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can, in praise of a person, says, “He is an taken an active part in affairs. He died at enterprising man." An increasing and Argenton, 1509. His Memoirs (most comthriving community is his ideal. The plete edition, London, 1747, 4 vols. 4to.) Frenchman, to express great aversion, says, are valuable contributions to the history Je m'ennuie. The Italian dolce far niente of the time. He relates, in ther, the (sweet idling) is very characteristic of the events which occurred during his life, and disposition of the nation. Not only nations, in most of which he had an active share, but also ages, have their peculiar expres- with great veracity, in lively, natural lansions, which are highly interesting. guage, and displays everywhere a correct
COMINES, Philippe de (seigneur d’Ar- judgment, acute observation, and a progenton), born, 1445, at the castle of Co-found knowledge of men and things. mines, near Menin, in Flanders, passed COMITIA, with the Romans; the assemhis youth at the court of the dukes of blies of the people, in which the public Burgundy, Philip the Good and Charles business was transacted, and measures the Bold. He enjoyed the confidence of taken in conformity with the will of the the latter, and contributed essentially to majority. They existed even under the his reconciliation with Louis XI. "He kings. In the time of the republic, they conducted other negotiations with equal were convoked by the consuls; in their sagacity, and, in 1472, entered the service absence, often by the dictator, the tribunes, of Louis XI, probably on account of the and, in extraordinary cases, even by the rash and violent character of Charles, and pontifex maximus. Their chief objects induced by the promises of Louis, who were, the choice of persons to fill the loaded him with marks of favor. After highest offices, legislation, the making of the death of Charles the Bold, Louis took war and peace, and the punishment of possession of the duchy of Burgundy, sent crimes against the state. For the first Comines there, and, soon after, appointed purpose, they were assembled in the him ambassador to Florence, where, dur- campus Martius; for the others, in the foing his year's residence, the conspiracy of rum, capitol, or the comitium. The emperthe Pazzi broke out and failed. Comines ors retained these assemblies for the sake displayed, on this occasion, the greatest of appearance, but used them only as in activity in the cause of the Medici. He struments for the accomplishment of their was then sent by Louis to Savoy, for the purposes. From the division of the Ropurpose of seizing the young duke Phili- man people into centuries, curiæ and bert
, and of placing him entirely under tribes, the comitia were distinguished the guardianship of the king his uncle. into the comitia centuriata, curiata and In 1483, Louis XI died. Under the fol- tributa. The most important were the lowing reign, Comines did not enjoy the comitia centuriaia, in which the people same favor. Under the regency, he was voted by centuries. They could be held made a member of the council, and took only on certain days. Seventeen days part with the princes in their plots against before, per trinundinum, the people were the mild and wise government of Anne de called together by an edict. On the day Beaujeu. He was involved in all the in- of the comitia itself, the presiding magistrigues of the duke of Orleans, and was trate, with an augur, went into a tent beintimately connected with the old consta- fore the city, in order to observe the ble Jean de Bourbon. A conspiracy, in auspices. If the augur declared them unwhich he was engaged, having been dis- exceptionable, the coinitia was held ; if covered, he was confined eight months in not, it was postponed to another day. an iron cage at Loches. He was after- Before sunrise and after sunset, no busiwards tried before the parliament in 1488, ness was transacted in the comitia. The and pronounced guilty of having an un- presiding magistrate, on his curule chair, derstanding with several rebels, and of opened the assembly by a prayer, which other crimes. By the sentence passed be repeated after the words of the augur. upon him, which seems not to have been Then the subject of deliberation was execried, he was exiled for 10 years to communicated to the people, who afterone of his estates, and the fourth part of wards separated into tribes and centuries. his fortune was confiscated. Charles VIII In earlier times, first the equites, then the employed him in several negotiations in centuries of the first class, &c., were callItaly ; but this monarch was too waver- ed upon to vote. In later times, lots were ing and imprudent; the advice of Comi- cast for the order of voting. The opinnes was little regarded, and he received no ion of the century which first voted was reward but reproaches and dissatisfaction. usually followed by all the rest. In the Under Louis XII, he seems not to have earliest times, every century voted verbally; in later times, by tablets. What was Libya, and it is now clearing away the concluded, in each century, by the ma- primitive forests of America, and draining jority, was proclaimed, by the herald, as the waters of Australia. For thousands of the vote of this century. The comitia years, it has pervaded the interior of the was interrupted if any one in the assem- ancient world; for centuries it has had bly was attacked by a fit of epilepsy its path on the mighty ocean; and, of late, (which was called, for this reason, morbus it has studied how to cut through the comitialis), or if a tribune of the people isthmus of Darien, and to break through pronounced his veto, and under some other the ice of the poles. In the history of the circumstances.
