great measure, the adulteration of the

ture.

article. The quantity annually exported there are 112 likenesses, in the form of from South America is immense ; the ex- medals, of the most renowned French port value being not less than £500,000. scholars and artists of his time, who were Cochineal was cultivated by the Mexicans almost all his friends. We have, besides previous to the conquest, but probably not his essays in the memoirs of the academy, to any great extent. Cortez received or- several printed works of his, which conders from the Spanish court to pay atten- tain interesting observations on different tion to this valuable dye; and, from that subjects of art, for instance, on Herculanetime, the quantity increased very rapidly; um. His frontispieces and vignettes are but, the trade having been carried on only remarkable for neatness and taste. His through Spain, it was not until lately so views of 16 French seaports are of great generally used as it is likely to be in fu- value. His composition, in general, is

Cochineal is also raised in Peru, rich, delicate and pleasing. He was a and several other parts of Spanish Amer- member of the academy, and occupied ica, and becomes every year an article several places of importance. of greater importance to the commerce of Cochin-China, empire of, consists of a that country. The finest, however, con- part of the kingdom of Kamboja (Cambotinues to be prepared in Mexico and dia), of Cochin-China Proper, and of Guatimala. In the East Indies, a very Tonquin: the two last are called, by the inferior kind has been reared, which pro- natives, by the common appellation Anduces a coarse scarlet dye. Hayti and nam. This empire is bounded on the Brazil have tried to encourage the propa- west by Siam and Laos, on the north by gation of this insect.—The natural dye China; the sea is the southern and eastern which this little animal affords in such boundary. Cochin-China extends from abundance is a deep crimson; and the 8° 25 to about 23° N. lat., the extreme color called scarlet was not discovered length being a little over 1000 miles ; the until the effect produced by infusing the breadth varies from 70 to 220 miles; its animal matter in a solution of tin was no- area is estimated at about 135,000 square ticed by a German chemist, in 1643; after miles. It is politically divided into the which a manufactory of this color was vice-royalties of Kamboja and Tonquin, established in London.-Lac is a secretion and Cochin-China, which is administered from a species of coccus inhabiting India, by the king in person. The country is where it is found in astonishing abun- traversed by a lofty chain of mountains, dance. In its native state, not yet sepa- from which numerous small rivers derated from the twig on which it has been scend into the sea, forming numerous deposited, it is called stick-lac ; when sep- sand-banks along the coast. The Kamarated, powdered, and the coloring matter boja or Mecon, and the Song-koy or river washed from it, it is denominated seed- of Tonquin, are considerable streams. lac; lump-lac when melted into cakes, and The climate is healthy. In Cochin-China, shell-lac when purified and formed into the rainy season continues from October thin lamine. Lac-lake is the coloring mat- till March, and neither the heat nor cold ter of stick-lac precipitated from an alka- is excessive. In Tonquin, on the other line lixivium, by means of alum.

hand, the rains commence in May, and COCHABAMBA ; a town of Bolivia, in the terminate in August. The heat and cold province of Cochabamba, in a fertile val- are both extreme. The gulf of Tonquin ley ; 90 miles N. N. W. La Plata, 140 S. and the neighboring seas are exposed to W. Potosi ; lon. 67° 24' W.; lat. 18° 25' the ravages of the typhoons, which are N. The province has a mild climate, and rarely felt below the latitude of 16° N. produces an abundance of grain, also su- The forests furnish the eagle-wood, the gar and cattle. Population, about 100,000. stick-lac, and valuable timber for building

Cochin, Charles Nicolas, engraver, born and furniture. The orange and the lichi in Paris in 1688, practised painting till

are of excellent quality. Rice, sugarhis 23d year, which was of considerable cane, betel, indigo, cotton and potatoes are advantage to him in the art of engraving, the principal productions of agriculture. to which he afterwards devoted himself. The true cinnamon is a native of CochinIn 1731, he became a member of the China. The mulberry is extensively culacademy of Paris, and died in 1754. His tivated for the silk-worm, and the teason, ?f the same name, devoted himself to shrub is common in the country. Eleetching, rather than to engraving. His phants, used in war, buffaloes, which are productions are superior to those of his yoked to the plough, tigers, rhinoceroses, father. The collection of his works con- the wild boar, the horse, which is small, tains more than 1500 pieces, among which the ox, a small, reddish-brown animal, and

