Imatges de pągina

tion; and it was finally determined that the two states should form one nation, on the central system, under a popular representative government, divided into legislative, executive and judicial. Bolivar, the president, was, in the mean time, actively engaged in bringing the war to a close. On the 24th of June, 1821, was fought the memorable battle of Carabobo, in which the royalist army was totally defeated, with the loss of their artillery, baggage, and upwards of 6000 men. In the fall of 1822, Bolivar completed, by the capture of Panama, the overthrow of Spanish power in this quarter; the only remaining memorial of which was Porto Cabello, which held out until Dec. 1823. For, by the successes of the troops sent against Quito, the Spaniards had been compelled to surrender their authority in the south. Bolivar defeated Murgeon at Curiaco, in April, 1822, and, in May, Sucre gained the splendid victory of Pichincha, immediately after which the Spanish authorities capitulated. A long course of victory having thus delivered Colombia from the Spaniards, Bolivar marched into Peru, in 1824, at the head of an army of 10,000 men, to effect the liberation of that country. Meanwhile, the acknowledgment of the independence of Colombia, by the U. States, in 1823, and, in successive years since then, by Great Britain and the other governments of Europe, except Spain, gave new activity to her commercial relations. The government was administered, in the absence of Bolivar, by the vice-president, general Francisco de Paula Santander; and from the adoption of the constitution until 1826, the legislative and executive authorities, relieved from anxiety with respect to Spain, strenuously exerted themselves in various domestic improvements. The finances were placed on a more solid footing; public education was carefully fostered; and institutions, adapt ed to the new order of things, every where arose. To all outward appearance, the republic was rapidly acquiring consistency and stability, when the insurrection of Paez, in Venezuela, produced a fatal change. Paez, being one of the most distinguished officers of the revolution, received the command of the department of Venezuela. In the execution of a law for enrolling the militia in the city of Caracas, he gave so much offence to the inhabitants by his arbitrary conduct, that they obtained an impeachment against him before the senate. Being notified of this, in April, 1826, and summoned to appear and take his trial, he refused obe

dience to the summons, placed himself at the head of the troops, and became the nucleus of a strong party in ancient Venezuela, which, dissatisfied with the central system, demanded a reform of the government, some desiring that Venezuela should again be separate from New Grenada, others wishing for a federal constitution, like that of the U. States. In consequence of this insurrection, the northeastern departments of the republic remained virtually independent of the rest, until Jan., 1827, when Bolivar returned to Colombia, and succeeded in restoring the national authority, by promising to assemble a convention for the reform of the constitution. Meanwhile, various disorders broke out in other parts of the republic, the departments formed out of New Grenada alone continuing faithful to the constitution. Congress assembled in May, and, in June, passed a decree of general amnesty, and, in August, another decree for convoking a grand convention at Ocaña, for amending the constitution. Bolivar and Santander, having been reelected president and vice-president, were duly qualified, the latter in May, and the former in Sept., 1827, and affairs remained tranquil until the convention assembled at Ocaña, in March, 1828. The violence of parties, and the disturbed state of the country, prevented the convention from effecting any thing, and it soon separated. These events finally resulted in Bolivar's assuming absolute authority, and, in effect, abolishing the constitution of the republic. Whether he took the step solely in order to terminate the public disorders, or whether he himself, as others allege, created them by his intrigues, in order to afford a plausible pretext for his usurpation, it remains for time to show. What appears on the face of things is, that the various municipalities drew up addresses to him, in which he was requested and invited to assume the supreme command. The earliest of these was the act of the municipality of Bogotá, dated June 13, 1828; and others followed in quick succession from every part of the country. Bolivar was not slow in obeying the call, and organized the new government by appointing a council of ministers and a council of state for its administration, with D. Jose M. de Castillo for president of each council. This usurpation roused the hostility of the republican party, some of whom, unfortunately, conspired to assassinate Bolivar. The attempt was made Sept. 25, 1828, but failed, owing to the bravery of the officers and attendants

