Imatges de pÓgina
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Half ditto,
Quarter ditto,

1 31



2 204


... 17 14

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Piaster, since 1772, . . .
Real of 2, or peseta, or one fifth of a

Real of 1, or half peseta, or one tenth
of a piaster,..

1 21

Reallillo, or one twentieth of a piaster, 0 224

17 8

3 18


Grammes. Standard. Eng. value.

£ 8. d.

02 94

0 1 43

2 5

1 24 0 131

35.118 906
17.559 906
8.779 906

4.389 906




Rix-dollar of 48 shillings, from 172018 17
to 1802,...

Two thirds of rix-dollar, or 32 shillings, 12 11
One third, or 16 shillings,

6 5

3.491 13.340

















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.870 976

04 11


8331 0 4 04

19.672 878
9.836 878

0 2

0 3 1

0 0

2.985 813 005
1.492 813 0 0 24

These three last coins have currency in the peninsula only.



0 10 101

3 6 7
1 13 34

0 16 7

3 4 8

1 12 4
0 16 2

0 4 31

0 0 104

0 471
02 31


0 16

Amer. val. $ cts. m. 1 30 5 0 65 0

0 32 5

0 16 5

0 94 0

2 19 4

7 67 0

3 83 5

1 91 7

0 95 6


0 71 8

0 29

2 52 9

0 94 1

15 51 4 7 75 7 3 87 8 193 7 15

68 7 53 4

3 28 1

1 88 3

1 06

0 20 4

0 10 2 048

216 0 178 0 53 9

1 48

0 69 9 0 34 9

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Silver. Ducat of 8 livres,

14 15$ 22.777 826 0 3 35 0 77 0 Crown of the cross, . 20 10 31.788 948 0 5

1 23 8 Ducatoon, 18 0 27.914 948 0 4

1 90 Talaro,

18 13 28.990 826 0 4 23 0 98 3 Ozella,

6 8 9.843 948 0 173 0 38 1 (For further information in regard to coins, see Standard, Mint, Money and Exchange.)

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COIRE (Chur); the capital of the Swiss attorney-general ; and the death of his canton of the Grisons, on the rivers Plessur wife, who brought him 10 children, gave and Rhine, with 3350 inhabitants. The him another opportunity of increasing his trade between Germany and Italy is the influence, by a marriage with the widow cause of the wealth of this city. Not lady Hatton, sister to the minister Burfar from Coire the Rhine begins to be leigh. He acted the usual part of a crown navigable for small vessels. This town lawyer in all state prosecutions; and one contains several scientific establishments, of the most important that fell under his and a bishop's see, whose income amounts management as attorney-general, was that to 10,000 guilders, chiefly derived from of the unfortunate earl of Essex, which the Tyrol. The secular possessions of the he conducted with great asperity. Soon bishops were given, in 1802, to the Hel- after the accession of James I, he was vetic republic, as an indemnification for knighted. The celebrated trial of sir losses which it had suffered in other Walter Raleigh followed, in which Coke quarters. Until 1498, Coire was a free displayed a degree of arrogance to the imperial city, but at that time came under court, and of rancor and insult towards the government of the bishop, who was the prisoner, which was universally con-, under the archbishop of Mentz. There is demned at the time, and has been deemed a very good school here.

one of the greatest stains upon his characCOKE. (See Coal.)

ter, by all posterity. On the discovery of COKE, sir Edward, one of the most emi- the gunpowder plot, he obtained great nent English lawyers, the son of Robert credit by the clearness and sagacity with Coke, esquire, of Norfolk, was born in 1550. which he stated the evidence; and, in He received his early education at the 1606, he became chief justice of the comfree-school of Norwich, whence he was mon pleas. In 1613, he succeeded to the removed to Trinity college, Cambridge. important office of chief justice of the From the university he went to London, court of king's_bench, but was in much and entered the Inner Temple. He pleaded less favor with James than his rival, lord his first cause in 1578, and was appointed Bacon. He was, in fact, too wary and reader of Lyon's Inn, where his lectures stanch a lawyer to commit himself on were much frequented. His reputation the subject of prerogative; and as his and practice rapidly increased, and he was temper was rough, and his attachment to placed in a situation of great respectability law truly professional, he could scarcely and affluence, by a marriage with a co- forbear involving himself with a court so heiress of the Paston family. He was notorious for arbitrary principles as was chosen recorder of the cities of Norwich the English during the reign of James. and of Coventry; was engaged in all the The honorable zeal which he displayed great causes at Westminster hall, and, in in the execrable affair of sir Thomas Overthe 35th year of Elizabeth, chosen knight bury, and in the prosecution of the king's of the shire for his county, and speaker wretched minions, Somerset and his of the house of commons. In 1592, he countess, for that atrocious murder, made became solicitor-general, and, soon after, him enemies; and advantage was taken


