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and he pre
the plan of that of Burgundy ; declared to the circumstances under which he acted. Marseilles and Dunkirk free ports; granted He did all that was possible; not every premiums on goods exported and import- thing he wished. He had not such an ed; regulated the tolls; established insur- influence on the undertakings, resolutions ance offices; made uniform laws for the and inclinations of his prince as was enregulation of commerce; labored to render joyed by Sully. Sully gave the law to the pursuit of it honorable, and invited the his master; Colbert received it from his. nobility to engage in it. In 1664, two The former might be called the minister of commercial companies were instituted to the nation ; the latter, only of the king. trade with the East and West Indies, to Henry IV and Louis XIV had both great which the king advanced considerable aims; but the one for France, the other for
The colonies in Canada, Marti- himself; and this difference produced the nique, and particularly in St. Domingo, re- most important results in their administraceived new life from their union with the tion. Sully, ever independent and sure crown, and began to flourish. New colo- of approbation, enriched the state by a nies were established in Cayenne and wise economy, which was promoted by Madagascar. For the purpose of main- Henry, who considered the people as his taining these distant possessions, a consid- family: Colbert, always dependent and erable naval force was required. Colbert thwarted in his plans, maintained the state, created this also. When he entered the notwithstanding the prodigality of the ministry of the marine, the navy consisted king, and rendered it flourishing, notwithof a few old vessels, which Mazarin had standing the burdens of numerous armies permitted to rot in the harbors. Colbert and expensive wars. He was forced to at first purchased vessels in foreign coun- have recourse to measures which he detries, but soon had them built in France. sired to see abolished forever; The ports of Brest, Toulon and Rochefort dicted to the president, who recommended were repaired; those of Dunkirk and Ha- a loan, “ You open a wound which our vre were fortified. Naval schools were grandchildren will not see healed.” As soon established, and order was introduced into as peace permitted him to breathe more all branches of the marine. In 1672, freely, he returned to his own principles, and France had 60 vessels of the line, and 40 corrected the consequences of measures frigates: in 1681, victorious by land and which he had adopted against his own will sea, she had 198'men-of-war, and 166,000 so rapidly, that the end of his administraseamen. By the advice of Colbert, Louis tion was the most splendid epoch of the XIV caused the civil and criminal legisla- reign of Louis XIV. Colbert was ambition to be improved, and the arts and sci- tious, but honest; and, living in a continual ences encouraged. Under the protection struggle with intrigue and jealousy, enjoyand in the house of the minister (1663), ed no tranquillity. He died in 1683, at the academy of inscriptions was founded. the age of 64 years, exhausted by incesThree years afterwards, he founded the sant labor, worn out with anxiety and academy of sciences, and, in 1671, the grief, remedying, with difficulty, the presacademy of architecture. The academy ent embarrassments, and looking with apof painting received a new organization. prehension to the future. The people of The French academy in Rome was estab- Paris, imbittered by new taxes on provislished. He enlarged the royal library, and ions, disturbed his funeral, and threatened the garden of plants, and built an observa- violence to his remains; but the misfortory, in which he employed Huygens and tunes which soon afterwards afflicted the Cassini. He began the mensurations of state, opened the eyes of his enemies, and the meridian in France, and sent men of obliged them to respect the memory of science to Cayenne. Paris was indebted him whom they had unjustly persecuted. to him for numerous embellishments, and COLCHESTER; a town in England, in many learned men in Europe received his Essex, on the river Colne ; 18 miles patronage. But, notwithstanding all this, S. S.W. Ipswich, 51 N. E. London ; lon. 0° many objections have been made to this 59 E.; lat. 51° 53' N.; population, 14,016. great minister.
The most important is, It is situated on the north side of an emithat he promoted manufactures at the nence on the Colne, 8 or 9 miles from the expense of agriculture, and left the peas- Vessels of 100 tons can come up to antry without resources. With more jus- it. It contains an ancient castle, and has tice, he is charged with having introduced been encircled by walls, now much decayan excess of minute and vexatious regula- ed. It is a place of considerable trade and tions into all branches of the administration. manufacture. The principal manufacture But Colbert must be judged with regard consists of woollen cloth, particularly baize.