nations, it is a perpetual Argonautic expeCOMMANDERY, or COMMANDRY, among dition, and, from the first period of comseveral orders of knights, denotes a cer- merce down to our own times, its Colchis tain district, under the control of a mem- has been India. The limits of our work ber of the order, who received a part of do not allow us to exhibit the progress of the income thence arising, for his own commerce in ancient times. For this we use, and accounted for the rest. There refer to Heeren's Ideen über Handel und are strict and regular commanderies, ob- Politik der Alten Welt (Ideas on the Comtained by merit or in order, and others merce and Politics of the Ancient World), are, of grace and favor, bestowed by the 1805 (see Heeren), and shall merely give a grand master. There are also command- cursory survey of the principal commercial eries for the religious, in the orders of St. nations of modern times. Bernard and St. Anthony.
I. EUROPE, since the conquest of Tyre COMMELIN, Jerome, of Douay, a learned by Alexander, has been in possession of printer in Heidelberg, who died in 1598, the commerce of the world, and has sewas distinguished by his excellent editions cured it by its colonial system (see Coloof Greek and Latin classics. His emblem ny), founded by Henry the Navigator is a figure of Truth, and, on many edi- (q. v.), by means of which it exercises the tions, the words Ex Officina Sanct. An- monopoly of colonial commodities. By dreana.
this we understand the productions of the COMMELIN, John and Caspar, uncle and planting, commercial and mining colonephew ; learned botanists in Amsterdam. nies; those of the last, however, only in The former died in 1692, his nephew in part, for the precious metals and stones 1751.
can hardly be designated by that name. COMMELIN, Isaac, born 1598, in Am- This is also true of the productions of the sterdam, was a historian, among whose colonies more strictly agricultural: spices, works, the history and description of Am- East India goods of all kinds, dye-woods sterdam is still much valued. He died in and cabinet-woods, drugs, cotton, and 1676, at Amsterdam.
especially coffee, sugar, rice, tua, &c., COMMENCEMENT. In the colleges of are properly understood by this term. the U. States, this term denotes the day The East Indies furnish chiefly cotton, when the students commence bachelors sugar, coffee, rice, fabrics of various of arts. In Cambridge, England, it sig- kinds, spices, and tea (from China); the nifies the day when masters of arts and West Indies, cocoa, coffee, sugar and cotdoctors complete their degrees.
ton; South America, the precious stones COMMENSURABLE ; among geometri- and metals, dye-woods, cabinet-woods, cians, an appellation given to such quan- drugs, &c. The consumption of these tities or magnitudes as can be measured articles, which was formerly possible onby one and the same common measure.- ly for the rich, has increased immensely Commensurable numbers, whether integers since the ocean became the highway for or fractions, are such as can be measured trade with the East Indies and America, or divided by some other number, without in the course of the 15th century, and, any remainder: such are 12 and 18, as more especially, since the English and being measured by 6 or 3.
