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ter of arts, in 1758, having previously, in conjunction with his friend Bonnel Thornton, published a series of essays after the manner of the Spectator, under the title of The Connoisseur. This lively work, which came out weekly, was continued from Jan. 1, 1754, till towards the close of the year 1756, and tended much to establish his reputation, and procure him the friendship of most of the acknowledged wits of the day. At the desire of his relation, lord Bath, he turned his thoughts to the law, entered himself of Lincoln's Inn, and even went so far as to be called to the bar; but his genius soon turned to the more congenial study of the belleslettres. His poetical vein had some time previously displayed itself in various oc casional pieces; but his first dramatic attempt was made in the year 1760, when his Polly Honeycombe was brought out, with great temporary success, at Drury lane. The year following, he produced the well-known comedy of the Jealous Wife, which not only excited great attention at the time, but, as well as his Clandestine Marriage, has remained an established favorite ever since. The English Merchant, the Oxonian in Town, and a long list of other pieces of less note, but not deficient in merit, followed in succession, in the composition of some of which he was assisted by his friend Garrick. In 1764, his pecuniary resources were much increased by a handsome annuity bequeathed him by lord Bath; and an addition to his fortune, which he acquired three years after, by the decease of general Pulteney, enabled him, the following summer, to purchase Mr. Beard's share in Covent-garden theatre. Owing, however, to variances with his partners in the concern, he was induced to dispose of his portion of the property almost as soon as he had acquired it; and to purchase, in lieu of it, the little theatre in the Haymarket, which he bought of Foote for an annuity, and continued in the personal superintendence of it till the year 1790, when a paralytic attack not only deprived him of the use of one side, but entirely plunged his faculties into a hopeless state of derangement. He nevertheless lingered on, in a lunatic asylum at Paddington, till 1794, in which year his decease took place. Besides the writings already enumerated, and a large variety of others of the same class, his classical attainments, and the purity of his taste, are evinced by his elegant and spirited translation of Horace's Art of Poetry, published in 1783, and of the Comedies of Terence; to the

former of which is prefixed an ingenious Commentary, which places his acumen as a critic in a very respectable point of view.

COLOGNE (in German, Köln); formerly a free city of the empire, and seat of the electoral chapter of Cologne. The archbishop of Cologne was formerly a sovereign prince, and one of the most important members of the German empire. He resided at Bonn. Cologne is now the capital of the Prussian district Cologne, in the province of Cleves-Berg, the seat of an archbishop, a high-president, the government, and the court of appeal for the Rhenish provinces, a tribunal of the first instance, and many public institutions. It is one of the largest and oldest German cities on the left bank of the Rhine. It is a league in length, in the form of a semicircle, and was built by Agrippina, the wife of the emperor Claudius. The streets are narrow, dirty and lonely. With the decline of the Hanseatic league, to which it belonged, this city lost its riches, and, under the French government, its opulent clergy, and beautiful works of art. The great ware-houses are still standing as monuments of the past, but only a small number of the new buildings are distinguished for beauty. The handsomest public places are, the new market with its lime-trees, the hay market, and the old market. Cologne has 20 churches, 5 monasteries, 7060 houses, and upwards of 54,000 inhabitants, besides the garrison. One of the noblest works of Gothic architecture is the unfinished cathedral, in the form of a cross, 400 feet long, and 180 wide. It was in the course of erection from the year 1248 until the reformation. Only the choir, 200 feet high, with the chapel around it, is completed. The nave is supported by 100 columns, of which the middle ones are 40 feet in circumference; but it has only two thirds of its intended height, and is covered with a wooden roof. Each of the towers was designed to be 500 feet high; 250 feet of one is finished, and only 21 of the other. Behind the high altar is the chapel of the Magi, built of marble, in the Ionic style. In a magnificent box are deposited a few relics. On the left side of the choir is the golden chamber, with the treasury of the cathedral; but it no longer enjoys its ancient riches. Respecting the original plan of the church, which has been discovered, see George Müller's Beschreibung (Description), with 9 engravings, large folio, and 26 pages of text (1818), and Boisserée's work, Ueber den Dom zu Köln (On the

