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having spread a false report of the death of it as the Persian bird. Nevertheless, it has Napoleon, for the purpose of affecting the been so long established throughout the price of the stocks, was condemned to the western regions, as to render it impossible pillory, to a year's imprisonment, and a to trace its progress from its native wilds. fine of £1000, and excluded from parlia- —The cock has his head surmounted by a ment and from the order of the Bath. notched, crimson, fleshy substance, called The royal clemency spared him the ex- comb: two pendulous fleshy bodies of the posure in the pillory. The fine was paid same color, termed wattles, hang under his by his friends. In 1818, lord Cochrane throat. The hen has also a similar, but took the command of the naval force of not so large nor so vividly colored excresChile, which he conducted with success, cence on her head. The cock is provided and afterwards of that of Brazil. In 1823, with a sharp horn or spur on the outside the emperor Pedro created him marquis of his tarsus, with which he inflicts severe of Maranham. After the peace between wounds; the hen, instead of a spur, has a Portugal and Brazil, he took his dismis- mere knot or tubercle. There is, in both sion, returned to England, and, in 1826, sexes, below the ear, an oblong spot, the intended to enter the Greek service as anterior edge of which is reddish, and the admiral ; but the steam-boats built for the remainder white. The feathers arise, in use of the Greeks in England proved pairs, from each sheath, touching by their unfit for their purpose. He remained a points within the skin, but diverging in long time at Marseilles and Genoa, wait- their course outwards. On the neck, they ing for other vessels, finally entered the are long, narrow and floating; on the Greek service in 1827, in which he con- rump, they are of the same form, but tinued until the following year, and then drooping laterally over the extremity of returned to England.

the wings, which are quite short, and terCOCHRANE, captain John Dundas, neph- minate at the origin of the tail, the plumes ew of the above, travelled on foot through of which are vertical. In the centre of France, Spain and Portugal, then through the cock's tail are two long feathers, Russia to Kamtschatka (see Narrative of which fall backwards in a graceful arch, a Pedestrian Journey through Russia, &c., and add great beauty to the whole aspect 1820—23, London, 1824), and died in of the fowl. It is in vain to offer any de1825, in Colombia, whither he had gone scription of the color of the plumage, as it with a view of travelling through South is infinitely varied, being in some breeds America on foot.

of the greatest richness and elegance, and Cock (phasianus gallus, L.); the well- in others of the simplest and plainest hue. known chieftain of the poultry-yard, and Except in the pure white breeds, the plurural announcer of the passage of time; mage of the cock is always more splendid whose shrill clarion, heard in the still than that of the hen. We cannot conwatches of the night, inspires the invalid template the cock, when in good health with cheering hopes of the coming dawn, and full plumage, without being struck and informs the way-worn traveller of his with his apparent consciousness of perapproach to the habitations of his kind; sonal beauty and courage.

His movethe appropriate emblem of vigilance, viril- ments and gestures seem all to be influity, warlike daring and gallantry: domes- enced by such feelings, and his stately ticated, but not subdued, he marches at march and frequent triumphant crowing the head of his train of wives and off- express confidence in his strength and spring, with a port of proud defiance, not bravery. The salacity of the cock is exless ready to punish aggression against his cessive, and one is known to be quite dependents than to assert his superiority sufficient for the fecundation of 10 or 15 upon the challenge of any rival. At what hens. His sexual powers are matured time this valuable species of pheasant was when he is about six months old, and his brought under the immediate control of full vigor lasts for about three years, varyman, it is now impossible to determine; ing in earliness of maturity and duration but, as the forests of many parts of India with his size and the climate. The hen still abound with several varieties of the is ready to commence laying after she cock in the wild or natural condition, it is has moulted or changed her plumage, quite reasonable to conclude that the race and is not at the trouble of making a regwas first domesticated in the Eastern ular nest. A simple hole, scratched in the countries, and gradually extended thence ground, in some retired place, serves her to the rest of the world. It is stated that purpose, and she generally lays from 12 the cock was first introduced into Europe to 15 eggs before she begins to sit upon from Persia ; and Aristophanes speaks of them for the purpose of hatching. Having

sustenance.