Oysters form a considerable article of Pennsylvania, and practised physic for trade. It sends two members to parlia- some years, when he returned to England, ment; has two weekly markets, and four and there acquired considerable reputation annual fairs. It is an ancient town, sup- by a paper on animal secretions. From posed to be the Colonia of the Romans, London he went to Scotland, and repaired and the native place of the empress Hele- again to America, in 1716. He settled a na, mother of Constantine. In 1648, this second time in Pennsylvania, but, in 1718, city sustained a memorable siege against removed to New York. After a residence the forces of the parliament, and did not of a year in this city, he was appointed the surrender till after it had experienced the first surveyor-general of the lands of the horrors of famine.
colony, and, at the same time, master in COLCHESTER, lord. (See Abbot.) chancery. In 1720, he obtained a seat in
ColchicUM. The colchicum autumnale, the king's council, under governor Buror meadow saffron, is a bulbous-rooted net. For some time previous to this, he plant, which grows in various parts of had resided on a tract of land, about nine Europe, and which, of late years, has be- miles from Newburgh, on Hudson river, come quite noted as a remedy for that for which he had received a patent, where bane of a luxurious life—the gout. It is a he was exposed, at every moment, to the very powerful remedy, and should never attacks of the Indians, the tract being sitube used without the attendance and ad- ated on the frontier. In 1761, he was vice of a well-educated medical practition- chosen lieutenant-governor of New York, er, as its effects might otherwise be highly and occupied this station during the reinjurious. It is now believed to be iden- mainder of his life, being placed repeatedly tical with the base of the eau médicinale, at the head of affairs by the absence
or death which has been, for so long a period, a of several governors. During one of those celebrated empirical remedy for the gout. periods, the paper intended to be distribIt is used in various forms, either the pow- uted in New York, under the British dered root, or vinegar or wine, in which it stamp-act, arrived, and was put under his has been steeped, or, which is considered care, in the fortification called fort George. the best, wine in which the fresh seeds The people assembled in multitudes, unhave been steeped. It is also used with der several leaders, and determined to benefit in many cases of rheumatic affec- cause the paper to be delivered up and tions, which often so much resemble the destroyed. But, though the fort was degout.
clared untenable by the engineers, and the Colchis; a fertile country on the Black people threatened to massacre him, Colsea, now Mingrelia and Guriel, on the den defended his trust, and finally succeedRione (Phasis of the ancients). The ex- ed in securing it on board of a British pedition of the Argonauts first made the man-of-war, then lying in the port. The Greeks acquainted with this country, the populace burned him in effigy, and deoriginal population of which, according to stroyed his carriages, in his sight. After tradition, was derived from Egypt. The the return of governor Tryon, in 1775, he people were celebrated for frugality and retired to a seat on Long Island, where industry. Strabo and others tell us that he died, Sept. 28, 1776, in the 89th year
of the inhabitants used to place fleeces in the his age, a few hours before nearly one streams, in order to intercept the particles fourth part of the city of New York was of gold brought down from the mountains reduced to ashes.—Mr. Colden's producby the water. (See Argonauts.)
tions were numerous, consisting of botanCOLCOTHAR (also called crocus martis, ical and medical essays. Among them is and rouge d'Angleterre) is an impure, a treatise, showing the causes, and pointbrownish-red oxide of iron, which remains ing out the remedies, of the yellow fever, after the distillation of the acid from the which, about the year 1743, desolated New sulphate of iron. It forms a durable color, York. He also wrote an account of the but is most used by artists, in polishing prevalent diseases of the climate, and a glass and metals.
history of the five Indian nations. But Cold. (See Catarrh.)
the work which cost him most time and COLDEN, Cadwallader, was the son of labor, was one published, at first, unthe reverend Alexander Colden, of Dunse, der the title of the Cause of Gravitation ; in Scotland, and was born Feb. 17, 1688. but which, being afterwards much enlargAfter studying at the university of Edin- ed, appeared in 1751, with the title of the burgh, he devoted himself to medicine Principles of Action in Matter, to which and mathematics, in which he made great is annexed a Treatise on Fluxions. He proficiency. In 1708, he emigrated to corresponded with many of the most dis
tinguished characters of the day, among ried. Coleridge took up his abode in Nethwhom were Linnæus, Gronovius, the earl er-Stowey, near Bridgewater, where he of Macclesfield, doctor Franklin, &c. Mr. formed an intimacy with the poet WordsColden always took great delight in the worth. Having no fixed support, he sufstudy of botany. His descriptions of be- fered some pecuniary embarrassments, but tween three and four hundred American was fortunately relieved by the celebrated plants were published in the Acta Upsa- Messrs. Wedgewood, who enabled him to liensia. He paid attention also to the cli- complete his studies in Germany. He mate, and left a long course of diurnal ob- learned German in Ratzeburg. His Bioservations on the thermometer, barometer graphia Literaria (London, 1817, 2 vols.) and winds.