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Cathedral of Cologne), with engravings merce. The old Chronicle of Cologne,
(1824). The church of St. Gereon has written in low German, is a highly in-
à lofty dome and three galleries. The teresting work. The eau de Cologne is
church of St. Cunibert has an altar like famous throughout Europe and Amer-
the famous altar of St. Peter's church in ica, though only a small part of what
Rome. The church of St. Peter has an is sold under this name is genuine.
admirable painting, by Rubens, of the One of the best ways of distinguishing
martyrdom of the apostle Peter. In the the genuine from the spurious is, to rub
religious establishment of St. Ursula, for a few drops on the hand, when the good
noble ladies, the visitor sees, he is assured, eau de Cologne must neither smell of any
the relics of the 11,000 virgins. These spirituous liquor, nor of musk, nor any for-
are arranged on shelves, and make a for- eign substance, but only of the ethereal odor
midable appearance. The town-house in proper to the water.
Cologne has a splendid portico, adorned COLOMBIA, the republic of, in South
with two rows of marble columns. The America, is comprised between lat. 12°
Jesuits' library, though it has been de- 30 N., and 6° s.; and between lon. 58°
prived of many works, still contains 60,000 and 82° W.; extending over a surface of
volumes. Many paintings in the monas- 1,100,000 square miles. It is bounded on
teries and churches were carried off or the north by the Caribbean sea, east by
destroyed by the French. (See Boisserée.) Guiana and Brazil, south by Brazil and
The city, however, still contains some Peru, and west by the Pacific ocean; on
beautiful collections of works of art. It is the north-west, it borders on the republic
favorably situated for trade, forming an of Central America. The face of the
intermediate point between Germany and country is remarkable: the western part
Holland, and its commerce, particularly in contains the loftiest ridges of the Andes
Rhenish wine, or hock, is very consider- (q. v.), while the eastern stretches out into
able. The trade in cloth, linen, lace, cot- immense plains, intersected by gigantic
ton and silk, tobacco and earthen ware is rivers. Towards the southern part (Quito)
still important; likewise, the distillation are found the celebrated summits of
of Cologne water, or eau de Cologne, of Chimborazo, Antisana, Pichincha, Coto-
which several million bottles are exported paxi, Colocache, &c. In this Thibet of
every year. There are 15 manufactories the new world, in the valleys of the An-
of it, and the traffic has been constantly des, raised 10,000 feet above the surface
increasing since the seven years' war. of the ocean, the population of that part
The bottles are made in Stollberg, three of the country is concentrated. Farther
leagues from Aix. As a great city, where north, the height of the mountains is less,
magazines can be conveniently establish- and in New Grenada, the Cordillera is
ed, and military provisions obtained, as a divided into three parallel chains, of which
convenient place for crossing the Rhine, only the two lateral ones are of great ele-
as an intermediate point between Wesel vation. Besides the Andes, the principal
and Coblentz, as a point of meeting of chain is that of Caracas, running along
many roads, and as constituting a part of the north coast, with summits of from
the basis (q. v.), from which must proceed 12,000 to 14,000 feet high. The principal
the operations of the German armies lake is lake Maracaibo in Venezuela; the
against the Netherlands and France, Co- imaginary lake Parima has disappeared
logne is of great military importance. The from the maps. The most important
fortifications were restored in 1815. They rivers of Colombia are the Magdalena, the
are strengthened by a chain of casemated Amazon (q. v.), and the Orinoco (q. v.).
towers, which contain several stories, and The Amazon receives all the streams on
each a few cannon. These are placed at the eastern declivity of the Andes, south
some distance from the city, as separate of lat. 3° N. North of that point, they flow
and detached works. Cologne has thus into the Orinoco. The immense plains in
become a strong place, though not, indeed, the east, stretching from Merida to Guiana,
so important a fortress as Coblentz. The and from the chain of the Caracas to the
small city of Deutz, on the right bank of Amazon, are partly inundated and fertil-
the Rhine, opposite Cologne, is fortified, ized by the waters of the Orinoco, and
and thus completes the double tête-de-pont. partly composed of bare deserts called
In former times, Cologne was a very llanos. (q. v.) The climate, in a country
powerful city, and its university famous. of such extent, and of so remarkable a
The merchants of Cologne, who settled diversity of elevation, must differ exceed-
in London under Elizabeth's reign, gave ingly. In Venezuela, the year is com-
a great impulse to the English com- pletely divided by the rainy and the dry

