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tion; and it was finally determined that dience to the summons, placed himself at the two states should form one nation, on the head of the troops, and became the the central system, under a popular repre- nucleus of a strong party in ancient Venesentative government, divided into legisla- zuela, which, dissatisfied with the central tive, executive and judicial. Bolivar, the system, demanded a reform of the govpresident, was, in the mean time, actively ernment, some desiring that Venezuela engaged in bringing the war to a close. should again be separate from New GreOn the 24th of June, 1821, was fought the nada, others wishing for a federal constitumemorable battle of Carabobo, in which tion, like that of the U. States. In consethe royalist army was totally defeated, quence of this insurrection, the northwith the loss of their artillery, baggage, eastern departments of the republic reand upwards of 6000 men. In the fall of mained virtually independent of the rest, 1822, Bolivar completed, by the capture until Jan., 1827, when Bolivar returned to of Panama, the overthrow of Spanish Colombia, and succeeded in restoring the power in this quarter; the only remaining national authority, by promising to assemmemorial of which was Porto Cabello, ble a convention for the reform of the which held out until Dec. 1823. For, by constitution. Meanwhile, various disorthe successes of the troops sent against ders broke out in other parts of the repubQuito, the Spaniards had been compelled lic, the departments formed out of New to surrender their authority in the south. Grenada alone continuing faithful to the Bolivar defeated Murgeon at Curiaco, in constitution. Congress assembled in May, April, 1822, and, in May, Sucre gained the and, in June, passed a decree of general splendid victory of Pichincha, immediately amnesty, and, in August, another decree after which the Spanish authorities capitu- for convoking a grand convention at Ocalated. A long course of victory having ría, for amending the constitution. Bolithus delivered Colombia from the Span- var and Santander, having been reëlected iards, Bolivar marched into Peru, in 1824, president and vice-president, were duly at the head of an army of 10,000 men, to qualified, the latter in May, and the former effect the liberation of that country. Mean- in Sept., 1827, and affairs remained tranwhile, the acknowledgment of the inde- quil until the convention assembled at pendence of Colombia, by the U. States, Ocaña, in March, 1828. The violence of in 1823, and, in successive years since parties, and the disturbed state of the then, by Great Britain and the other gov- country, prevented the convention from ernments of Europe, except Spain, gave effecting any thing, and it soon separated. new activity to her commercial relations. These events finally resulted in Bolivar's The government was administered, in the assuming absolute authority, and, in effect, absence of Bolivar, by the vice-president, abolishing the constitution of the republic. general Francisco de Paula Santander; Whether he took the step solely in order and from the adoption of the constitution to terminate the public disorders, or until 1826, the legislative and executive whether he himself, as others allege, authorities, relieved from anxiety with created them by his intrigues, in order to respect to Spain, strenuously exerted afford a plausible pretext for his usurpathemselves in various domestic improve- tion, it remains for time to show. What ments. The finances were placed on a appears on the face of things is, that the more solid footing; public education was various municipalities drew up addresses carefully fostered; and institutions, adapt- to him, in which he was requested and ined to the new order of things, every where vited to assume the supreme command.
