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the store-house of the inland trade of all seed, flax, hemp, wood, linen, yarn, woolAustria, has quite an extensive commercelen and cotton goods, fine works of art, with England, the Netherlands and including articles made of amber. Of the France, and important dealings with Italy, different commercial places, Frankfort on Hungary, Poland and Turkey. By the the Oder has three considerable fairs. way of Vienna, Germany receives great Magdeburg sends corn, linen, cotton goods, quantities of raw cotton from Turkey. cloths, leather, salt and copper to Hamburg, The commerce of Trieste, in the Littorale, and to the fairs of Leipsic and Brunswick. consists chiefly in the exportation of Ger- It has, besides, a transit trade in colonial man productions, and of colonial goods, goods, wine, grain, &c. Wheat is exwhich go from thence to the Levant, and ported from Dantzic, which possesses the the coasts of the Black sea. Trieste may largest granary in Europe; from Elbinbe regarded as the depot of the produc- gen, Stettin, Königsberg, Anclam and Bertions of the Levant. It is, also, actively lin, timber; staves and ashes from Dantengaged in the importation of British zic, Memel and Stettin; hemp, flax and wares, and of the produce of the fisheries linseed, tallow, wax and hog's bristles from of Newfoundland. Except this city, the Memel and Königsberg. Tilsit carries on commerce of Austria is confined to Ven- a brisk trade in corn, linseed, hemp and ice and Fiume. The most considerable flax. The exports of Brunsberg are woolplaces of inland trade in the monarchy, len yarn, corn and flax. Colberg exports besides Vienna, are Lemberg, Prague, corn, and the other produce of Poland. Brunn, Brody, Botzen, Pest and Cronstadt. The trade of Stralsund, likewise, consists The allowed imports consist mainly of chiefly in the exportation of corn. Of all the raw produce, cotton and wool, silk, rice, articles of Prussian commerce, the Silesian oil, spices, colonial articles, leather, cattle, linen holds the first rank, and for the man&c. The articles of export are woollen ufacturing of it, the Silesian towns Hirschcloths, linens, cordage, mineral produc- berg, Landshut, Schmiedeberg, Friedland, tions, grain and glass. Great profit is de- Waldenburg, Schweidnitz, and the Prusrived from the transportation of goods, sian section of Upper Lusatia, are celeespecially of those of the Levant. In brated. This linen is particularly in deBohemia, far the greater portion of the mand among the Hamburg, English, Dutch, trade is in the hands of the Jews, who are Italian and South American merchants. numerous in the country. The trade is The imports which have the readiest sale chiefly in exports—linens, woollens, silks, in Prussia are colonial goods, dye-wood, dye-wood, leather and glass. The glass 'salt, Buenos Ayres hides, indigo, groceries, is superior in polish and cheapness to that wine, silk, cotton goods, hardware, &c.* of other countries, and the exportation Hanover is not distinguished for its of it is very considerable. It is thought mercantile activity. The exports consist that the goods exported to Spain, Russia, of horses, horned cattle, lead, wax, linen, the Levant and America amount tó leather, salt, oats, barley, timber, boards, 2,500,000 guilders, annually. The coun- and the ferruginous copper of the Hartz tries with which Bohemia has the most mountains. The linens are ordinary; the commercial intercourse are Austria, Hol- table cloths and Osnabruck damask are land, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Turkey. inferior in quality to those of Prussia and The exports are rated at from $5,000,000 to Friesland. The surplus of the domestic $6,000,000, and the imports (colonial goods, consumption is exported to South Ameriarticles of luxury, &c.) at from $4,000,000 to ca through the medium of the Hanseatic $5,000,000. Prague is the first commercial cities. The principal imports are English city of the country,Reichenberg, the second. The extended frontier of Prussia exposes it

Prussia has likewise, by its system of very much to smuggling. On this account, Prussia prohibition, been separated from Germany has been lately endeavoring to induce some of the with respect to free commercial inter- restrictions on their commercial intercourse with

smaller states in her neighborhood to abolish all course, especially since 1818. The com

her. Some of the states have acquiesced in this merce of this monarchy is promoted by arrangement. These are Bavaria, Wurtemberg, the Baltic, by many navigable rivers, and Mecklenburg, the Saxon dukedoms, Hesse-Darmby canals. The commerce in domestic stadt and Brunswick. Some of these have also alproductions is more important than the outward frontier, on condition of her paying them

lowed Prussia to place her custom-houses on their transportation and commission trade, a certain sum as a compensation for the customs which flourishes mainly in Cologne, which she will thus receive. Some other German Magdeburg, Stettin, Minden, Dantzic, states have united together with similar views, and Königsberg, Breslau, &c. The exports States are Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, the kingdom of

form the confederacy of Central Germany. These by sea are grain, wax, tallow, wool, lin- Saxony, and Oldenburg.