about his person, among whom his aid, colonel Furguson, was killed. Generals Padilla and Santander were accused of participating in the plot, and condemned to death by a special tribunal. Padilla was executed under his sentence; but the punishment of Santander was commuted for banishment. The immediate agents in the attempt were apprehended, and suffered the punishment of death. This did not prevent general Ovando from raising the standard of opposition in Popayan, and gathering so large a force as to demand the immediate presence of Bolivar to resist it. At the same time, a declaration of war was issued against Peru, in consequence of difficulties between the two countries, arising out of the attempt of Bolivar to make himself perpetual president of Peru. (q. v.) These events leave Colombia in a disturbed condition, the results of which it is idle to attempt to predict. Peace was made between the two countries in 1829. In October of the same year, general Cordova began an insurrection in Antioquia, which seems to be of little consequence. The troubles in Venezuela appear to be much more important. A strong wish to separate from Colombia seems to exist there. General Paez is much beloved in Venezuela. Whether the society called amigos del pais, established by him in Caracas, has any further object than the ostensible one of promoting commerce, science and the arts, time must show. Colombia seems, at the time when we write, to be on the point of experiencing some important change in her political condition. If any such should occur before this volume is completed, it will be noticed at the end of the volume. (See the articles South America, New Grenada, Quito, Venezuela, Bolivar, &c.) The following works may be consulted relative to Colombia: Humboldt's Tableaux de la Nature; Personal Narrative of the same; Mollien's Travels in Colombia, Paris, 1823 (translated into English, 1825); Colombia, 2 vols., 8vo., London, 1822.

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maining 280,000 are called free. In some of the states, the free black population is oppressed by legal disabilities, and, in all, is virtually excluded from the enjoyment of some of the most important civil privileges, by the prejudices of the European race. A caste is thus formed in the state, of individuals below the salutary influence of public opinion, cut off from all hope of improving their condition, degraded, ignorant and vicious themselves, and leaving the same legacy of humiliation and shame to their children. A common descent and color unite them, on the other hand, with the slaves, and render them the fit agents for fomenting insurrections among them. On this account, they have become objects of suspicion and alarm in the slave-holding states; and the owners of slaves consider it impolitic and dangerous to emancipate their Negroes, since they contribute to increase the strength of a dangerous class, without deriving any important benefits themselves from the change. This state of things gave rise to the colonization society. So early as the year 1777, the plan was proposed by Jefferson, in the legislature of Virginia, of emancipating all the slaves born after that period, educating them, the males to the age of 21, the females to that of 18, and establishing colonies of them in some suitable place. The plan of colonization has been subsequently approved by the legislatures of nine states; but it was first carried into execution by individuals. The society was formed in 1816. "Its object is, to promote and execute a plan for colonizing (with their consent) the free people of color residing in our country, either in Africa or such other place as congress shall deem expedient;" to prepare the way for the interference of the government, by proving that a colony can be established and maintained without the opposition of the natives; that the colonists can be transported at a moderate expense; that an important commerce might be thus established, and the slave-trade in consequence discouraged. The practicability of the plan being proved, it was intended to extend it to the entire removal of the whole black population. In 1817, two agents were sent by the society to examine the western coast of Africa for a suitable spot for the colony. They selected a position in the Sherbro, and, in February, 1820, the first vessel was despatched with 88 colonists. They were conducted by an agent of the society, and accompanied by two agents of the government. The expedition arrived on the

