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in 1709, at Paris. His early connexion glass. The president of such a college with Haguenier, Gallet and Pannard, (master, warden, rector) forms, with the writers of Anacreontic songs and vaude- other members of the government, the villes, instilled into him the same inclina- teachers and students, a corporation indetion for pleasure, the same gay philosophy. pendent of the other colleges, as well as Dramatic poetry he loved from his earliest of the university. Graduates, maintained youth. Some of his pieces are still found by the endowments of particular foundin the Répertoire du Théâtre Français. He ers, are called fellows (in Latin, socii). paints freely, nay, boldly, the manners of There are other classes also supported in his time. He died in 1783. In 1807 ap- part by the funds of the colleges, and peared his posthumous work, Journal His- called post-masters and scholars, exhibitiontorique, giving an account of interesting ers or stipendiaries and servitors (young events in the history of literature from men who wait on the others at table, and 1748 to 1772, in 3 vols.

have board and instruction gratis during COLLEGE (Latin, collegium); in its pri- four years). Many colleges have also mary sense, a collection or assembly. `In chaplains, choristers, clerks or sextons, a general sense, a collection or society of and a great number of servants. The men invested with certain powers and president and the officers administer the rights, performing certain duties, or en- college according to the statutes of the gaged in some common employment or foundation. The visitor, who is a bishop pursuit. Among the Romans, three were or lord, named by the founder, decides in required to make college (tres faciunt contested cases. The under-graduates collegium).—In a particular sense, college are subjected to a severe discipline. They signifies an assembly for a political or ec- are obliged to go every day to the chapel, clesiastical purpose. There were several and are not allowed to sleep out of the such at Rome, e. g., collegium pontificum, college. Whoever wishes for a degree, augurum, septemvirorum, &c. În modern must be presented to the university, as a times, we have the college of electors, or candidate, by a dean. The fellows at the their deputies, at the diet of Ratisbon; so, universities keep their fellowships for life, also, the college of princes or their depu- unless they marry or inherit estates which ties, the college of cities or deputies of the afford a greater revenue. They are sucimperial cities, the college of cardinals, or cessively promoted, so that their income sacred college. In Russia, this denomi- amounts to from £30 to £150, and more, nation is given to councils of state, courts annually. From them the parishes are or assemblies intrusted with the adminis- supplied, in which case they commonly tration of the government, and called im- lose their fellowships. Oxford has 19 perial colleges. - In Great Britain and the colleges, and 6 halls, or mere boardingU. States, a society of physicians is called places, which have no funds, and consea college. So, also, there are colleges of quently no fellows, where every student surgeons, a college of philosophy, a col- lives at his own expense. (The dininglege of heralds, &c. Colleges of these rooms of the colleges are also called halls.) kinds are usually incorporated or estab- In Cambridge, there are 12 colleges and lished by the supreme power of the state. halls, which are all provided with funds. This name is also given to a society of Most of the colleges in Oxford and Campersons engaged in the pursuits of litera- bridge have, besides their dependent memture, including the officers and students. bers, that is, those who are supported from The English literary colleges are academ- the college funds, independent ones, who ical establishments, endowed with reve- live at their own expense, but are subjectnues, whose fellows, students and tutors ed to most of the college laws: they are live together under a head, in particular called, according to their rank and the buildings, in a monastic way. The build- sum they pay for board, noblemen, fellowings form quadrangles connected with commoners and commoners. The school at gardens and grounds. The more ancient Eton has also a college, consisting of a establishments