of a dispute, in which he erroneously sen pursuit ; and, as usual, more philo-
engaged with the court of chancery, to sophical and general powers were sacri-
remove him, in 1616, both from the coun- ficed to its exclusiveness. His principal
cil and his post of chief justice. His real works are, Reports, from 1600 to 1615:
offence, however, was a refusal to favor A Book of Entries (folio, 1614): In-
the new favorite Villiers in some pecunia- stitutes of the Laws of England, in four
ry matter. Coke meanly made up this parts; the first of which contains the Com-
breach by marrying his youngest daughter, mentary on Littleton's Tenures; the sec-
with a large fortune, to the elder brother ond, a Commentary on Magna Charta and
of Villiers, and was, in consequence, rein- other statutes; the third, the criminal laws
stated in the council in 1617, and actively or pleas of the crown; and the fourth, an
engaged in prosecutions for corruption in account of the jurisdiction of all the courts
office, and other crimes, of a nature to in the kingdom: A Treatise of Bail and
recruit an exhausted treasury by the inflic- Mainprise (1637, 4to.): Reading on the
tion of exorbitant fines. He, however, Statute of Fines, 27 Edw. I (4to.): Com-
supported the privileges of the commons plete Copyholder (1640, 4to.).
with great tenacity; for which, after the COKE, Thomas, a missionary, was born
prorogation of parliament, in 1621, he was in 1747, at Brecon, in South Wales. In
committed to the Tower. He was, how- 1775, he took his degree of LL. D. at Ox-
ever, quickly liberated; but was again ford, and, soon after, became acquainted
expelled the privy council

, with peculiar with the celebrated John Wesley, who
marks of displeasure on the part of James. soon brought him over to his own opin-
On the accession of Charles I, he was ions, and, in 1780, appointed him to
nominated sheriff of Buckinghamshire, in superintend the London district: he also
order to prevent his being chosen member made him one of the trustees, on his exe-
for the county, which, however, he repre- cution of the deed of declaration as to all
sented in the parliament which met in his chapels. In 1784, Wesley is said to
1628. The remainder of his career was have consecrated him as a bishop, for the
highly popular ; he greatly distinguished purpose of superintending the Methodist-
himself by his speeches for redress of ical societies in America. The doctor
grievances; vindicated the right of the now, therefore, made several voyages to
commons to proceed against any individ- the U States and the West Indies, estab-
ual, however exalted; openly named lishing meeting-houses, organizing con-
Buckingham as the cause of the misfor- gregations, and ordaining ministers. He
tunes of the kingdom; and, finally, sealed subsequently returned to England, where
his services to the popular part of the con- he had some misunderstanding with Mr.
stitution, by proposing and framing the Wesley, who, as the founder of a sect,
famous "petition of rights,” the most ex- expected more submission than doctor
plicit declaration of English liberty which Coke was inclined to bestow. He ac-
had then appeared. This was the last of cordingly determined on visiting Nova
his public acts. The dissolution of par- Scotia; but, in consequence of a storm,
liament, which soon followed, sent him the ship in which he embarked took
into retirement, at Stoke Pogis, in Buck- refuge in the harbor of Antigua, which
inghamshire, where he spent the remain- led him to preach there, and to visit
der of his life in tranquillity. He died several other islands; and he examined
in Sept., 1634, in the 85th year of his age, the state of religion generally, both in
leaving behind him a numerous posterity the West Indies and America, before he
and a large fortune. Sir Edward Coke again returned to England. He made,
was a great lawyer, but a great lawyer altogether, nine voyages to this quarter of
only. În mere legal learning he has, per- the globe, on the same business, and met
haps, never been excelled; but he was with great success as a missionary. He
essentially defective in the merits of sys- was the author of a Commentary on the
tematic arrangement and regard to general Bible, undertaken at the request of the
principles, without which law is a mere Methodists; A History of the West Indies,
collection of arbitrary rules, undeserving and several other works, among which
the name of science. It must be admit- was a Life of Wesley, written in conjunc-
ted, however, that his writings, and espe- tion with Henry More. In 1814, he sailed
cially his Commentary on Littleton's Trea- for the East Indies, but died on the voyage.
tise on Tenures, form a vast repository of He was of a zealous, but also of an ami-
legal erudition. In short, he was a man able character.
of immense professional research, and COLBERG; a Prussian fortress and sea-
great sagacity and perseverance in a cho- port in Pomerania, in the district of