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season, the former commencing in No- small river which falls into the Pacific, vember, and ending in April. New Gre- that a small canal has actually been dug nada comprehends a remarkable variety between them, by means of which, when of climate : temperate, even cold and frosty, the rains are abundant, canoes loaded with but healthy on the elevated table lands, cacao pass from sea to sea. By means of the air is burning and pestilential on the the Orinoco and its tributary streams, all sea-shore, and in some of the deep valleys the country south of the chain of Veneof the interior. At Carthagena and Guay- zuela enjoys an easy communication with aquil, the yellow fever is endemic. (See the sea. This river forms a natural chanNew Grenada, Venezuela and Quito.) nel for the conveyance to the ocean of the Among the productions of the vegetable cattle and produce raised on the banks kingdom we mention cacao, Peruvian of the Apure, and its wide-spreading bark, coffee and indigo, sugar, cotton and branches. By means of the Meta, also, tobacco. Gold, platina, silver, cinnabar, are a navigable communication is opened alamong the mineral riches of the republic. most to the very foot of the Andes. The The principal articles of export are cacao, flour, and other productions of an extenindigo, tobacco, coffee, hides and cattle. sive district near Bogotá, are conveyed to The imports are manufactured goods of market by the Orinoco, in preference to almost every description. The contraband the Magdalena. The republic is compostrade has been carried on to such an extent ed of the three colonial governments of by the foreign colonies in the neighbor- Quito, New Grenada and Venezuela, and, hood, that it is impossible, from the cus- by the law of June 23, 1824, is subdivided tom-house returns, to form any estimate into twelve departments, namely, of the real value of the imports or exports.

1. The Isthmus,

7. Cundinamarca, The Dutch in Curaçoa have been engaged

2. Magdalena, 8. Boyaca, in this trade for nearly two centuries, and

3. Zulia,

9. Apure, the English have recently prosecuted it

4. Venezuela, 10. The Equator, very extensively from Trinidad, Jamaica

5. Orinoco, 11. Guayaquil, and Guiana ; and such are the facilities

6. Cauca,

12. Asuay. afforded by the vicinity of these colonies, the extent of coast, and the navigation of These are composed of 49 provinces, the Orinoco, that it will be very difficult which are again subdivided into 218 ca to suppress it. In 1825, the exports from tons, and each canton into municipalities. La Guayra and Porto Cabello amounted The population may be estimated at about to $1,885,257, of which more than two 2,711,000. It is composed of whites, Inthirds were to the United States; the im- dians, mestizoes, Negroes and mulattoes ; ports, during the same period, amounted to one half being of the mixed races, one $3,428,042. M. Mollien (Voyage dans la quarter creoles, one eighth Indians, and Rép. de Colombia, Paris, 1823) estimates the the remainder, Negroes and Europeans. total amount of exports at $8,000,000, and Travellers have observed that beauty, vigthe imports at $10,000,000. The ports of or and courage are more common in the La Guayra, Rio del Hacha, Santa Mar- mixed races. The creoles or whites, as tha, Carthagena, Chagres, Porto Cabello, they are called, have in general some Panama and Guayaquil are the most fre- Indian or black blood in their veins. quented by foreigners. Various plans Those on the sea-coast have the Spanish have been proposed for connecting the features, but little beard; those of the two oceans by canals. The small river more elevated regions resemble the inhabChagre, which falls into the Caribbean itants of the north of Europe, but they sea a little west of Porto Bello, is, naviga- commonly have the black, stiff hair of the ble to Cruces, five leagues from Panama. Indians. The goitre is very common in The elevation of the country between some parts of Colombia; the pure Indians Cruces and Panama has never been accu- and Negroes, however, are not afflicted rately ascertained, but, it is supposed, with it. The Negroes are found princiwould interpose no obstacle to a canal for pally in the maritime parts of the country. boats, though it might be wholly impossi- The new government has decreed that ble to construct one for large vessels. A from the year 1860 all slavery shall cease branch of the Rio Atrato, which falls into in the republic. The principal towns bethe gulf of Darien, approaches within 5 sides those already mentioned are, Bogotá or 6 leagues of the Pacific ocean, and the (the capital), Caracas, St. Thomas, Quito, intervening country is quite level, and Popayan, Cuenca, Riobambo, Otobalo