, formerly monasteries, de- provost, 7 fellows and 70 boys, who are rive their origin from the 13th and 14th called collegers. The fellows of Eton centuries. The college of Christ-church have a right to marry, and to hold a living (Oxford) was founded in the time of Hen- besides their fellowship. They are also ry VIII, by cardinal Wolsey. The col- considered as dignitaries of the church. leges are distinguished for their old Gothic They and the provost are the directors of architecture, and for collections in differ- the whole, manage the property of the ent branches of science and of art. They college, fill the livings and fellowships are also admired for their fine paintings on connected with the institution, and choose the teachers. Of the collegers in Eton, (q. v.) Louis XVIII established in this the best scholar in the highest class is ad- college a chair of Tartar-Mantchou ana mitted into the first vacant place of King's Chinese languages, and one of the Sancollege at Cambridge as a scholar, and scrit. 21 professors, among whom there then becomes, in three years, a fellow, are always some of the most distinguished i. e., is provided for during life. (See men, lecture in this college, publicly and Ackermann's History of the Colleges of gratuitously. Their lectures embrace, beWinchester, Eton, Westminster, &c., Lon- sides the branches of science generally don, 1817, and his History of Westminster taught in universities, the Turkish, PerAbbey, and of the Colleges of Oxford and sian, Arabic, Chaldaic, Syriac, Chinese, Cambridge, with copperplates.) "Classical Sanscrit and Tartar-Mantchou languages. literature is the chief object of instruction; American Colleges. The course of inhence the general knowledge which, in struction in all the American colleges is England, men of the highest rank and of completed in four years. Certain qualifithe greatest wealth possess of Grecian cations are demanded of candidates for and Roman literature, exhibited in the admission, which vary, according to the frequent quotations from the classics, in regulations of the different colleges. parliament, which, in any other country, These embrace, for admission to the would appear somewhat pedantic. The principal colleges, a good knowledge of lectures on scientific subjects are meager, English grammar, arithmetic, some accompared with those of the continental quaintance with geography, an ability to universities, and afford scarcely the neces- read the easier Latin authors, and some sary hints for private study. The colleges progress in the study of Greek. The are less institutions for education than rules of each college name the authors learned republics with an orderly grada- which the candidate shall have read, and tion of classes, of which one influences in these he is required to undergo a satisthe other, and which are intimately con- factory examination, to entitle him to adnected with the spirit of the nation. (See mission. The greatest number of pupils Universities.) The English universities are admitted at about the age of 14 years. exercise no small influence upon the ec- The course of instruction varies, in many clesiastical and political establishments of respects, in the different colleges, but in that country, and have certainly contrib- its principal features, it is the same in all. uted much to the national disposition for This course embraces a further study of adhering steadily, and sometimes obsti- the Latin and Greek languages, mathenately, to ancient establishments, customs matics, natural philosophy, rhetoric, and and views. The old universities, there- practice in English composition, moral fore, have been thought, by a large num- and intellectual philosophy, and some ber of enlightened and liberal men, not to treatise of natural law and the law of naanswer the demands of the age. To meet tions. In some colleges, provision is made these demands, they have established the for the study of Hebrew and of several London university. (q. v.) This again, on modern languages ; but these are not the same principle on which the Protest among the required studies. Some of the ant reformation led to many salutary re- colleges have additional departments for forms among the Catholics, induced an- instruction in medicine, theology or law. other party (the churchmen) to establish Harvard university embraces all three of in the English metropolis the King's col- these departments, in which students are lege. (q. v.)