low coasts in the rainy season; the three agents, and a great number of the colonists, were carried off by the fever of the climate, and it became necessary to abandon the colony. In 1821, another vessel was sent out, with 28 colonists, and cape Mesurado was purchased as a more favorable position. It has a fine harbor, the climate is pleasant, and the soil is fertile, producing sugar-cane, indigo and cotton without cultivation. In 1823, the emigrants amounted to 150, of whom several were recaptured Africans, taken from vessels seized for a violation of the laws of the U. States. In 1828, the colony contained more than 1200 inhabitants. It has received the name of Liberia, and the town at the cape is called Monrovia, in honor of the ex-president Monroe. The possessions of the society extend 150 miles along the coast, and a considerable distance into the interior. Eight stations or settlements have been established, at the request of the native chiefs, who construct the necessary buildings for the accommodation of the colonists at their own expense. The colonists employ several hundred native laborers; and they are, in general, in very comfortable circumstances. Several schools have been established, and the moral and religious character of the inhabitants is excellent. By the constitution of Liberia, all persons born in the colony, or residing there, shall be free, and enjoy all the privileges of the citizens of the U. States; the agent of the society possesses the sovereign power; the judiciary consists of the agent and two justices appointed by him; the other officers are chosen by the colonists. The common law is adopted, with the modifications already introduced in the 'U. States, and others required by the peculiar situation of the colony. The party in any action at law is entitled to trial by jury. The commerce of the place is increasing. Rice, palm-oil, wax, and some coffee, are exported. The supreme control of the government is to remain in the hands of the society until the settlers are in a condition to govern themselves.While the benevolent exertions of the society have been thus successful abroad, its influence on the public sentiment at home has been very salutary. The congress of the U. States had already abolished the slave-trade, in 1808, as soon as the restrictions imposed by the constitution were removed. Through the representations of the colonization society, the act of March 3, 1819, was passed, authorizing the president to make arrangements for

the support and restoration of recaptured Negroes. May 15, 1820, the slave-trade was declared to be piracy, and punishable with death. The society has succeeded in overcoming the fears and prejudices of its former opponents; some of the most eminent statesmen in the slave-holding states have become earnestly engaged in the cause; the legislatures of several of the same states have contributed funds for its assistance; and, in 1828, the number of auxiliary societies amounted to 96. The experiment has convinced the blacks themselves of the great benefits they must derive from their colonization, and the number of applicants for transportation has been constantly increasing. emancipation of slaves is also facilitated, now that provision is made for them. In 1828, 100 were manumitted, and, in 1829, 200 were offered to the society, on condition that they should be sent to Liberia. Information concerning the history and objects of the society may be found in its 12 Annual Reports (Washington, 18181829), in the African Repository (Washington), in the North American Review, January, 1824, and January, 1825 (Boston), and in the American Quarterly Review, No. 8, December, 1828.


COLONNA, Vittoria; the most renowned poetess of Italy, daughter of Fabrizio Colonna, high-constable of Naples; born in 1490, at Marino, a fief belonging to the family. At the age of four years, she was destined to be the wife of Fern. Franc. d'Avalos, marquis of Pescara, a boy of the same age. The rare excellences, both of body and mind, with which nature and a most careful education had adorned her, made her an object of universal admiration, so that even princes sued for her hand. But, faithful to her vow, she gave her hand to the companion of her youth, who had become one of the most distinguished inen of his age. They lived in the happiest union. When her husband fell, in the battle of Pavia (1525), Vittoria sought consolation in solitude and in poetry. All her poems were devoted to the memory of her husband. She lived seven years, by turns at Naples and at Ischia, and afterwards retired into a monastery, first at Orvieto, and finally at Viterbo. She afterwards abandoned the monastic life, and made Rome her abode, where she died in 1547. Her Rime are not inferior to the best imitations of Petrarch. The finest are her Rime Spirituali (Venice, 1548, 4to.), which display deep feeling and pure piety. A collection of all her poems appeared in 1760, at Bergamo.