, proper for a canal. Another branch of Merida, Cumana, Maracaibo, Barcelona, the Rio Atrato approaches so near to a Guanare and Truxillo. All the Indians

can

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have been declared free since the revolu- nada. In 1722, it was again separated, and tion. Many of the Indian tribes have remained so until it became a part of Cobeen brought into subjection to the whites, lombia. The revolution commenced Aug. and have become partially civilized by the 10, 1809, when the president, count Ruiz labors of the Catholic missionaries. They de Castilla, was deposed, and a junta soare allowed to live in villages by them- berana appointed to administer the governselves, and to be governed by magistrates ment. He was reinstated the November of their own choice. The principal In- following, and a second revolution took dians remaining unsubdued are the Coa- place in Sept.

, 1810. But, in a few months hiros, who are about 30,000 in number, afterwards, the Spaniards, under Montes, and occupy a tract along the coast to the regained Quito, and continued to hold the west of the gulf of Maracaibo. They often presidency until May, 1822, when the vicmake inroads upon the neighboring settle- tory of Pichincha, gained by general Suments. The Guaraunos, who inhabit the cre, put an end to their power. islands formed by the mouths of the Ori- New Grenada. The coasts of New noco, are about 8000 in number. The Grenada, which border on the Caribbean Caribs occupy the coast of Spanish Gui- sea, were first visited by Columbus, during ana, between the mouths of the Essequi- his fourth voyage. Ojeda and Amerigo bo and the Orinoco. Besides these tribes, Vespucci followed Columbus in exploring all the country on the Orinoco above the parts of the coast, and Vespucci gave the cataracts of Atures, and indeed all the im- first regular description of the people who mense tract between the sources of the inhabited its shores. In the year 1508, Orinoco and those of the Amazon, are Ojeda and Nicuessa obtained extensive inhabited by nations of savages, who have grants in this and the adjoining country. hitherto resisted all the efforts of the Span- Ojeda had the country from cape de la iards to civilize or subdue them. The Vela to the gulf of Darien, which was to Catholic religion has been declared the be styled New Andalusia; and Nicuessa established religion of the state; but all was appointed to govern from the gulf others are tolerated.' The establishment of Darien to cape Gracias a Dios; the is composed of 2 archbishops and 10 territory included within these points to be bishops: the clergy are rich and powerful; named Golden Castile. The province of some of them distinguished themselves in Terra Firma, including both the grants the revolution by their democratic princi- of Nicuessa and Ojeda, was given, by a ples. Colombia has four universities—at subsequent charter, in 1514, to Pedro Quito, Bogotá, Caracas and Merida; that Arias de Avila. Under the orders of Aviof Bogotá is merely a theological semi- la, the western coast of Panama, Veragua nary; the three others are intended for and Darien was explored as far north as students in the other branches. Provision cape Blanco, and the town of Panama has also been made for the establishment was founded. In 1536, Sebastian de Beof primary schools, high schools and pro- nalcazar, one of the officers who accomvincial colleges; but the unsettled state of panied Pizarro in the expedition to Peru, the country allows but little to be effected. effected the conquest and colonization of

Historical Sketch. The republic of Co- the southern internal provinces of New lombia is of very recent origin, although Grenada; whilst Gonzalo Ximenes de the history of the three states, by the union Quesada, who had been sent by Lugo, the of which it has been formed, is coëval admiral of the Canaries, overran the northwith the era of Columbus. Previously to ern distriots from Santa Martha. They the period of the revolution, they were met with considerable opposition from the known by the names of the vice-royalty of natives, but finally succeeded in reducing New Grenada, the captain-generalship of the country, and the whole was formed Caracas, and the presidency of Quito. of into one government, and put under a captheir annals prior to the union, a brief tain-general, appointed in 1547; to check sketch will here be given.

whose power the royal audience was Quito. The provinces of Quito, having established, of which he was, however, formed a component part of the Peruvian made president. In the year 1718, New empire at the time of the Spanish con- Grenada was formed into a vice-royalty. quest, continued to depend directly on This form of government continued until the government of Peru until Sept. 1564, 1724, when the captain-generalship was when they were erected into a separate restored ; but, in 1740, the vice-royalty presidency. In 1717, the government was re-established.