gives some account of his residence in COLERIDGE, Samuel Taylor; an English Germany. Among other things, it conpoet, born in 1773, at Ottery St. Mary, tains some remarks on Ebeling, and an in Devonshire, where his father, who account of a conversation with Klophad a numerous family, was a clergyman. stock (2d vol., page 237—253), in which By the influence of friends, Coleridge, who the latter gives his opinion of Lessing, was the youngest son, was admitted into Göthe, Wieland, Kotzebue and others. the Blue-coat school, as it is called, Christ's Coleridge then went by the way of Hanhospital, London, a well-known charitable over to Göttingen, where he attended the institution. Here he received an excellent lectures of Blumenbach and Eichhorn. education, and distinguished himself, even After his return, he wrote the leading artithen, by uncommon talents and by his ec- cles for the Morning Post, translated some centricities. In his 19th year, he entered dramas of Schiller, and accompanied sir Jesus' college, Cambridge. Poetry and Alexander Ball, as secretary, to Malta. He metaphysics were his favorite studies. A returned from thence, however, without volume of his poetical attempts appeared having obtained any permanent situation. in 1794, and excited great expectations, He lives, at present, in private, and seems which he has but partially satisfied, owing to suffer all the disadvantages of a literary to his invincible indolence and fickleness. life, against which he warns others in his In the same year appeared his Fall of biography. He gives lectures, which reRobespierre, a historical drama, which was ward him but poorly, though his talents well received. He did not escape the en- are universally acknowledged. The Lonthusiasm for liberty and equality, which don booksellers, by whom his labors would then prevailed. At Oxford, he met with be well received, complain that he cannot congenial spirits in the poet Southey, since confine himself to any regular work. His so celebrated, and Robert Lovell.' The Christabel has fine passages, and was very three young enthusiasts left the academi- highly praised by lord Byron. The miscal halls with the view of reforming the cellaneous essays, which he published unpolitical world. They agreed to begin in der the title of the Friend, are his most Bristol. Coleridge delivered lectures on popular productions. He contributes to the approaching happiness of the human the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. A list of race by means of republicanism, with un- his works is to be found in the Biographical bounded applause from many enthusiastic Dictionary of the living Authors of Great young people. Conciones ad Populum, or Britain and Ireland, and his likeness (with Addresses to the People, and a Protest a biographical notice) in the New Monthly against certain bills then pending, for sup- Magazine of April, 1819. Coleridge is pressing seditious meetings, also excited a considered, among his countrymen, as a great sensation in Bristol. In other cities, wild and eccentric genius. For German he was less successful, and his journal, literature he has a great predilection. the Watchman, attracted but little notice. Schiller and Göthe are his favorites. He He was indemnified by the success of a is also well acquainted with German critisecond volume of poems, which passed cism, and seems to belong to the school of through several editions. Despairing of the Schlegels. He has an antipathy to the reform of the old world, the young French literature almost amounting to a preachers of liberty took the resolution of passion. carrying their theory into execution in the COLIBRI. (See Humming-Bird.) new, by the foundation of a state, which Colic (from kūlov, colon, the name of should bear the name of Pantisocracy. It one of the intestines). The appellation was a great pity that this project was bro- of colic is commonly given to all pains in ken off by their acquaintance with three the abdomen, almost indiscriminately ; beautiful sisters, of the name of Fricker, but, from the different causes and circumwhom Coleridge, Southey and Lovell mar- stances of this disorder, it is differently denominated. When