thus taken possession of her nest, she be- although repeatedly denounced and procomes a model of enduring patience, re- hibited by the laws; but it is now deservmaining fixed in her place until the ur- edly in disrepute. Many nice rules are gency of hunger forces her to go in search given for the training and

dieting of cocks, of food. A short time suffices; she runs and for the choice of individual combateagerly about in quest of sustenance, and ants. “ The best cocks,” says one of the soon resumes her charge. Her eggs are many English writers on this subject, diligently turned and shifted from the “should be close hitters, deadly heelers, centre to the edge of the nest, so that steady fighters, good mouthers, and come each may receive a due degree of genial to every point.” Great difference of opinwarmth, and it is not until about 21 days ion has prevailed as to the size most prophave elapsed that the incubation is com- er for game-cocks. Hoyle settles it at not pleted. The strongest of the progeny less than 4 lbs. 8 oz., nor above 4 lbs. 10 then begin to chip the shell with the bill, oz. The strain from which the cock is and are successively enabled to burst their chosen ought to be distinguished for vicbrittle prisons. She continues upon the tory. For the combat, they are armed nest till the whole are hatched and dry, with steel or silver spurs, or gaffles. The and then leads them forth in search of place appropriated to fighting is called the food. The hen, except when accompa- pit, and consists generally of a mound of nied by a young brood, is always timid, earth, covered with sod, and surrounded and ready to fly from disturbance; but by seats in circular tiers. The battle is when she is engaged in discharging the conducted by two setters, who place the duties of maternity, her whole nature is cocks beak to beak. When they are once changed. She fiercely and vigorously pitted, neither of the setters-to can touch attacks all aggressors, watches over the his cock, so long as they continue to fight, safety of her young with the utmost jeal- unless their weapons get entangled.ousy, neglects the demands of her own Cock-fighting is prevalent in China, Perappetite to divide the food she may obtain sia and Malacca. among her nurslings, and labors with un- · Cock-Pit; the place where cock-fights tiring diligence to provide them sufficient are held.-In navigation, the cock-pit of a

The limits within which we man-of-war comprises the apartments of are restricted forbids the attempt to give the surgeon and his mates, being the place a complete history of this valuable spe- where the wounded men are dressed in cies, which is, in every point of view, battle, or at other times. It is situated interesting. To detail all that would be under the lower-deck. necessary to illustrate it, as an object of COCKADE (from cocarde); a plume of natural history and domestic economy,, cock's feathers, with which the Croats the modes of breeding, rearing, preparing adorned their caps. A bow of colored for the table, &c.,—would require a small ribbons was adopted for the cockade in volume. Fortunately, almost every one, France, which soon became a national who will employ his own observation, emblem and party signal. During the may readily arrive at such knowledge. French revolution, the tri-colored cockade Very full histories of the species are given became the national distinction. National by Buffon and other standard authors. cockades are now to be found over all Temminck has, perhaps, offered the most Europe. In some countries, the law recomplete, in his Histoire des Gallinacés. quires every citizen to wear one, and the (See Incubation.)