To all outward appearance, the The earliest of these was the act of the republic was rapidly acquiring consistency municipality of Bogotá, dated June 13, and stability, when the insurrection of 1828; and others followed in quick sucPaez, in Venezuela, produced a fatal cession from every part of the country. change. Paez, being one of the most dis- Bolivar was not slow in obeying the call, tinguished officers of the revolution, re- and organized the new government by ceived the command of the department appointing a council of ministers and a of Venezuela. In the execution of a law council of state for its administration, with for enrolling the militia in the city of Ca- D. Jose M. de Castillo for president of each racas, he gave so much offence to the in- council. This usurpation roused the hoshabitants by his arbitrary conduct, that tility of the republican party, some of they obtained an impeachment against whom, unfortunately, conspired to assassihim before the senate. Being notified of nate Bolivar. The attempt was made this, in April, 1826, and summoned to ap- Sept. 25, 1828, but failed, owing to the pear and take his trial, he refused obe- bravery of the officers and attendants about his person, among whom his aid, maining 280,000 are called free. In some colonel Furguson, was killed. Generals of the states, the free black population is Padilla and Santander were accused of oppressed by legal disabilities, and, in all, participating in the plot, and condemned is virtually excluded from the enjoyment to death by a special tribunal. Padilla of some of the most important civil priviwas executed under his sentence; but the leges, by the prejudices of the European punishment of Santander was commuted race. A caste is thus formed in the state, for banishment. The immediate agents of individuals below the salutary influence in the attempt were apprehended, and suf- of public opinion, cut off from all hope of fered the punishment of death. This did improving their condition, degraded, ignot prevent general Ovando from raising norant and vicious themselves, and leavthe standard of opposition in Popayan, and ing the same legacy of humiliation and gathering so large a force as to demand shame to their children. A common dethe immediate presence of Bolivar to re- scent and color unite them, on the other sist it. At the same time, a declaration hand, with the slaves, and render them of war was issued against Peru, in conse- the fit agents for fomenting insurrections quence of difficulties between the two among them. On this account, they have countries, arising out of the attempt of become objects of suspicion and alarm in Bolivar to make himself perpetual presi- the slave-holding states; and the owners dent of Peru. (q. v.) These events leave of slaves consider it impolitic and dangerColombia in a disturbed condition, the ous to emancipate their Negroes, since results of which it is idle to attempt to they contribute to increase the strength of predict. Peace was made between the a dangerous class, without deriving any two countries in 1829. In October of the important benefits themselves from the same year, general Cordova began an change. This state of things gave rise to the insurrection in Antioquia, which seems to colonization society. So early as the year be of little consequence. The troubles in 1777, the plan was proposed by Jefferson, Venezuela appear to be much more im- in the legislature of Virginia, of emanciportant. A strong wish to separate from pating all the slaves born after that period, Colombia seems to exist there. General educating them, the males to the age of Paez is much beloved in Venezuela. 21, the females to that of 18, and estabWhether the society called amigos del lishing colonies of them in some suitable pais, established by him in Caracas, has place. The plan of colonization has been any further object than the ostensible one subsequently approved by the legislatures of promoting commerce, science and the of nine states; but it was first carried into arts, time must show. Colombia seems, execution by individuals. The society at the time when we write, to be on the was formed in 1816. “ Its object is, to point of experiencing some important promote and execute a plan for colonizchange in her political condition. If any ing (with their consent) the free people of such should occur before this volume is color residing in our country, either in completed, it will be noticed at the Africa or such other place as congress end of the volume. (See the articles shall deem expedient;" to prepare the South America, New Grenada, Quito, Vene- way for the interference of the governzuela, Bolivar, &c.) The following works ment, by proving that a colony can be may be consulted relative to Colombia: established and maintained without the Humboldt's Tableaux de la Nature ; Per- opposition of the natives; that the colosonal Narrative of the same; Mollien's nists can be transported at a moderate exTravels in Colombia, Paris, 1823 (trans- pense; that an important commerce might lated into English, 1825); Colombia, 2 vols., be thus established, and the slave-trade in 8vo., London, 1822.
consequence discouraged. The practicaColon. (See Punctuation.)
bility of the plan being proved, it was COLONEL; the commander of a regi- intended to extend it to the entire remoment, whether of horse, foot or artillery: val of the whole black population. In There were times when, in some armies of 1817, two agents were sent by the society the European continent, regiments were to examine the western coast of Africa commanded by generals ; but this is no for a suitable spot for the colony. They longer the case.