Kőslin, on the river Persante, one mile revenues were anticipated for two years, from the sea, with about 7000 inhabitants. and the treasury empty. Colbert had to Here is an important salt manufactory, proceed from the same point as Sully; This small fortress was often attacked and but the jealous and impetuous Louvois, the besieged by the Russians, in the war against wars, the luxury and the prodigality of Frederic the Great; and, in 1807, it was Louis XIV, increased his difficulties, and admirably defended by general Gneisenau he was forced, in the latter half of his ca(q. v.), Schill (q. v.), and the citizen Nettel- reer, to retrace the steps which he had beck (q. v.), against the French generals taken in the former. He began with Feulie, Loison and Mortier (q.v), who com- establishing a council of finances and a manded in succession the besieging corps, chamber of justice, the first that he might consisting of 18,000 men, which fired into have an oversight of the whole; the other, the town 6775 balls, besides those thrown that he might watch the embezzlements of against the works. The garrison, which the farmers-general, and liquidate the debts was only 6000 men strong, lost 429 men of the state. For the purpose of allevikilled, 1093 wounded, 209 prisoners, and ating the public burdens, he endeavored 159 missing. The fortress was not taken. to lower the interest of the public debt; The remnant of the garrison was formed and, in order to mitigate the odium of this into one regiment, called the Colberg regi- measure, he consented to a considerable ment, which was considered one of the diminution of the taxes, and to the remisbravest in the Prussian army. Blücher sion of all arrears up to 1656. He abolreturned thanks to them, in particular, for ished many useless offices, retracted their conduct in the battle of Ligny, June burdensome privileges, diminished sala16, 1815, on which occasion they had been ries, put a stop to the infamous trade in engaged from one o'clock till about dark, offices, and the no less injurious custom and had suffered great loss. The editor of making the courtiers interested, as farwill always consider it an honor to have mers-general, in the produce of the public fought in their ranks.

revenue; he exposed the arts and abuses, COLBERT, Jean Baptiste, French minis- and limited the immense gain, of the colter of finances, born 1619, at Rheims, son lectors; established a loan-bank; diminishof a draper and wine-merchant, entered, in ed the interest of money; reëstablished the 1648, the service of Le Tellier, secretary of king in the possession of his domains, and state, by whom he was made known to care appropriated suitable funds for each exdinal Mazarin, who discovered his talents, penditure. A better distribution and coland made him his intendant, and availed lection of the taxes enabled him to reduce himself of his assistance, in the financial them almost one half. The happiest sucadministration of the kingdom. Mazarin cess crowned his wise and courageouslyrewarded him, in 1654, with the office of executed measures. Notwithstanding the secretary to the queen, and recommended expenses of nearly ten years' war; nothim, at his death, to the king (1660). withstanding the prodigality of a luxurious Louis XIV made Colbert intendant of the king, Colbert succeeded, in 22 years, in addfinances. Colbert and Le Tellier now join- ing to the revenues more than 28,000,000, ed to effect the fall of Fouquet, for which and making an equal diminution in the purpose they had united, the former from public burdens; and, at his death, in 1683, ambition, the latter from envy. After ef- the revenue actually received amounted fecting this object, Colbert, with the title of to 116,000,000. In 1664, Colbert was sua controleur-général, assumed the direction perintendent of buildings, of arts and manof the finances. He had a task to remedy ufactures, and, in 1669, minister of the mathe evils which the feeble and stormy reign rine. To his talents, activity and enlarged of Louis XIII, the splendid but arbitrary views, France owes the universal develmeasures of Richelieu, the troubles of the opement and the rapid progress of her Fronde, and the confused state of the finan- industry and commerce. France was not ces under Mazarin, had occasioned. He only freed from the taxes which its luxury found fraud, disorder and corruption pre- had hitherto paid to foreign countries, but vailing every where. The domains were it partook also of the advantages of that alienated. Burdens, privileges and ex- industry which had previously distinguishemptions were multiplied without meas- ed England, Holland, Venice, Genoa, the ure; the state was the prey of the farmers- Levant, and some cities of Flanders and general, and, at the same time, maintained Germany. Manufactures were establishonly by their aid. The people were ed, and flourished; the public roads were obliged to pay 90,000,000 of taxes, of which improved, and new roads laid out. Colthe king received scarcely 35,000,000; the bert built the canal of Languedoc; formed


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