COLONY. Before America and the way by sea to the East Indies were discovered, the states of Europe, in the middle ages, with the exception of the Genoese and of the Venetians, had no foreign colonies. The Mediterranean afforded a passage to an extensive commerce, which was chiefly carried on by the small Italian states, particularly Venice and Genoa, and the seaports of Catalonia. The commerce between India and the continents of Europe and Asia was carried on chiefly by way of Ormus and Aden, on the Persian and Arabian gulfs. Aleppo, Damascus, and the harbor of Barut, and especially Egypt, were the chief emporiums. As long as commerce was confined to landcarriage, and conducted by small states, it never could have the importance which it assumed in the hands of the Spaniards and Portuguese, after America was discovered, and the passage by sea to the East Indies effected. When the Portuguese nation first commenced its discoveries, it was in the vigor of its heroic age. By continual wars with the Moors, first in Europe and afterwards in Africa, the martial spirit of the nation acquired that chivalrous energy which impelled it to romantic enterprises, particularly as the most violent hatred against the infidels was connected with it. From 1410, when Henry the Navigator (q. v.) commenced his voyages and discoveries on the western shore of Africa, till his death, in 1463, the Portuguese discovered, in 1419, Madeira; in 1439, cape Bojador; in 1446, cape Verd; two years later, the Azores; in 1449, the cape Verd isles, and penetrated to Sierra Leone. In 1484, Congo was visited. Bartolomeo Diaz reached (1486) the cape of Tempests, which king John called the cape of Good Hope. Soon afterwards, under the reign of king Emanuel the Great, a daring adventurer led the Portuguese by that route to the East Indies. Vasco da Gama landed, May 20, 1498, at Calicut, on the coast of Malabar. The Portuguese did not succeed without a struggle, particularly with the Moors, who had previously been in possession of the inland trade of India, in establishing settlements on the coast of Malabar, and nothing but the lofty spirit and the determined valor of the first viceroy, the great Almeida of Abrantes (1505-9), and of his still greater successor, Alphonso Albuquerque (1515), could have founded, with such feeble means, an extensive dominion in India; the chief seat of which, from 1508, was Goa. The Portuguese garrisoned only some strong places along the

coasts of the continent and the islands, as commercial posts, among which, on the coast of Africa, Mozambique, Sofala and Melinda; in the Persian gulf, Ormus and Mascat; on the Malabar coast, besides Goa, Diu and Daman; on the Coromandel coast, Negapatam and Meliapoor (St. Thomas), and Malacca on the peninsula of the same name, were the most important. After the year 1511, colonies were established also upon the Spice islands; after 1518, in Ceylon; the latter of which soon became considerable. Those in Java, Sumatra, Celebes and Borneo remained less important. Brazil, though discovered in 1500, by Cabral, did not become of consequence until more recently. On the other hand, the commercial connexions formed, in 1517, with China, and, in 1542,' with Japan, were, for a long time, a source of riches to the Portuguese. Till that time, the Portuguese had been in the undisputed possession of all the East Indian commerce. In order to prevent difficulties with Spain, 'all the discoveries which should be made beyond cape Bojador were adjudged, in 1481, by à papal bull of Sixtus IV, to the Portuguese. A dispute with Spain concerning the possession of the Moluccas was adjusted, in 1529, by an agreement that Charles V should sell his claims, for 350,000 ducats, to the crown of Portugal. But, after Philip II, in 1580, had made himself master of Portugal, the East Indian colonies also fell under the dominion of the Spaniards, and, soon after, into the power of the Dutch. The ability of some great men, and the heroic spirit of the nation, had founded the power of Portugal in the East Indies. It fell when the character of the people degenerated, when a low trading spirit took the place of heroism, even among the higher classes of the nation; when avarice, luxury and effeminacy increased, and the influence of the clergy, and particularly of the inquisition, became predominant. To these causes of decline were added the annexation of Portugal to Spain, and the neglect of the Portuguese colonies, resulting from this union. Moreover, all the enemies of Spain, particularly the Dutch, were now also enemies of Portugal, and the fabric of Portuguese greatness in the East Indies could not be prevented from hastening to ruin. Portugal never carried on commerce with the East Indies by means of a privileged society, but by fleets which started every year, in February or March, for India, under the protection of the government. The coasting trade in India,

which was confined to a few seaports, the Portuguese, in very early times, endeavored to monopolize; but they contented themselves with carrying goods to Lisbon, without attempting to export them to the rest of Europe. The disadvantages of this system were soon felt by their marine, particularly as it allowed the Dutch to become dangerous rivals. From this time, the Portuguese maintained a place among the important colonial powers of Europe only by the possession of Brazil. It was fortunate, as regarded the colonization of this country, that its gold mines were not discovered till 1698, its wealth in diamonds not until 1728, and that its trade was not monopolized by two companies till the time of Pombal.