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several species of deer, are the principal estimated, by some writers, at 22,000,000, quadrupeds. Sheep are very rare. The but does not, probably, exceed 10,000,000, poultry is numerous and very good. The perhaps not 6,000,000. The direct comseas and rivers abound with fish, which mercial intercourse between Cochin-China supply a great number of the inhabitants and Europe and America, has been very with food. Neither the flesh of the buffalo inconsiderable, but is now on the increase. nor that of the ox is eaten by the Cochin- The foreign trade, by sea, is principally Chinese, and milk they hold in abhor- with China, Siam, and the British ports rence, considering it as blood. The An- within the straits of Malacca. The prinnam race, comprehending the Cochin- cipal places from which it is conducted Chinese and the Tonquinese, are a short, are Saigon in Kamboja, Hue, the capital but active and hardy people. In the use of the empire, in Cochin-China, and Caful arts, they have made considerable chao in Tonquin. The exports are cinprogress. Their language is monosyllabic. namon, pepper, areca, raw silk, sugar, They have no literature of their own, and dye-woods, cardamoms, ivory, elephant's receive all their books from the Chinese. and rhinoceros' hides, &c.—According to In writing the Chinese characters, the ele- the Chinese annals, Annam was conquered mentary ones are the same, but they make by China, B. C. 214, and colonized by considerable changes in combining them. numerous bodies of Chinese. After vaTheir manners are lively and cheerful; rious revolutions, in which the Chinese their character mild and docile. There yoke was thrown off, and Tonquin and are two classes, the commonalty and no- Cochin-China were alternately conquerbility or mandarins. The government is ors, the present order of things was estabdespotic; the chief instrument is the rod, lished by events which took place at the. which is freely administered. The gen- end of the 18th century. The Taysons, eral administration is conducted by a su- three brothers from the lowest ranks of preme council and six ministers of state. the people, had rendered themselves so Beside these, there are three other superior powerful as to obtain possession of nearly officers, called kun—the viceroys of Ton- the whole country; the king had perished quin and Kamboja, and the minister of in the war against them. His young son, elephants, who is properly prime minister Gialong, having been intrusted to the care and minister for foreign affairs. Every of the bishop of Adran, a French missionmale inhabitant, between 18 and 60 years ary, obtained, thrcugh his influence, the of age, is at the disposal of the state ; and, assistance of some Europeans, by whose in Cochin-China, every third man on the means he formed a navy, disciplined rolls performs actual service during every his troops, and constructed fortifications other three years. These conscripts are in the European manner. He succeeded, called soldiers, and wear uniforms, but after a struggle of 12 years, in subduing are, in reality, engaged as laborers on the the Taysons, conquered Tonquin in 1802, public works and in the menial service of Kamboja in 1809, and left the empire, on the public officers. The royal guard of his death, in 1819, to his present majesty, 30,000 men is always stationed near the Meng-meng, his illegitimate son, who, in person of the king. The ordinary force 1821, was regularly invested with the consists of about 360,000 troops and 800 government of Annam by the court of elephants, cavalry not being at all used. China. (See La Bissachère's État actuel The effective force, regularly armed and du Tunquin, de la Cochinchine, &c., Paris, disciplined, is not more than 50,000. 1812; White's Voyage to the China Sea, They are armed partly with muskets and Boston, 1823; and particularly Crawfurd's partly with spears. There is no estab- Embassy to Siam and Cochin-China, Lonlished religion in Annam. The ministers don, 1828.) of religion are few and little respected ; COCHINEAL. (See Coccus.) the temples mean and little frequented. COCHRANE, Alexander Thomas, lord ; The lower orders, in general, follow the born Dec. 2, 1775; a naval officer, distinworship of Buddha or Fo. Persons of guished by his boldness and success; eldrank are of the sect of Confucius; but the est son of the well-known chemist, lord only part of the religious belief, which as- Archibald Cochrane, earl of Dundonald ; sumes a systematic form, is the worship educated by his uncle, admiral sir Alex. of the dead. Polygamy is permitted to Forester Cochrane, who, in 1814, took the any extent, as the wife is a mere chattel capital of the U. States, and burned the purchased by the husband. Marriages, public buildings. In February, 1814, lord however, are indissoluble, except by mu- Cochrane, the subject of this article, then tual consent. The population has been a member of parliament, was accused of

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