the pain is accom- their office; and in this miserable state of panied with a vomiting of bile, or with existence, the patient lingers out many obstinate costiveness, it is called a bilious wretched years. colic; if flatus causes the pain, that is, if COLIGNY, Gaspard de, admiral of France, attended with temporary distention, re- born in 1516, at Chatillon-sur-Loin, distinlieved by the discharge of wind, it takes guished himself, under Francis I., in the the name of flatulent or windy colic; when battle of Cerisoles, and under Henry II., accompanied with heat and inflammation, who made him colonel-general of the it takes the name of inflammatory colic, or French infantry, and, in 1552, admiral of enteritis. When this disease arises to a France. He was distinguished for valor violent height, and is attended with obsti- in battle, for strict discipline, and for his nate costiveness, and an evacuation of fæ- conquests over the Spaniards, in particular ces by the mouth, it is called passio iliaca, for his defence of St. Quentin. When or iliac passion. Doctor Cullen enumerates St. Quentin was taken by storm, the adseven species of colic. One of the most miral was made prisoner. After the death important is the colica pictonum. This is of Henry II, the intrigues of Catharine de' called, from the places where it is endemial, Medici induced him to place himself at the Poictou, the Surinam, the Devonshire the head of the Calvinists against the colic; from its victims, the plumbers' and Guises. He formed so powerful a party, the painters' colic; from its symptoms, the that the Catholic religion in France seemdry belly-ache, the nervous and spasmodic ed to be in danger. Condé was more amcolic. It has been attributed to the poison bitious, enterprising, active; Coligny more of lead, and this is undoubtedly the cause, considerate, prudent, and more fit to be when it occurs to glaziers, painters, and the leader of a party; equally unfortunate those employed in lead works; but, though in war with Condé, but skilled in remedythis is one, it is by no means the only ing even what appeared irretrievable losses, cause. In Devonshire, it certainly more and more to be feared after a defeat than often arises from the early cider, made of his enemies after a victory, he was, beharsh, unripe fruit, and in the West Indies sides, endowed with virtues, which he from new rum. The characteristics of practised as far as party spirit and the this disease are, obstinate costiveness, with violence of the times permitted him. The a vomiting of an acrid or porraceous bile, first battle between the Huguenots and pains about the region of the navel, shoot- Catholics (1562, at Dreux) was lost by the ing from thence to each side with exces- admiral, but he saved his army.
When sive violence, strong convulsive spasms in the duke of Guise was murdered at the the intestines, and a tendency to a paralysis siege of Orleans, he was accused of being of the extremities. It is occasioned by the author of the murder, but he cleared long-continued costiveness ; by an accu- himself by an oath: it was unnecessary, mulation of acrid bile; by cold applied the nobleness of his spirit raising him above either to the extremities, or to the belly suspicion. The civil war recommenced itself ; by a free use of unripe fruits, and with increased fury, in 1567. Coligny and by great irregularity in the mode of living. Condé encountered the constable MontFrom its occurring frequently in Devon- morency at St. Denis. This indecisive shire, and other cider countries, it has been action was followed by the battle of Jarsupposed to arise from an impregnation of nac (in 1569), which was fatal to the Callead received into the stomach; but this vinists. Condé fell, and the whole burden seems to be a mistake, as it is a very prev- of command devolved on Coligny. He alent disease in the West Indies likewise, alone sustained his party, and was beaten where no cider is made, and where there again at Moncontour, without, however, is only a very small quantity of lead in the losing his courage. An advantageous mills employed to extract the juice from peace seemingly put a stop to this contest the sugar-canes.