prepared for entering on these several In France, there are royal colleges in professions. The number of professors all large towns, corresponding to what are and teachers in the several colleges varies called, in Germany, gymnasia. In the according to the number of pupils and the small towns, the colleges are called col- funds of the college. In Harvard college, lèges communaux. These are private es- there are in the academical departments tablishments, aided by the commune, and eight professors and six tutors and other subject to the surveillance of the public teachers ; in the theological school, two authorities. In Paris, there are five royal professors, in addition to the professors in colleges-collège royal de Louis-le-Grand, the other departments, who assist in the col. roy. de Henry IV, col. roy. de St. Louis, instructions of this school ; in the law col. roy. de Bourbon, col. roy. de Charle- school, two professors, and in the medical magne. Besides these, there is the collège school, four. In Yale college, there are royal de France, which deserves the name five professors and six tutors, besides the of a university. It was instituted in 1529, professors of the theological and medical by Francis 1, at the solicitation of Budæus. schools. In most of the colleges, the officers of instruction are a president, from this increase is undoubtedly laudable, as two to four permanent professors, and it is the same which prompts every man from two to four tutors—the tutors being in the U. States to acquire knowledge ; generally young men who devote two or but it ought not to be forgotten, that colthree years to this service before entering leges differ entirely from common schools. on the practice of the professions to which The latter may be multiplied, and there they are destined. From the following can hardly be too many of them; but for list, it will be seen how many colleges in colleges, the only way to make them truly the U. States were founded during the great is to concentrate in a few, great last ten years; and for others charters stores of talent and erudition. In the unihave already been granted by the legisla- versities of Europe, donation has been tures, as for the Randolph Macon college, added to donation, until many of them at Boydton, in Virginia. The cause of have attained great magnificence.

Table containing the proper Title of each College ; the Place where it is situated; the Time when founded; the Number of Academic Instructers; the Number of Graduates in 1828; the Number of Under-graduates in 1828–9; the Number of Volumes in the College Libraries, and in the Social Libraries belonging to the Students.

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Waterville,

Waterville, Maine. Bowdoin,

Brunswick, Maine. Dartmouth,

Hanover, N. H. Middlebury,

Middlebury, Vt. Vermont University, Burlington, Vt. Williams,

Williamstown, Mass. Amherst,

Amherst, Mass. Harvard University,

Cambridge, Mass. Brown University,

Providence, R. I. Washington,

Hartford, Conn. Yale,

New Haven, Conn. Columbia,

New York city. Union,

Schenectady, N. Y. Hamilton,

Clinton, N. Ý. Geneva,

Geneva, N. Y. Rutgers,

New Brunswick, N.J. Nassau Hall,

Princeton, N.J. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penn. Jefferson,

Canonsburg, Penn. Dickinson,

Carlisle, Penn. Washington,

Washington, Penn.
Western University,

Pittsburg, Penn.
Madison,
Alleghany,

Meadville, Penn.
St. Mary's,

Baltimore, Md. Columbia,

Washington, D. C. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. Hampden Sidney,

Prince Edward Co.Va. William and Mary,

Williamsburg, Va. Washington,

Lexington, Va. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. Charleston,

Charleston, S. C. Univ. Geo., or Franklin Coll. Athens, Géo. University of Nashville, Nashville, Tenn. East Tennessee,

Knoxville, Tenn. Augusta,

Augusta, Ky. Greenville College,

Greenville, Tenn. University of Ohio,

Athens, Ohio. Miami University,

Oxford, Ohio. * Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky. Western Reserve College,

Hudson, Ohio. Bloomington College, Bloomington, Ind.

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For more particulars, see the places where the colleges are established.

The catalogue of the officers and students in the various departments of Transylvania University, for tho year 1830, exhibits a total of 362.-Nat. Gazette.

COLLEGE, ELECTORAL. (See Election.) Collin, Mattheus von, brother of the COLLEGE OF CIVILIANS; commonly call- preceding, in 1808, became professor of ed Doctor's Commons, founded by doctor æsthetics and philosophy at Cracow. In Harvey, dean of the arches, for the pro- 1815, he was appointed tutor of the duke fessors of the civil law residing in the city of Reichstadt (son of Napoleon). He died of London. The judges of the arches, in 1824. As a dramatic poet, he ranks beadmiralty, and prerogative courts, with low his brother. In 1813, he was edi several other eminent civilians, common- of the Literary Gazette of Vienna, and, in ly reside here. To this college belong 34 1818, of the Vienna Annals of Literature proctors, who make themselves parties for (Wiener Jahrbücher der Literatur). their clients, manage their causes, give COLLIN D'HARLEVILLE, Jean François, licenses for marriages, &c. In the com- born 1750, at Maintenon, near Chartres, mon hall of Doctor's Commons are held abandoned the profession of the law, and several courts, under the jurisdiction of enriched the French stage with characterthe civil law, particularly the high court pieces, as L’Inconstant, L'Optimiste, Les of admiralty, the court of delegates, the Châteaux en Espagne, Monsieur de Crac arches court of Canterbury, and the pre- dans son petit Castel