selected a position in the Sherbro, and, in COLONIAL ARTICLES. (See Commerce.) February, 1820, the first vessel was de
COLONIZATION Society, American. spatched with 88 colonists. They were One sixth part of the population of the conducted by an agent of the society, and U. States consists of blacks. Of these, accompanied by two agents of the gov1,852,126 are slaves (see Slavery); the re
The expedition arrived on the
low coasts in the rainy season; the three the support and restoration of recaptured agents, and a great number of the colo- Negroes. May 15, 1820, the slave-trade nists, were carried off by the fever of the was declared to be piracy, and punishable climate, and it became necessary to aban- with death. The society has succeeded don the colony. In 1821, another vessel in overcoming the fears and prejudices of was sent out, with 28 colonists, and cape its former opponents; some of the most Mesurado was purchased as a more favor- eminent statesmen in the slave-holding able position. It has a fine harbor, the states have become earnestly engaged in climate is pleasant, and the soil is fertile, the cause; the legislatures of several of producing sugar-cane, indigo and cotton the same states have contributed funds without cultivation. In 1823, the emi- for its assistance; and, in 1828, the numgrants amounted to 150, of whom several ber of auxiliary societies amounted to 96. were recaptured Africans, taken from ves- The experiment has convinced the blacks sels seized for a violation of the laws of themselves of the great benefits they must the U. States. In 1828, the colony con- derive from their colonization, and the tained more than 1200 inhabitants. It has number of applicants for transportation received the name of Liberia, and the has been constantly increasing... The town at the cape is called Monrovia, in emancipation of slaves is also facilitated, honor of the ex-president Monroe. The now that provision is made for them. In possessions of the society extend 150 miles 1828, 100 were manumitted, and, in 1829, along the coast, and a considerable dis- 200 were offered to the society, on conditance into the interior. Eight stations or tion that they should be sent to Liberia. settlements have been established, at the Information concerning the history and request of the native chiefs, who construct objects of the society may be found in its the necessary buildings for the accommo- 12 Annual Reports (Washington, 1818dation of the colonists at their own ex- 1829), in the African Repository (Washpense. The colonists employ several hun- ington), in the North American Review, dred native laborers; and they are, in gen- January, 1824, and January, 1825 (Boseral, in very comfortable circumstances. ton), and in the American Quarterly ReSeveral schools have been established, view, No. 8, December, 1828. and the moral and religious character of COLONNA, Vittoria ; the most renowned the inhabitants is excellent. By the con- poetess of Italy, daughter of Fabrizio Costitution of Liberia, all persons born in lonna, high-constable of Naples; born in the colony, or residing there, shall be 1490, at Marino, a fief belonging to the free, and enjoy all the privileges of the family. At the age of four years, she was citizens of the U. States; the agent destined to be the wife of Fem. Franc. of the society possesses the sovereign d'Avalos, marquis of Pescara, a boy of the power; the judiciary consists of the agent same age. The rare excellences, both of and two justices appointed by him; the body and mind, with which nature and a other officers are chosen by the colonists. most careful education had adorned her, The common law is adopted, with the made her an object of universal admiramodifications already introduced in the tion, so that even princes sued for her 'U. States, and others required by the pe- hand. But, faithful to her vow, she gave culiar situation of the colony. The party her hand to the companion of her youth, in any action at law is entitled to trial by who had become one of the niost distinjury. The commerce of the place is in- guished inen of his age. They lived in creasing. Rice, palm-oil, wax, and some the happiest union. When her husband coffee, are exported. The supreme con- fell, in the battle of Pavia (1525), Vittoria trol of the government is to remain in the sought consolation in solitude and in pohands of the society until the settlers are etry. All her poems were devoted to the in a condition to govern themselves.- memory of her
husband. She lived seven While the benevolent exertions of the su- years, by turns at Naples and at Ischia, ciety have been thus successful abroad, its and afterwards retired into a monastery, influence on the public sentiment at home first at Orvieto, and finally at Viterbo. has been very salutary. The congress of She afterwards abandoned the monastic the U. States had already abolished the life, and made Rome her abode, where slave-trade, in 1808, as soon as the restric- she died in 1547. Her Rime are not infetions imposed by the constitution were rior to the best imitations of Petrarch. removed. Through the representations The finest are her Rime Spirituali (Venof the colonization society, the act of ice, 1548, 4to.), which display deep feeling March 3, 1819, was passed, authorizing and pure piety. A collection of all her the president to make arrangements for poems appeared in 1760, at Bergamo.