One, or other of the (1570). Coligny appeared at court, and causes just enumerated may justly be said was, with his adherents, loaded with faalways to give rise to this species of colic. vors. Charles IX gave him 100,000 francs, The dry belly-ache is always attended with as an indemnification for his injuries, tosome degree of danger, which is in pro- 'gether with a seat in the council. From all portion to the violence of the symptoms, sides he was warned not to trust to these and the duration of the disease. Even caresses. As the admiral was leaving the when it does not prove fatal, it is too apt Louvre, Aug. 22, 1572, his right hand and to terminate in palsy, and to leave behind left arm were wounded by a shot from a it contractions of the hands and feet, with window. A certain Maurenel had fired an inability in their muscles to perform at him from a building belonging to the
monastery of St. Germain l'Auxerrois, ac- tion of the palace of St. Mark, and, in later cording to the plan of Catharine de' Med- times, some other palaces were erected ici, probably with the knowledge of the from its fragments. At present, care is duke of Guise. Charles testified the taken not to touch the ruins of the Colideepest sorrow, caused search to be made seum, but it is gradually crumbling away for the assassin, and said to Coligny, “My of itself, and in a few centuries, perhaps, father, you have the wounds, but I the nothing more may be seen of its upper pain.” This he said at a moment when part; the lower part, however, will last the massacre of the Protestants was al- for ever. The enclosures in which the ready prepared. The slaughter began on wild animals were kept are still standing, , the night of St. Bartholomew's, Aug. 24, and remind us of the times when their 1572. (See Bartholomew's Day, Saint.) builders were devoured by the beasts, to The duke of Guise hastened with a nu- gratify the savage taste of the people. merous suite to the house of the admiral. Benedict XIV caused a cross to be erectA certain Behme, or Besme, at their head, ed in the centre of the arena, where, every entered with his drawn sword into the Sunday afternoon, Catholic worship is perchamber of the old man, who, sitting in formed. A hermit resides in these vast an easy chair, said, with a calm mien, ruins. The Coliseum received its name to their leader, “ Young man, my gray from the colossal statue of Nero, which hairs ought to command thy respect; was placed in it. There is in Rome a but do as thou pleasest ; thou canst model of the Coliseum, as it was when shorten my life but a few days;" upon complete, on a pretty large scale. The which the wretch pierced him with sev- traveller, after having viewed this immense eral stabs, and threw the body out of building by day light, should return to the window into the court-yard. The gaze again by the light of the moon, when corpse was given up for three days to the its grandeur is really amazing.–Very fury of the people, and finally was hung recently, an enormous structure, called up by the feet on a gibbet, at Montfaucon. Coliseum, has been erected in Regent's Montmorency, a cousin of Coligny, caused park, London, chiefly by a Mr. Horner. it to be taken down, and had it secretly It is divided into three parts—the panoburied in the chapel of the castle of Chan- rama, or grand view of London, of which tilly. An Italian carried the head to Cath- many points of view are afforded by the arine, who ordered it to be embalmed and ascent of a winding staircase (for people sent to Rome.
who do not want the trouble of walking Colin, also COLLIN; a town in Bohe- up, an ascending room is provided); the mia, with 4400 inhabitants, 11 leagues suites of rooms for subscribers, and the from Prague, famous on account of the conservatory with greenhouses and fairy battle which Frederic the Great lost here, creations. The whole shows great ingeJune 18, 1757, the first which he lost in nuity, applied to objects of comparatively the seven years' war. Colin is also known little importance. for the precious stones found there. COLLATERAL RELATIONS (collaterales);
COLISEUM ; a gigantic ruin in Rome. descendants of brothers or sisters, or the This building, which was 1612 feet in brothers or sisters of the ascending lines. circumference, and contained 80 arcades, In politics, collateral lines have often was the greatest amphitheatre which Ro- played an important part; and great jealman magnificence ever erected. It was ousies have frequently existed between built by Vespasian, and is said to have the collateral lines of a ruling family. been erected in one year by the compul- COLLATION is the comparison of manusory labor of 12,000 Jews and Christians. scripts, in order to ascertain the true readAuthors rank it above the pyramids of ing of an author. This is often a very Egypt, and other wonderful works of the important operation, as manuscripts were ancient world. It is said to have held frequently made by people who did not about 110,000 spectators, of whom above understand what they wrote, or wrote very 90,000 were seated. For the greater part, carelessly. Among the moderns, the Gerit consists of travertino, and has three rows mans have done most in collation; for inof columns, one above the other; the low- stance, Emanuel Bekker, of Berlin, for est is the Doric, the second, the Ionic, and Plato; Niebuhr and Bluhme, for various the highest, of the Corinthian order. Down authors in the libraries of Italy; G. H. to the 13th century, this monument of an- Pertz, in regard to manuscripts relating to cient grandeur remained almost uninjured; the early history of Germany, in the Italafterwards pope Paul II took all the stones ian and German libraries. from it which were used for the construc- COLLÉ, Charles; a dramatic poet, born