France.

manufactures, especially woollen cloths cial companies in Denmark are the Asiatic and calicoes, colonial goods, Prussian and or East India company, the Iceland comFriesland linen, fine French cloths, silks, pany, the maritime insurance company, jewelry and French wines, with all kinds the African or Danish West India, and the of small articles of luxury, which the general commercial society. In 1824, there Hanoverian merchant brings with him from were exported from Denmark 2,022,720 the fairs of Brunswick, Leipsic, and Frank- tons of grain, 36,562 tons of flour, &c. fort on the Maine. The chief commercial

The commerce of France towns are Emden, Hanover and Münden. extends to every country of the world.

The commerce of Saxony, Bavaria, Wür. The exports are wine, brandy, oil, corn, temberg, Hesse, &c., may be comprised meal, liqueurs, snuff, silks, woollens, fancy under the general head of German com- goods of all kinds, watches, porcelain, merce, as there exists no reciprocal system crystals, carpets, bronze, linen, lace, camof prohibition. (See Germany, Trade of; bric, tapestry, hemp, flax, fruits, capers, also the separate articles on these countries.) salt, jewelry, paper, &c.; and France re

Denmark and Holstein. Although the ceives the raw produce of all countries, Danish merchants have formed connex- but very few manufactured goods. In ions with all the commercial states of Eu- 1824, the value of all the exports of rope, and play an important part in the France was 440,542,000 francs, of which commerce both of the Mediterranean and 163,056,000 were in natural products

, and the Baltic, their own country possesses 277,486,000 in manufactured goods. In but few productions, important as articles the same year, goods were imported into of export. Most of what they export are France to the amount of 189,535,000 the productions of their East and Westfrancs in 3,387 French vessels, to the India possessions. To the ports of Pe- amount of 108,397,000 francs in 4,183 fortersburg, Riga, Stockholm and Memel, eign vessels, and to the amount of Denmark carries the woollen goods of 156,929,000 by land; the whole importaIceland and the Faroe islands ; salt from tion amounted to 454,861,000 francs. The Spain, France and Portugal; and the principal ports are Bordeaux, Marseilles, productions of the East and West Indies Nantes, Havre de Grace, St. Malo, L'Orient and of China. To Germany it sends its and Dunkirk. The commerce of Marhorses, its cattle, colonial and West India seilles is mostly with the Levant and the goods, and woollen stockings, receiving in West Indies; that of Bordeaux, with Asia, return linen, wool, brandy and wine. To the West Indies, and the north of Europe. Holland it exports rape-seed, fish, &c., in Calais and Dunkirk carry on a very lucraexchange for groceries. To France, Spain tive contraband trade with England. Haand Portugal it carries horses, fish, and vre de Grace is the seaport of Paris, which other articles from Russia, in exchange for has a very extensive indirect trade, and salt, wine, fruits, sweet oil, brandy, silk, dealings in bills of exchange with foreign &c. Its trade with England consists, countries. Amiens exports great quantimainly, in exchanging timber, &c., forties of velvet; Abbeville, Elbeuf, LouEnglish manufactures. To Iceland it ex- vier and Sedan trade mainly in cloths ; ports rye-meal, rye, barley, brandy and Cambrai, Valenciennes and Alençon, in other spirituous liquors, together with the cambrics and fine laces. Cette, the port common articles of consumption; receiv- of Montpellier, has an extensive trade in ing in return fresh, dry, and salt fish, train- Spanish and colonial goods. The comoil, tallow, eider down, wool and woollen merce of Bayonne is chiefly with Spain. stockings. It supplies Greenland with Silks form a principal article of the comflour, spirituous liquors, &c., in return for merce of Lyons, which is situated in the train and seal-oil, seal-skins, eider down centre of the roads leading to Switzerland, and peltry The largest commercial Spain, Italy and Germany, and has annutowns of Denmark are Copenhagen and ally four fairs. For Strasburg, its excelElsinore in Zealand, Aalborg in Jutland, lent turpentine is an important article of Flensborg and Tönningen in Sleswic, Al- trade. Lille has a direct intercourse, not tona and Kiel in Holstein. The West only with all the commercial states of EuIndia colonies of Denmark are St. Croix, rope, but also with the French and SpanSt. Thomas and St. John's. On the coast ish colonies, and with the Levant. The of Coromandel, it possesses Tranquebar; other commercial towns of importance on the coast of Guinea, Christianborg and are Rheims, Troyes, Grenoble, Nismes, other small places. It has also small fac- Angoulême, Cognac, Nantes, Rouen, Rotories on the Nicobar islands. In Europe, chelle, and Caen. Grenoble supplies it possesses Iceland. The chief commer- France, Italy, Spain, and even !cat