, Les Artistes. In his rogative court of Canterbury, whose terms earliest pieces, he wrote by rule, but subfor sitting are much like those at West- sequently followed the bent of his own minster, every one of them holding sever- genius. In his best piece, the Vieux Célial court-days, most of them fixed and bataire, he returned, however, to the estabknown by preceding holydays, and the lished principles of the French theatre. rest appointed at the judge's pleasure. In general, his comedies are blamed as

COLLEGIAL SYSTEM, in ecclesiastical deficient in humor, and his comic characlaw (see Church). In politics, it is oppos- ters as wanting in individual traits. In ed to bureaucracy (see Bureau), and signi- his allegorical poem, Melpomène et Thalie, fies that system of government in which we find natural ease combined with senthe members of each department of gov- timental philosophy, but often prosaic ernment have all a voice in the decis- verses. He died in 1806. ion of measures, so that each branch of COLLINGWOOD, Cuthbert, first baron; a government is carried on by a collegium, native of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, born in not by a single president. This system 1748, and educated at the same school has both great advantages and disadvan- with lord-chancellor Eldon, under Mr. tages.

Moises. He entered the royal navy in COLLEGIANTS. (See Rheinberghers.) 1761, and, in the action of June 1, 1794, COLLIFLOWER. (See Cabbage.)

was flag-captain on board the Prince, comCollin, Henry Joseph von, born at Vi- manded by admiral Bowyer. In 1797, he enna in 1772, was the son of a physician. commanded the Excellent during the batHe rose, by degrees, to an important place tle of cape St. Vincent, on the 14th of Febin the financial department of the Austri- ruary in that year, and having, in 1799, an government. He sacrificed his feeble been made rear-admiral of the white, was health, and even his favorite inclination promoted, in 1801, to the red. In 1804, for poetry, to the duties of his office, in being then vice-admiral of the blue, he which he labored with an assiduity that assisted in the blockade of Brest harat length put an end to his life. He died bor; but his most distinguished service of a nervous fever in 1811. Having laid was the part he bore in the great victory a wager with a friend to write a tragedy of Trafalgar, in which his gallant manner within six weeks, he produced his first of bringing his ship into action, and the drama, Regulus, the plan of which he had skill and resolution with which he fought arranged before. It was followed by Co- her, excited the personal admiration of riolanus, Polyrena, Balbea, Bianca della Nelson himself, upon whose lamented fall, Porta, Mæon, and Die Horatier und Curia- the command of the fleet devolved upon tier. A selection of his smaller poems him as the senior officer. In this critical appeared in Vienna, after his death, with situation, admiral Collingwood evinced a fragments of his epic poem Rudolf von degree of promptitude and nautical skill

, Habsburg. His works are characterized combined with prudence, which tended by a spirit nourished on the ancient clas- much to the preservation of the captured sics, and by a vigorous simplicity. They vessels, and proved his judgment as a are sometimes, however, rather frigid and commander to be not inferior to his courstiff. They are not very finished produc- age. For his valuable services on this tions. A complete edition appeared in and other occasions, he was promoted to Vienna, 1814, 6 vols.