At about the same time as the Portuguese, the Spaniards also became a colonial power. October 11, 1492, Columbus discovered the island of San Salvador, and, in his three following voyages, the group of the West India islands, and a part of the American continent. St. Domingo or Hispaniola became of great importance to Spain, on account of its gold mines. Attempts were also made to colonize Cuba, Porto Rico and Jamaica, from 1508 to 1510. The great kingdom of Mexico was subjected by Cortes, 1519— 1521; Peru, Chile and Quito, 1529-1535, by Pizarro and his followers: in 1523, Terra Firma, and 1536, New Grenada, were conquered. The nature of the countries of which the Spaniards took possession, decided, from the first, the character of their colonies, which after wards continued unchanged in the main. They did not produce the various precious articles of the East Indies, instead of which the Spaniards found gold and silver, the great objects of their desire. While, therefore, the colonies of the Portuguese in East India were, from the beginning, commercial, those of the Spaniards in America were always mining colonies. It was not till later times that they received some modifications of this character. To maintain their extensive dominion, particularly over the wild nations of the interior, the Spaniards endeavored to convert the Indians to Christianity by the establishment of missions, and to induce them to live in permanent abodes, The government of the colonies, in its fundamental traits, was settled in 1532, during the reign of Charles V. A council of the Indies in Europe, viceroys, at first two, afterwards four, together with eight independent captains-general, in America, were the heads of the admin

istration. The real audiencia was the council of the viceroys or captains-general. Cities were founded, at first along the coasts, for the sake of commerce and as military posts; afterwards also in the interior, in particular in the vicinity of the mines; as Vera Cruz, Cumaná, Porto Bello, Carthagena, Valencia, Caracas; Acapulco and Panama, on the coast of the Pacific; Lima, Concepcion and Buenos Ayres. The whole ecclesiastical discipline of the mother country was transferred to the colonies, except that, in the latter, the church was much more independent of the king. The precious metals were the chief article of export from the colonies, and the commerce in them was subjected to very rigorous inspection. The intercourse with Spain was confined to the single port of Seville, from which two squadrons started annually-the galleons, about 12 in number, for Porto Bello, and the fleet, of 15 large vessels, for Vera Cruz. While, therefore, the commerce was not expressly granted, by law, to a society, it remained, nevertheless, entirely in the hands of a few individuals. Spain had taken possession of the Philippine isles in 1564, and a regular intercourse was maintained, from 1572, by the South sea galleons, between Acapulco and Manilla; but, owing to the great restrictions on commerce, those islands, notwithstanding their advantageous situation, were an expense to the crown, instead of being profitable to it: religious considerations alone prevented them from being abandoned.

Far greater activity and political importance were communicated to the colonial commerce of Europe, when two commercial nations, in the full sense of the word, the Dutch and the English,-engaged in it. The Dutch, during the struggle for their independence, first became the formidable rivals of the Portuguese, then subjected to the Spanish yoke. The participation of the Dutch in the colonial system imparted to the colonial commerce a new impulse and a far greater extent. They had already, for some time, carried on the trade in East India merchandise between Lisbon and the rest of Europe, and had seen, during the struggle for their independence, the weakness of the Spanish naval force. The tyranny of Philip II forced them to a measure which they would not readily have adopted from choice, that of fighting their enemies in the East Indies. The intercourse of the Dutch with Lisbon had already been prohibited by Philip in 1584; the prohibition

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