Britain with fine gloves. Beaucaire has its hands. The Venetian velvets, daman important fair. The French colonies asks, mirrors, and manufactured silks, in are Martinique, Guadaloupe, St. Lucia great quantities, form the most consideraand Mariegalante in the West Indies; ble constituents of the foreign trade of Cayenne in South America, Pondicherry, Venice. The exports of Naples are oliveChandernagore, and some other posses- oil, wool, silk, tartar, wines, raw and mansions in the East Indies, with several facto- ufactured silk, fruit, sulphur and staves. ries on the western coast of Africa and on The Islands of the Mediterranean Sea. both sides of cape Verde.

The exports of Sicily, a country on which Italy. Although Italy possesses the nature, with profuse generosity, has lavmost excellent harbors on the Mediterra- ished in abundance all her gifts (the bennean and Adriatic seas, and has a geo- efit of which, however, is almost destroygraphical situation uncommonly favorable ed by the weakness of the government), for commerce, its trade, both domestic and consist of silk, grain, barilla, sulphur, oliveforeign, is very limited. The cause is to oil

, wine, cantharides, sumach, manna, cobe sought in the impolitic restrictions, ral, rags, almonds, figs, raisins, nuts, anheavy taxes and imposts, to which the chovies, amber, goat, buck and sheepcommercial cities are subjected in this skins, pomegranates, oranges, lemons, &c., most fruitful, but, for the most part, badly and pine-apples of remarkable size and governed country. The chief articles of exquisite flavor. The chief port is Messiexport from Italy are corn, olive-oil, wine, na; next to this comes Palermo. brandy, silk, cotton, wool, hemp, flax, vel- The exports of Sardinia are, chiefly, vet, damask, barilla (soda), sulphur, su- grain of uncommon excellence, tunnymach, gall-nuts, madder, velani or valonia, fish, hides, barilla, salt. Cagliari is the and other dye-stuffs, senna leaves, liquor- most considerable commercial city. ice juice and root, juniper berries and Corsica exports silk, olive-oil, and black, other drugs, anchovies, almonds, figs, nuts, white and red corals. The silk goes mostolives, currants, raisins and other fruits, ly to Genoa and Lyons, and the corals are rags, chip and straw hats, the skins of sold at Marseilles, where they are manusheep and kids, and marble. The princi- factured and polished, to be sent to Africa, pal commercial cities are Florence, Genoa, to be sold to the Moors and Negroes. Leghorn, Naples, Venice, and Ancona. The Corsican ports are Ajaccio, Bastia and Leghorn is the main channel of the trade Porto Vecchio. of Italy with the Levant and the Barbary Malta, which is, like Gibraltar, a depot states, and the central point of the com- for British and colonial goods that are to merce of England in the Mediterranean. be disposed of in the Mediterranean, exA great part of its trade is in the hands ports cotton, oranges and other fruits. of the Jews. Silks, taffeta, satins, bro- The Ionian islands (Cephalonia, Zante, cades, light woollen goods, velvets, &c., Corfu, Santa Maura, &c.) export wine, are the main articles of export from Flor- brandy, olive-oil, raisins, currants, citrons,