Under this system, was suppressed, and the country incor- the evils of which were of a very grievous porated into the vice-royalty of New Gre- nature, the inhabitants of New Grenada

28

VOL. III.

continued until the invasion of Spain by independence. In 1810, however, Spain the French. The desire of independence being overrun by the French troops, the had long been prevalent; but it was not opportunity was seized by the principal until 1810, that it began to be publicly inhabitants to establish a freer form of avowed. The juntas then chosen were government. For this purpose, a junta composed of persons generally favorable suprema, or congress, was convened in to independence. A congress from the Caracas, consisting of deputies from all different provinces or departments of the the provinces composing the former capvice-royalty soon afterwards assembled, tain-generalship, with the exception of and, in 1811, a formal declaration of inde- Maracaibo. At first, they published their pendence was made. The country has, acts in the name of Ferdinand VII; but since that period, passed through many the captain-general and the members of vicissitudes of fortune. The cause of the audiencia were deposed and imprisfreedom and that of the royalists have oned, and the new government received been alternately triumphant, and many the title of the confederation of Venezuela. frightful scenes of rapine and bloodshed The most violent and impolitic measures have occurred. In 1816, a decisive action were now adopted by the regency and was fought between the independents and cortes of Spain towards the people of this a Spanish army under Morillo, which district. The congress, finding the voice ended in the total defeat of the former, of the people decided in favor of indeand the dispersion of the congress. After pendence, issued a proclamation, on the remaining under the dominion of the roy- 5th of July, 1811, formally declaring it. alists for three years, Grenada was again A liberal constitution was established, and emancipated by the army of Bolivar, who affairs wore a favorable aspect for the cause entered Santa Fé in Aug., 1819. In Dec., of freedom, until the fatal earthquake of 1819, a union was effected with Venezuela 1812, which, operating on the superstition into one republic.

of the people, led to a great change in Caracas, or Venezuela. The coast of the public opinion. Monteverde, a royalist this country was originally discovered by general, taking advantage of the situation Columbus, in 1498, during his third of affairs, marched against Caracas, and, voyage. Several attempts being made to after defeating general Miranda, compelled colonize, the Spanish government came the whole province to submit. In 1813, to the determination of settling the coun- however, Venezuela was again emancitry under its own direction. These expe- pated by Bolivar, who was sent with an ditions were managed by priests, and gen- army by the confederation of Grenada. erally ill conducted; and it was found In 1814, he was, in his turn, defeated by necessary to subdue the inhabitants by Boves, and compelled to evacuate Caracas. force. When this was partially effected, In 1816, he again returned with a respectand the Spanish settlers were placed in able body of troops, and was again desome security, the proprietorship was sold, feated. Undismayed by reverses, he by Charles V, to the Weltsers, a German landed again, in December of the same mercantile company. Under their man- year, convened a general congress, and agement, the Spaniards and the natives defeated the royalists in March, 1817, with suffered the most grievous tyranny. The

In the month following, abuses of their administration becoming however, Barcelona was taken by the at last intolerable, they were dispossessed, Spanish troops. The contest was mainin 1550, and a supreme governor, with tained for some time afterwards with vathe title of captain-general, was appointed. rious success. Bolivar was invested by From this period until the year 1806, Ca- the congress with ample powers, the situaracas remained in quiet subjection to the tion of the republic requiring the energy mother country. In 1806, à gallant but of a dictator. On the 17th of Dec., 1819, unfortunate attempt was made to liberate a union between the republics of Grenada her from the yoke. General Miranda, a and Venezuela was solemnly decreed, in native of Caracas, formed for this purpose conformity with the report of a select an expedition partly at St. Domingo and committee of deputies from each state. partly at New York. A landing was ef- This confederation received the title of the fected on the coast, but the force proved Republic of Colombia. In conformity wholly inadequate to the designed object. with the fundamental law, the installation Many were taken prisoners by the Span- of the general congress of Colombia took ish authorities, and several suffered death. place on the 6th of May, 1821, in the city The defeat was decisive, and gave an ef- of Rosario of Cucuta. The first subject fectual blow, for the time, to the project of considered by this body was the constitu

great loss.

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