Colony. Before America and the way coasts of the continent and the islands, as by sea to the East Indies were discovered, commercial posts, among which, on the the states of Europe, in the middle ages, coast of Africa, Mozambique, Sofala and with the exception of the Genoese and of Melinda; in the Persian gulf, Ormus and the Venetians, had no foreign colonies. Mascat; on the Malabar coast, besides Goa, The Mediterranean afforded a passage to Diu and Daman; on the Coromandel coast, an exte
sive commerce, which was chiefly Negapatam and Meliapoor (St. Thomcarried on by the small Italian states, par- as), and Malacca on the peninsula of ticularly Venice and Genoa, and the sea- the same name, were the most important. ports of Catalonia. The commerce be- After the year 1511, colonies were estabtween India and the continents of Eu- lished also upon the Spice islands; after rope and Asia was carried on chiefly by 1518, in Ceylon; the latter of which soon way of Ormus and Aden, on the Persian became considerable. Those in Java, Suand Arabian gulfs. Aleppo, Damascus, matra, Celebes and Borneo remained less and the harbor of Barut, and especially important. Brazil, though discovered in Egypt, were the chief emporiums. As 1500, by Cabral, did not become of conselong as commerce was confined to land- quence until more recently. On the other carriage, and conducted by small states, it hand, the commercial connexions formed, never could have the importance which in 17, with China, nd, in 1542, with it assumed in the hands of the Spaniards Japan, were, for a long time, a source of and Portuguese, after America was dis- riches to the Portuguese. Till that time, covered, and the passage by sea to the the Portuguese had been in the undisputed East Indies effected. When the Portu- possession of all the East Indian comguese nation first commenced its discov- merce. In order to prevent difficulties eries, it was in the vigor of its heroic age. with Spain, 'all the discoveries which By continual wars with the Moors, first should be made beyond cape Bojador in Europe and afterwards in Africa, the were adjudged, in 1481, by a papal bull martial spirit of the nation acquired that of Sixtus IV, to the Portuguese. A dischivalrous energy which impelled it to pute with Spain concerning the possesromantic enterprises, particularly as the sion of the Moluccas was adjusted, in most violent hatred against the infidels 1529, an agreement that Charles V was connected with it. From 1410, when should sell his claims, for 350,000 ducats, Henry the Navigator (q. v.) commenced to the crown of Portugal. But, after his voyages and discoveries on the west- Philip II, in 1580, had made himself masern shore of Africa, till his death, in 1463, ter of Portugal, the East Indian colonies the Portuguese discovered, in 1419, Ma- also fell under the dominion of the Spandeira; in 1439, cape Bojador ; in 1446, iards, and, soon after, into the power of cape Verd; two years later, the Azores; in the Dutch. The ability of some great 1449, the cape Verd isles, and penetrated men, and the heroic spirit of the nation, to Sierra Leone. In 1484, Congo was had founded the power of Portugal in the visited. Bartolomeo Diaz reached (1486) East Indies. It fell when the character the cape of Tempests, which king John of the people degenerated, when a low called the cape of Good Hope. Soon af- trading spirit took the place of heroterwards, under the reign of king Eman- ism, even among the higher classes of the uel the Great, a daring adventurer led the nation; when avarice, luxury and effemiPortuguese by that route to the East In- nacy increased, and the influence of the dies. `Vasco da Gama landed, May 20, clergy, and particularly of the inquisition, 1498, at Calicut, on the coast of Malahar. became predominant. To these causes The Portuguese did not succeed without of decline were added the annexation of a struggle, particularly with the Moors, Portugal to Spain, and the neglect of the who had previously been in possession of Portuguese colonies, resulting from this the inland trade of India, in establishing union. Moreover, all_the enemies of settlements on the coast of Malabar, and Spain, particularly the Dutch, were now nothing but the lofty spirit and the deter- also enemies of Portugal, and the fabric mined valor of the first viceroy, the great of Portuguese greatness in the East InAlmeida of Abrantes (1505—9), and of dies could not be prevented from hastenhis still greater successor, Alphonso Albu- ing to ruin. Portugal never carried on querque (1515), could have founded, with commerce with the East Indies by means such feeble means, an extensive dominion of a privileged society, but by fleets which in India, the chief seat of which, from started every year, in February or March, 1508, was Goa. The Portuguese garri- for India, under the protection of the govsoned only some strong places along the ernment. The coasting trade in India, which was confined to a few seaports, the istration. The real audiencia was the Portuguese, in very early times, endeavor- council of the viceroys or captains-geneed to monopolize; but they contented ral. Cities were founded, at first along themselves with carrying goods to Lisbon, the coasts, for the sake of commerce and without attempting to export them to the as military posts ; afterwards also in the rest of Europe. The disadvantages of interior, in particular in the vicinity of the this system were soon felt by their marine, mines; as Vera Cruz, Cumaná, Porto Bello, particularly as it allowed the Dutch to be- Carthagena, Valencia, Caracas; Acapulco come dangerous rivals. From this time, and Panama, on the coast of the Pacifthe Portuguese maintained a place among ic; Lima, Concepcion and Buenos Ayres. the important colonial powers of Europe The whole ecclesiastical discipline of the only by the possession of Brazil. It was mother country was transferred to the fortunate, as regarded the colonization of colonies, except that, in the latter, the this country, that its gold mines were not church was much more independent of discovered till 1698, its wealth in dia- the king. The precious metals were the monds not until 1728, and that its trade chief article of export from the colonies, was not monopolized by two companies and the commerce in them was subjecttill the time of Pombal.