These pass through Leghorn, and melons, pomegranates, honey, cotton and sell readily in the Levant. Milan and salt. The raisins and currants are superiTurin carry on a very extensive trade in or to those of the Morea in quality. The their silk, which is celebrated throughout wine is Muscadel. Europe for its admirable fineness and The commerce of the island of Cyprus lightness. Ancona has intercourse with is inconsiderable. It exports cotton, wool, the first commercial cities of Europe. Its silk, wine, salt, turpentine, Turkish leather, business is chiefly agency and commis- &c. Its largest commercial cities are Larsion business. Some silk is exported from nica and Rhodes. Nice. The exports of Lucca are olive- The exports of the island of Candia, oil, silk, damasks, fruit, &c. Much olive- which, by its situation, is designed for oil is exported from Gallipoli. The trade the mart of the European, Asiatic and Afof Genoa continues considerable. Its ex- rican trade, consist of oil, soap, wax, wine, ports are velvet, damask (which, next to linseed, raisins, almonds, laudanum, St. the Venetian, is the most esteemed in Eu- John's bread (the fruit of the ceratonia sirope), raw silk, fruit, olive-oil, alum, mar- liqua), &c. ble, corals, coarse paper, &c. Venice, The Netherlands and Holland. The once the greatest mart of the world, not- chief commercial cities of the Belgic withstanding the disappearance of its an- Netherlands are Antwerp, Ghent and Oscient splendor, is still an important place tend. Antwerp is the mart of the comfor commerce, a great part of the trade merce of the North of Europe. Since of Europe with the Levant being yet in the opening of the Scheldt, it has been

ence.

gradually recovering its mercantile prosperity, and, in all probability, on account of its excellent central situation, its local advantages, and because it is the channel through which most of the commerce of the Dutch passes, will one day be of the first commercial importance. The exports of Antwerp consist, principally, of wheat, beans, clover-seed, linen, laces, carpets, tapestry, and all the manufactures of Brussels, Mechlin, Ghent and Bruges. The articles of export from Ghent are wheat, fine linen, flax, hemp, beans, &c.; those from Ostend are wheat, clover-seed, flax, tallow, hides, and the linen of Ghent and Bruges.-The chief exports of Holland, the commerce of which has revived since 1814, and employs, every year, 4000 vessels of various descriptions, are butter, cheese, linen, cloth, drugs and paints, fish, wheat, linseed, clover-seed, geneva (gin), dye-stuffs, paper, &c. The principal commercial cities in Holland are Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Groningen; then follow Liege, Middelburg, and the ports of Briel, Delftshaven, Dort, Enckhuysen, Medenblick, &c. Before the decline of Dutch commerce, Amsterdam was one of the greatest commercial cities of the world, the mart of goods from the East and the West, and from the principal states of Europe. At the time when the Dutch were in exclusive possession of the spiceries of the East, of the silks of the East Indies and China, and of the fine East India cotton goods, they dressed in coarse cloth, and were satisfied with a very frugal mode of living. The fine cloths which they themselves manufactured, they destined wholly for foreign countries, and, for their own use, purchased coarse cloth in England. At that time, they likewise sold the superior butter and cheese which they made, and, for their own use, bought the cheaper sorts from England and Ireland. To the exchange and banking business, of which the channel was Amsterdam, the Dutch were also, in part, indebted for their great prosperity. With Hamburg, Amsterdam is yet the centre of the exchange business between the North and the South of Europe, although, from the time that the credit of the bank of Amsterdam diminished, this branch of business has declined, a great portion of it being transferred to Hamburg and London. The imports are grain, wood, coal, tallow, wax, rags, &c. For the colonial trade of Holland, the possession of Batavia, Amboyna, Banda, Ternate, and Macassar, in the East Indies, is of importance, as are also the

commercial settlements on the Coromandel and Malabar coasts, and those at Bantam, Padang, Japan, &c. In Africa, Holland has some forts in Guinea; in America, she possesses Surinam, and the West India islands of Curaçao, St. Eustatia and St. Martin.