be vice-admiral of the red, continued in

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his command of the fleet, and elevated to been peculiarly adapted for the higher a barony. His death took place while walks of poetry. His odes, from which cruising off Minorca, in the Ville de Paris, he derives his chief poetical fame, noton the 7th of March, 1810. His remains withstanding the disparaging remarks of were carried to England, and deposited doctor Johnson, are now almost univerin St. Paul's, near those of his friend Nel- sally regarded as the first productions of son. Collingwood appears to have been a the kind in the English language for vigmodel of a naval officer. He was distin- or of conception, boldness and variety of guished for zeal, courage, humanity, cir- personification, and genuine warmth of cumspection, and strictness of discipline. feeling. The originality of Collins conThough hardly any man had more expe- sists, not in his sentiment, but in the rience in the government of sailors, he was highly figurative garb in which he clothes an enemy to flogging. His letters to his abstract ideas, in the felicity of his exchildren are full of excellent sentiments pressions, and in his skill in embodying and judicious advice. Every young naval ideal creations. His chief defect is an officer should be familiar with the Public occasional mysticism. His temperament and Private Correspondence of the Vice- was, in the strictest meaning of the word, Admiral Collingwood, with Memoirs of poetical; and had he existed under haphis Life (8vo., 3d edition, London, 1828). pier circumstances, and enjoyed the un

COLLINS, William, a distinguished poet, disturbed exercise of his faculties, he was born in 1720 or 1721, at Chichester, would probably have surpassed most, if where his father was a hatter. He was not all, of his contemporaries, during the educated at Winchester school and at very prosaic period which immediately Oxford. While at college, he wrote his followed the death of Pope. Oriental Eclogues, which were print- COLLOREDO; one of the most illustrious ed in 1742. Their success was mod- families in Austria, originally from Friuli. erate, and, in 1744, the author went to The members of one branch, Colloredo London as a literary adventurer. In 1746, Mansfeld, have been since 1763 princes of he

gave his Odes, Descriptive and Alle- the empire. To the family of Colloredo gorical, to the public; but the sale did not belong, 1. Fabricius, born 1576, who was pay for the printing, and the indignant sent as ambassador by Cosmo II, of Medand sensitive poet burnt all the unsold ici, to the emperor Rodolph II; 2. Rocopieš. Yet among these odes were many dolph, count Waldsee, field-marshal of pieces which at present rank with the the imperial armies, distinguished in the finest lyrics in the language. Pecuniary thirty years' war, particularly at Lützen, distress followed this disappointment; and, and, in 1648, by the defence of Prague ; aided by the advance of a few guineas 3. Jerome, born 1775, master-general of from the booksellers for an intended the ordnance, commanded in 1813 the translation of the Poetics of Aristotle, he first division of the army at Culm (q. v.), was enabled to escape into the country, died in 1822, while commander-in-chief whence he found means to pay a visit to in Bohemia. his uncle, colonel Martin, then with the COLLOT D'HERBOIS, Jean Marie, an British army in Germany. The death of actor without talents, and a member of this relation, who bequeathed him a lega- the infamous municipality of Paris, Aug: cy of £2006, raised him to comparative 10 and Sept. 2, 1792, and afterwards of affluence; and he immediately returned the national convention, was banished, the booksellers their advance, being re- after the fall of Robespierre, to Cayenne, duced, by nervous debility, to an utter in- where he died in 1796. He proposed in capability of any species of mental exer- the first session of the national convention tion. Originally too laxly strung, disap- to abolish royalty, and to declare the govpointment, distress and irregularity had ernment a republic. In Lyons, he introcompletely disarranged his nervous sys- duced the shooting en masse, when the tem. Dreadful depression of spirits fol- guillotines, though, according to the techlowed, for which he had no better remedy nical expression, en permanence, were found than the fatal one of the bottle. Although no longer sufficient. he did not suffer from absolute alienation COLMAN, George; a dramatic writer and of mind, it was thought best to confine elegant scholar of the last century ; born him in a lunatic asylum; but, finally, he at Florence, in 1733; his father being at was consigned to the care of a sister, in that time British envoy to the grand duke's whose arms he terminated his brief and court. From Westminster school he was melancholy career, in 1756. Collins, by removed, at the usual age, to Christ church, his taste and attainments, appears to have Oxford, where he was graduated, as mas

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