ed to very rigorous inspection. The inAt about the same time as the Portu- tercourse with Spain was confined to the guese, the Spaniards also became a colo- single port of Seville, from which two nial power. October 11, 1492, Columbus squadrons started annually—the gallediscovered the island of San Salvador, ons, about 12 in number, for Porto Bello, and, in his three following voyages, the and the fleet, of 15 large vessels, for group of the West India islands, and a Vera Cruz. While, therefore, the compart of the American continent. St. Do- merce was not expressly granted, by law, mingo or Hispaniola became of great im- to a society, it remained, nevertheless, portance to Spain, on account of its gold entirely in the hands of a few individmines. Attempts were also made to col- uals. Spain had taken possession of the onize Cuba, Porto Rico and Jamaica, from Philippine isles in 1564, and a regular 1508 to 1510. The great kingdom of intercourse was maintained, from 1572, Mexico was subjected by Cortes, 1519— by the South sea galleons, between Aca1521 ; Peru, Chile and Quito, 1529—1535, pulco and Manilla; but, owing to the by Pizarro and his followers: in 1523, great restrictions on commerce, those Terra Firma, and 1536, New Grenada, islands, notwithstanding their advantawere conquered. The nature of the geous situation, were an expense to the countries of which the Spaniards took crown, instead of being profitable to it: possession, decided, from the first, the religious considerations alone prevented character of their colonies, which after- them from being abandoned. wards continued unchanged in the main. Far greater activity and political imThey did not produce the various pre- portance were communicated to the colocious articles of the East Indies, instead nial commerce of Europe, when two comof which the Spaniards found gold and mercial nations, in the full
sense of the silver, the great objects of their desire. word,—the Dutch and the English, -enWhile, therefore, the colonies of the Por- gaged in it. The Dutch, during the tuguese in East India were, from the be- struggle for their independence, first beginning, commercial, those of the Span- came the formidable rivals of the Portuiards in America were always mining guese, then subjected to the Spanish yoke. colonies. It was not till later times that The participation of the Dutch in the they received some modifications of this colonial system imparted to the colonial character. To maintain their extensive commerce a new impulse and a far greater dominion, particularly over the wild na- extent. They had already, for some time, tions of the interior, the Spaniards endeav- carried on the trade in East India merored to convert the Indians to Christianity chandise between Lisbon and the rest of by the establishment of missions, and to Europe, and had seen, during the struggle induce them to live in permanent abodes. for their independence, the weakness of The government of the colonies, in its the Spanish naval force. The tyranny of fundamental traits, was settled in 1532, Philip II forced them to a measure which during the reign of Charles V. A coun- they would not readily have adopted from cil of the Indies in Europe, viceroys, at choice, that of fighting their enemies in first two, afterwards four, together with the East Indies. The intercourse of the eight independent captains-general, in Dutch with Lisbon had already been proAmerica, were the heads of the admin- hibited by Philip in 1584; the prohibition