Dutch assumed the first station among the COMMERCE OF THE WORLD. This em- colonial nations of Europe, in the beginbraces the whole subject of the traffic and ning of the 18th century. Instead of beintercourse of nations, and shows how ing, as before, mere objects of luxury for mutual wants, occasioning the exchange the higher ranks, colonial goods became of natural riches for the creations of art, necessary articles even for the lowest unite savage nations with civilized, and classes of Europe ; and an entire revoluspread moral and social cultivation over the tion was produced in the civil and politiearth. In former times, commerce subdued cal condition of that portion of the world. the steppes of Scythia and the deserts of Commerce thus acquired an incompara
bly higher importance, and a more general interest. The class of merchants, which was, by this means, increased in an extraordinary degree, soon formed a body of men, spread over the whole cultivated world, and animated by one purpose-to maintain commerce; and, even among belligerent nations, the governments endeavored in vain utterly to abolish the mutual dealings of merchants. Thus, as the intercourse of nations became more lively, the exchange of ideas was promoted, men's views became enlarged, a cosmopolitan spirit united distant communities, and formed of the nations of Europe, as it were, one great, civilized family. Equal results were produced by the increased importance of the colonial powers (in late times, the two maritime states of England and Holland, in particular), arising from the increasing consumption of colonial goods. For them, and, indeed, though in an inferior degree, for the other colonial powers of Europe, the trade in the productions of the colonies was an important source of wealth and power. Their great political importance has exercised an extensive influence on the whole political condition of Europe. England, in particular, has become continually more powerful by its extensive trade. It was therefore in the natural course of things, that, when the immense power of France was developed by the revolution, and that country, under Napoleon, strove for predominance on the European continent, the greatest struggle should take place between France and England, a consequence of which was the continental system (q. v.) of Napoleon, who declared his purpose to be, to free Europe from the tribute which it was obliged to pay to England for the colonial goods which it received from her. England, deeming it absolutely essential to her interests to prevent the establishment of a universal monarchy on the continent, spared no exertion to procure the restoration of the former order of things, so that she might have a free intercourse with the continental ports. Without going into the points at issue between the two countries, the fact deserves to be stated, that the continental system called into action many kinds of industry on the continent, and, in this way, has produced important changes in the course of trade, resulting from the great increase of manufactures. If we examine whether it be actually true, as asserted in the time of the continental system, that the great use of colonial goods must necessarily produce poverty, it is easy to prove
the contrary, which has been already fully confirmed by experience. New wants gave rise to new energy and new branches of industry, in order to gratify those wants, thus increasing the productiveness of labor, and, simultaneously, the prosperity of the nations. But it is objected that money, or the produce of labor, which would otherwise remain in the various countries, is sent away from them in exchange for colonial goods. Very true; but, even if the express purpose of acquisition were not to procure new enjoyments, the object of all trade and all activity is, not to accumulate money, but to augment the sum of happiness. If this object be attained, industry and trade have effected all that they should do. Of course, no account can be reasonably taken of the small number of idle spendthrifts, who, without laboring, consume their capital in gratifying their pleasures. But it was soon perceived, that, in the existing state of Europe, entirely to exclude colonial articles was utterly impossible, though recourse was had to all kinds of substitutes. The enormous duties imposed on the importation of colonial goods, as far as the French power then reached, that is, throughout nearly all the continent of Europe, contributed essentially to render its nations poorer; for these duties had to be paid, while nothing of value could be given in return; from which circumstance originated a most pernicious and immoral smuggling trade. But Napoleon asserted that the English would not allow him to make peace, in which case the whole system would naturally have been changed.-In the 18th century,
Great Britain* became the first colonial power. It, therefore, stands at the head of the commercial nations, who are all, more or less, tributary to British art and industry. With more than 23,199 merchant vessels, containing 2,460,500 tons, in 1827, it exported, in the year ending Jan. 5, 1827, to the amount of £50,399,356, and from Ireland, to the amount of £967,312; the imports, during the same time, amounted to £36,038,951, and into Ireland, to £1,420,027. Its commerce is, in a great measure, managed by companies. These companies are the Russian, the Levant, the African, the South sea, and Hudson's bay companies, the East India company (q. v.), and the Borneo,
* We can give, in the following pages, only a brief account of the commerce of the different nations, and must refer the reader, for fuller information in regard to the different countries, to the different articles.