deprivation of them is a disgraceful punCock-Fighting was an amusement of the ishment, as in Prussia. In point of fact, Greeks and Romans. An annual cock- the rule requiring them to be worn is but fight was instituted at Athens, and Æschi- little observed. nes reproaches Timarchus, and Plato the COCKCHAFFER; a species of coleopterous Athenians in general, with their fondness insect, belonging to the genus melolontha for the cock-pit. The breeds of Rhodes (Fab.), remarkable for the length of its life, and of Tanagra in Bæotia were in great in the worm or larve state, as well as for esteem in Greece. The Romans seem to the injury it does to vegetation, after it has have used quails and partridges also for attained its perfect condition. By Linnæthis purpose. Mark Antony was a patron us, this species, which is also known by the of the pit, but, in his matches with Octa- trivial names of may-bug, dorr-beetle, &c., vius, it was observed that Cæsar's cocks was placed in the genus scarabæus, or beetle were always victorious. This barbarous (see Beetle); and it is true, that the meand brutalizing spectacle, it is well known, lolontha have the general aspect, conformhas been a favorite sport with the English, ation and habits of the beetles. They differ from them, however, in having the scarcely less than six months. To underbody less depressed, swelling out above go their final change, these larves bore into and below into a sort of hump. The head the earth to the depth of two feet or more, is engaged in the corselet, which is slightly where they form a rounded cavity, the narrowed in front, and most commonly sides of which are smoothed and consoliattached to the elytra behind. The anten- dated by the application of a fluid disgorgna, which are foliated in a mass, are com- ed from their mouths. The larve being posed of 10 joints, the last of which termi- thus secured, it soon begins to contract in nates the mass like a plume, which the insect length, swells, and bursts its skin, coming displays at will, sometimes to the number therefrom as a soft, whitish nymph, having of seven plates, larger and more perfectly all the members shrunk and folded, unideveloped in the males than females. The formly arranged in the same manner, exbodies of melolontha are very often velvet- hibiting the rudiments of elytra, antenna, like, and covered with hairs and imbri- &c. The insect then gradually acquires cated scales, differently colored, like the consistence and color, becoming of a butterflies. Some species are very highly brownish hue. This state continues about adorned in this way, and present combina- three months, by the end of which time, tions of brilliant and beautiful colors.—The the insect disengages its wings, limbs and may-bug (melolontha vulgaris) is hatched antenne, and assumes its rank as a perfect from an egg which the parent deposits in coleopterous insect. It is in the month of a hole about six inches deep, which she February that the larve changes to nymph. digs for the purpose, Her eggs are ob- During the months of March and April

, it long, of a bright yellow color, and are approaches the surface of the earth, and, placed regularly side by side, though not about the beginning of May, escapes from included in any common envelope. At its grovelling mode of life to soar through the end of about three months, the insects the air, disporting in sunshine and shade. come out of the eggs as small grubs or From this circumstance, the German trivmaggots, and feed upon the roots of vege- ial name of Maikäfer, and the English tables in the vicinity with great voracity. may-bug or beetle, have been given. The As they increase in size and strength, they term cockchaffer, applied to the common become able to make their way with ease species, is evidently made up from the under ground, and continue their ravages German.—Cockchaffers, in their perfect upon the roots of plants. When the worm state, pass the greater part of the day in a has attained its greatest size, it is an inch state of slumber or quietude, on the leaves and a half long by more than half an inch of the trees which they feed on, unless disthick, perfectly white, with a red head, turbed by the too great heat of the sun, having a semi-circular lip, and a strong which arouses them to fly to the shade. pair of jaws, with which it cuts the roots, At eventide, the whole of this drowsy popfor the purpose of sucking out their fluids. ulation take wing, for the sake of procuring It has two antenne, but is destitute of food. Their flight is loud, humming, and eyes. The subterranean existence of these generally with the wind; and so little is animals is extended to four years, and, as the insect capable of directing its course, their food is not accessible during the cold that it strikes violently against every obseason, they bury themselves sufficiently ject in the way. This peculiarity has given deep in the soil to be safe from the frost, origin, in France, to a proverbial expresand pass the winter in state of torpidity. sion, applied to a thoughtless, blundering When the spring restores them to anima- person, who is said to be as stupid as a tion and activity, they revisit the upper may-bug ; Étourdi comme un hanneton.stratum of the ground, having, at each an- The generative act of these insects has nual awakening, undergone a change of some peculiarities. The male, which is skin.-At the end of the third year, they generally smaller than the female, and have acquired their full growth as larves; always cognizable by the greater size of his they then cease eating, and void the resi- foliated antenne, previous to this operation, due of their food, preparatory to the change is very active. As soon, however, as this or metamorphosis which they are about object is accomplished, he seems to fall to undergo. "If opened at this period, their into a state of faintness and lethargy, and strongly muscular integument is found to the female, in flying from place to place, be completely filled with a mass of white, carries him with her, hanging in a helpless, oily matter, resembling cream, apparently inverted position, with his back downdestined as a reserve for the alimentation wards, and his feet in the air. The of the insect during the period of its re- male organs are quite singular, being maining in the form of a nymph, which is formed in such a manner that the organ conveying the fecundating fluid is intro- dered useless by being gnawed through. duced by the aid of two elongated horns, At some seasons of the year, when the which, by their approximation, form a sort male cockroaches fly about, they are very of stiff point. These two pieces lie over troublesome, especially about twilight, another, within which are muscles that, at when they dash into rooms, and often the proper moment, contract, and thus strike against the faces of those present, to dilate the sheath, which may be compared the great alarm of females,