Solo and Banca company (for working kingdoms trade in the following commodthe gold and diamond mines of Borneo, ities. From Scotland, England and Irepursuing the pearl fisheries at Solo and land receive corn, cattle, woollen and cotBanca, and working the tin mines on the ton goods, potash, granite, canvass and iron last-named island). The chief exports of manufactures; the Scottish fisheries also Great Britain are, to the north of Europe, furnish an important article of commerce. cotton, woollen and glass, hardware, pot- For these things, Scotland receives the tery, lead, tin, coal, East India and colonial productions of Ireland, and articles of wares, dye-stuffs, salt, and refined sugar. Juxury, of all kinds, from England. IreIn return, Great Britain receives from the land buys of England and Scotland, woolnorth, corn, flax, hemp, iron, turpentine, len, cotton and silk goods, East and West tar, tallow, timber, linen, pearl and pot- India goods, pottery, hardware and salt ; ashes, cordage and hog's bristles. To and, in exchange, gives its linen, hides,
, Germany, Holland, France, Italy, Spain potatoes and other provisions, &c. The and Portugal, it exports cotton and wool- foreign commerce of Ireland is, besides, len fabrics, cutlery, dried and salt fish, very extensive. It exports its productions pottery and glass-ware, colonial and East and manufactures to France, Spain, PorIndia goods, and all kinds of the finer tugal, the West Indies and North America, manufactures. From Germany it imports for wine, fruit, sugar, rum, &c. The corn, flax, hemp, linen cloth and thread, commercial intercourse between Ireland rags, hides, timber and wine; from Hol- and the north of Europe is mainly through land, flax, hemp, madder, gin, cheese, England, and its trade with the East passes butter, rags and seeds; from France, wine, exclusively through the same channel. brandy, lace, cambric, silk, ornaments and The chief articles of export from Ireland fancy_goods and fruit; from Italy, Spain are linen, potatoes and other provisions, and Portugal, silk, wool, barilla, sulphur, corn, whiskey, herrings and salmon. How salt, oil, fruit
, wine, brandy and cork. To great the coasting trade of England is, Turkey it sends cotton and woollen goods, may be seen from the following table :hardware, colonial and East India goods, lead, tin, iron, clocks and watches ; receiv. Entries, inwards and outwards of the ing, in return, coffee, silk, fruits, fine oil, coasting trade of the United Kingdon, dye-stuffs, carpets, &c. To North Amer- for the years ending Jan. 5, including ica it sends woollen and cotton manufac
the cross channel trade between Great
Britain and Ireland. tures, hardware, linen, glass and other wares; the imports from thence are flour, cotton, rice, tar, pitch, pot and pearl ashes, Years. T'onnage.
Men. provisions, ship-timber, &c. "The chief
1826 8,408,211 493,411 imports from South America are cotton, 1827 8,466,255 488,038 hides, skins, tallow, cochineal, dye-wood, 1828 8,911,109 512,584 sugar, indigo, cocoa, gums, &c.; and the exports from England are the same as
1826 above mentioned. The same exports are
1827 likewise sent to the West Indies; and, in
1828 return, Great Britain receives rum, coffee,
8,957,286 517,129 tobacco, sugar, ginger, pimento, pepper, The foreign possessions, settlements and indigo, 'dye-stuffs, drugs, gums, cotton, colonies of Great Britain, of which it posmahogany, Campeachy wood, &c. To sessed 26 prior to the French revolution, the East Indies, China and Persia, it sends and has gained 17 more by conquest, are woollen goods, iron, copper, lead, tin, for- Heligoland, Gibraltar and Malta, with eign silver money, gold and silver, in bars, Gozo and the Ionian isles, in Europe ; its hardware, and a variety of manufactures possessions in India, under the administra(amounting, in 1828, to £4,877,125); fortion of the East India company, and Ceywhich it obtains muslins, calicoes, silks, lon, in Asia ; the Isle de France, or Maunankeens, tea, spices, arack, sugar, coffee, ritius, with the Sechelles and Amirante rice, saltpetre, indigo, opium, drugs, gums, isles, the cape of Good Hope, Sierra quicksilver, precious stones, pearls, &c., Leone, Cape Coast and Annaboa, the amounting, in 1828, to £8,002,786. To islands of Ascension and St. Helena, in the colony of New South Wales, the com- Africa; Canada, New Brunswick, Nova mon English manufactures and colonial Scotia, Cape Breton, St. John's, or Prince goods are exported, and exchanged for Edward's island, Newfoundland, Hudson's train-oil, seal-skins, wool, &c.
bay and the bay of Honduras, in North Among themselves, the three British America; Berbice, Essequibo and Deme
rara, in South America; Jamaica, Barbadoes, Antigua, St. Vincent, St. Christopher, Nevis, Montferrat, the Virgin islands, Grenada, Tobago, Dominica, Trinidad and the Bahamas, in the West Indies; also the Bermudas; in Australia (q. v.), New South Wales, Van Diemen's land, and the colony on New Zealand, and on Melville's island.
The most important commercial cities of England, besides London, are Liverpool, Bristol and Hull; the most important manufacturing towns are, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Nottingham, Halifax, Rochdale, &c. In Scotland, the principal commercial places are Glasgow, Greenock, Leith and Aberdeen. The foreign trade of Glasgow and Greenock extends to the West Indies, the U. States, the British American colonies, Brazil, and the whole continent of Europe. The foreign trade of Leith and Aberdeen extends to the West Indies, America, the Mediterranean and the Baltic. The greatest commercial cities of Ireland are, Dublin, Cork, Wexford, Waterford and Belfast.
Germany. On account of its navigable rivers, the commerce of this country is considerable. The chief articles of export are linen, linen yarn, raw wool, rags, quicksilver, corn, timber, flax, hemp, wax, lard, salt, wine and metals. Its imports are woollens, cottons and silks, hardware, watches, tanned leather, leather goods, tea, cacao, dye-woods, hides, colonial and East India goods. The principal ports of Germany are Hamburg, Lübeck, Bremen, Trieste and Dantzic. In the interior, its chief commercial cities are Vienna, Magdeburg, Leipsic, Frankfort on the Maine, Frankfort on the Oder, Augsburg, Berlin, Breslau, Cologne, Nuremberg, Brunswick, Mentz, Botzen and Prague. Hamburg (q. v.), in particular, is the channel through which flows, for the most part, the extensive trade between Great Britain and the German states. By means of the rivers running into the Elbe, the navigation of which has lately become free, the numerous and valuable productions of Upper and Lower Saxony, of Austria and Bohemia, go to Hamburg. By the Havel, the Spree and the Oder, its commercial operations are extended to Brandenburg, Silesia, Moravia and Poland. The business of Hamburg consists, in part, of the consignments of foreign merchants, and, to a great extent, of the purchase and sale of domestic and foreign goods. Its money transactions are very considerable. Bremen has important articles of export in the products of Westphalia and Lower
Saxony, which it sends to England, Spain and Portugal; and with America it has more intercourse than any other seaport of Germany. The trade in linens, which foreign countries carry on with Germany, passes wholly through the hands of the Hamburg and Bremen merchants, to whom all foreign orders are directed. The importation of tobacco from America into Germany is almost wholly through Bremen. Leipsic, the centre of European trade with the interior of Germany, and the place of deposit for foreign and Saxon goods, has, besides other mercantile privileges, three fairs (at Easter, Michaelmas and new year), to which merchants resort from all parts of Europe, and from Asia, and each of which lasts three weeks: there is, besides, at this place, a considerable market for Saxon wool. The chief articles of traffic are Bohemian, Silesian and Saxon linen; leather, hides, wax and wool, from Poland; woollen goods and pigments, from Prussia; silks, velvets and corals, from Italy; leather, various manufactures and dye-stuffs, from Austria and Hungary; laces, silk goods of all kinds, ribbons, porcelain, watches, bronze and other manufactures, including fancy articles, from France; leather, hemp and flax, from Russia; colonial commodities and manufactures, from England and Holland ; and literary productions from all Europe. There is, also, in Leipsic, an important horse market. Augsburg, by means of its agents and bankers, is the medium of mercantile communication between Germany and the south of Europe. The exchange business of Vienna is commonly transacted by drafts on Augsburg. It also derives considerable advantage from the forwarding of goods to and from Italy. Frankfort on the Maine, a place of great commercial activity, especially at the time of its two great fairs, in the spring and autumn, has, besides, a very important business, owing to the opulence of its old and new banking houses. It was the central point of all the Rothschilds. In Brunswick, considerable business is transacted in its natural productions, and manufactured articles, as well as in foreign goods. Its two great yearly fairs rank immediately after those of Leipsic and Frankfort. Great quantities of raw thread are sent thither by the Dutch merchants, and the strong beer, called mum, is exported to various parts of the world.
Austria is entirely separated from Germany by its system of imposts, and its commercial regulations. Its trade is mostly carried on by land, or on the rivers. Vienna,