who generally to a surgical dilator. To this expansion of dread them excessively. The presence of the sheath the adherence of the sexes dur- a light, it is true, would secure us against ing the act of generation is owing. The such invasions from the cockroach, but a males perish as soon as they have fulfilled great number of other nocturnal insects this great object of their being, as they would be attracted by its glare, and induce thenceforth cease to eat. The fecundated a greater degree of annoyance. When a female forsakes the trees for the earth, into cockroach takes refuge or seeks concealwhich, with her claws, she bores a hole mentupon any person, he will inflict a smart six or eight inches deep, in which she bite, if particularly hurt or alarmed.- The places from 50 to 80 eggs. This completes sapient Sancho Panza declares, that there the circle of her actions, and she soon after is a remedy for every thing but death ; dies; though it has been said, without any and it is truly happy for mankind, that the foundation in observation or analogy, that multiplication of this pestilent race may be the females, after laying their eggs, resume repressed by aid of their own voracity. If their former habits, and live among the to a quantity of Indian corn meal about trees.

one third of white or red lead added, Cock-FIGHTING. (See Cock.)

and the mixture is moistened with molasCock-Pit. (See Cock.)

ses, so as to make it moderately adhesive, COCKROACH (blatta, Lin.); a genus of the cockroaches will greedily devour it. insects belonging to the orthopterous or The repetition of this poisoned food for a straight-winged order, characterized by an few nights is generally sufficient to reduce oval, elongated, depressed body, which is their numbers to a very few, even in the smooth on its superior surface. The head most infected houses, and will eventually is inclined, short, and concealed under the cause the destruction of the whole. They corselet; the antenna are long, bristly, form- may also be poisoned with preparations of ed of numerous pieces, and inserted in a arsenic, sublimate, &c., mixed with sugar groove within the eyes. The corselet is or molasses, of which they are very fond. scutiform, covering the head and origin of Traps especially designed for their capthe elytra; the abdomen is terminated by ture are sometimes to be found at the two conical appendages. The legs are be- potteries. A paste-board or card cover, set with little spines; the feet are long and well balanced upon two pins, and placed compressed ; the tarsi have five joints. upon the edge of a vessel, nearly filled They have a longitudinal crop or craw; with molasses and water, makes a very the gizzard, or muscular stomach, is inter- good trap. The dish should be so placed, nally provided with strong hooked teeth: that they can readily mount upon

the covfrom 8 to 10 cæca are found about the py- er, which revolves on its axis whenever Jorus.—These insects are among the most the equilibrium is disturbed, and throws disagreeable of the annoyances to which the cockroaches into the fluid.—Cockthe dwellings of man are subject, and, roaches, like other orthopterous insects, do where their multiplication is permitted, not undergo a complete metamorphosis: the ravages they commit are extensive and the larves and nymphs resemble the pervexatious. They are all nocturnal, and fect insect, except chat they have merely exceedingly agile; their flattened bodies rudiments of wings. The females lay allow them to hide, with ease, in every their eggs successively and singly. The crevice, whence they sally forth in hordes egg has a very singular appearance, being during the night, to devour every sort of large, cylindric, rounded at both ends, and provision which is not secured from their having a projecting dentated line or keel, voracity. Like all other depredators, they throughout its length, on one side. This are thrown into confusion and put to flight egg is half as large as the belly of the by the presence of light, whence they female, and she carries it for seven or were, in ancient times, appropriately called eight days, attached to the posterior part lucifuge, or light-shunners. Their de- of the abdomen, and, finally, attaches it to structiveness is not confined to articles of some solid body, by means of a gummy provision for the table; silk, woollen, and fluid.—The species of cockroach at preseven cotton cloths are devoured, or ren- ent determined, are about 12 in number. Among these, the blatta Americana and the the filbert in taste, but are of much firmer blatta Orientalis are the especial pests of consistence, are used as food in various our country. The first mentioned is the modes of dressing, and sometimes are cut largest of the genus, and grows to be two into pieces and dried. When pressed in or three inches long, including the anten- a mill, they yield an oil, which, in some . Throughout the southern portion of countries, is the only oil used at table; and this continent, and in the West India isl- which, when fresh, is equal in quality to ands, this species (blatta Americana), called that of almonds. It, however, soon beKakkerlac by the Dutch, is very numerous comes rancid, and, in this state, is princiand troublesome. The blatta Orientalis, or pally used by painters. The milk or fluid common kitchen cockroach, was originally contained in the nut is an exceedingly brought from Asia to Europe, and thence cool and agreeable beverage, which, when to America. It is now thoroughly domi- good, somewhat resembles the kernel in ciliated in all parts of our country, to the favor. Cocoa-nut-trees first produce fruit great vexation of its inhabitants. This when 6 or 7 years old; after which each species is fond of warmth, and makes its tree yields from 50 to 100 nuts annually. abode near to the kitchen fire-place, about The fibrous coats or husks which envelope ovens, stoves, &c.

the cocoa-nuts, after having been soaked Cockswain, or CoXEN; the officer who for some time in water, become soft. manages and steers a boat, and has the They are then beaten, to free them from command of the boat's crew. It is evi- the other substances with which they dently compounded of the words cock and are intermixed, and which fall away like swain, the former of which was anciently saw-dust, the stringy part only being left. used for a yawl, or small boat, as appears. This is spun into long yarns, woven into from several authors, but has now become sail-cloth, and twisted into cables, even for obsolete.

large vessels. The cordage thus manuCOCLES. (See Horatius.)

factured is, in several respects, preferable Cocoa-Nut. The cocoa-nut is a woody to that brought from Europe, but particufruit, of an oval shape, from three or four larly for the advantages which are derived to six or eight inches in length, covered from its floating in water. The woody with a fibrous husk, and lined internally shells of the nut are so hard as to receive with a white, firm and fleshy kernel.—The a high polish, and are formed into drinktree (cocos nucifera) which produces the ing cups, and other domestic utensils, cocoa-nut, is a kind of palm, from 40 to 60 which are sometimes expensively mounted feet high, having on its summit only leaves in silver. On the summit of the cocoaor branches, appearing almost like im- nut-tree, the tender leaves, at their first mense feathers, each 14 or 15 feet long, 3 springing up, are folded over each other, feet broad, and winged. Of these, the' so as somewhat to resemble a cabbage. upper ones are erect, the middle ones hor- These are occasionally eaten in place of izontal, and the lower ones drooping. The culinary greens, and are a very delicious trunk is straight, naked, and marked with food; but, as they can only be obtained by the scars of the fallen leaves. The nuts the destruction of the tree, which dies in hang from the summit of the tree in clus- consequence of their being removed, they ters of a dozen or more together. The are in general considered too expensive a external rind of the nuts has a smooth treat. The larger leaves are used for the surface, and is of a somewhat triangular thatching of buildings, and are wrought shape. This encloses an extremely fibrous into baskets, brooms, mats, sacks, hamsubstance, of considerable thickness, which mocks, and many other useful articles. immediately surrounds the nut. The lat- The trunks are made into boats, and furter has a thick and hard shell, with three nish timber for the construction of houses; holes at the base, each closed with a black and, when their central pith is cleared membrane. The kernel lines the shell, is away, they form excellent gutters for the sometimes nearly an inch in thickness, and conveyance of water. If, whilst growing, encloses a considerable quantity of sweet the body of the tree be bored, a white and and watery liquid, of a whitish color, which sweetish liquor exudes from the wound, has the name of milk. This tree is a na- which is called toddy. This is collected tive of Africa, the East and West Indies, in vessels of earthen ware, and is a favorand South America, and flourishes best in ite beverage in many parts where the trees a sandy soil.–Food, clothing, and the grow. When fresh, it is very sweet; in means of shelter and protection, are all a few hours, it becomes somewhat acid, afforded by the cocoa-nut-tree. The ker- and, in this state, is peculiarly agreeanels of the nuts, which somewhat resemble ble; but, in the space of 24 hours, it is

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