Poland. The exports of Poland consist of corn, hemp, flax, lumber, linseed, tallow and salt. Its commerce is inconsiderable, and is almost wholly in the hands of the Jews. Warsaw and Cracow are the two largest commercial cities. The former has two fairs every year. Cracow has a situation very favorable to commerce, but the principal article of its trade is furnished by the celebrated saltmines of Wieliczka, situated in the neighborhood. At the fairs of Leipsic and Frankfort on the Oder, Poland is supplied with manufactures, and all articles of luxury, in exchange for hare-skins and other productions.

Portugal. The Portuguese exports are, chiefly, white and red Port wine, Lisbon and Calcavella wine, salt, oranges, lemons and other fruit, cork, silk, wool, sweet oil, &c. To England are sent Port wine, Lisbon, Calcavella, Madeira and Canary wines, salt, oranges, lemons, cork, &c.; in return for which the Portuguese obtain British manufactures and colonial goods, provisions, corn, meal, copper, lead, coal, &c. Their exports to the North of Europe are wine, salt, fruit, &c.; for which they receive hemp, flax, corn, iron, timber, tar, pitch, stock-fish, and Russian and German linen. The chief commercial cities are Lisbon, Oporto, and Setubal, commonly called St. Ubes. The foreign possessions of Portugal are, the cities of Goa and Diu in the East Indies, together with a part of Timor, the factory of Macao in China, the Azores, Madeira and Puerto Santo in the Atlantic, the cape Verd islands, those of St. Thomas, Angola, and some settlements in Guinea and on the western coast of Africa, with Mozambique, Melinda and other settlements on the eastern coast.

Russia. Russia exports, principally, iron, hemp, flax, cordage of all kinds, tallow, hides, fir and oak timber, boards, planks, laths, spars, pitch and tar, together with all kinds of grain, especially wheat, linen, canvass of various kinds, wax, honey, bristles, suet, soap, isinglass, caviare, leather, train-oil, hemp-seed, linseed and tobacco. The chief commercial cities are Tobolsk, Irkutsk and Tomsk, in Siberia ; Astrachan, Orenburg and Kasan, in Asiatic Russia; Moscow and Novgorod, in

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the interior of Russia ; Archangel, on the and East India goods, from Holland; salt, White sea; Libau (though very much de- grain, wool and cloths, from Germany; cayed) in Courland ; Taganrog, Caffa or raw cotton, silk, &c., from Italy; manuTheodosia, Odessa, Cherson, Sebastopol factures, of various kinds, from England; and Azoph, on the Black sea and the sea wine and brandy from France. The of Azoph; Riga, Pernau, Narva, Revel, principal commercial cities of Switzerland Petersburg, Viborg, Fredericshamm and are Bâle, Berne, Zurich, Geneva and Arensburg ; the places where the fairs are Neufchatel. held, at Niznei-Novgorod, Irbit, &c., Spain. For three centuries, with the connecting the caravan trade of the East decrease of the industry of Spain, its trade with the inland trade of European Russia, has been on the decline. This country which is promoted by canals and rivers. might have monopolized the commerce By the Black sea and the sea of Azoph, of the world, if it had understood and imRussia carries on a very lively trade with proved its situation. The natural wealth various Turkish ports ; on the Caspian of the soil is, nevertheless, still the prop sea, with Persia; by way of Kiachta, with of its trade. The most important proChina ; and, on the north-west coast of ductions are wool, silk, salt, iron, copper, America, it is at present laying the foun- coal, quicksilver, barilla, rice, saltpetre, sudation of its trade in the Pacific. Russia gar, almonds, olives, oranges, lemons, figs, has lately sent an expedition from Kodiak wines, brandy and fruit. In Segovia and northward, to make topographical surveys Leon, about 1,000,000 arobas (4. v.) of in the interior of North America, and to fine wool are annually collected, of which establish a commercial intercourse with about four fifths are disposed of to the the natives of this unexplored country. French, Dutch and English. The excelHer colonies in North America are well lent Spanish wines, brandy, fruit, barilla, provided for. Her officers are gaining &c., are profitable articles for the country. nautical knowledge in England, and num- From the port of Barcelona, excellent bers have been sent to the U. States of silks, coarse cloths and cotton goods, with America, where models of nautical archi- wine, brandy, almonds, nuts, and other tecture and vessels celebrated for sailing productions, are exported; in return for have been purchased on Russian ac- which, the same port receives the silks of count.

Lyons, the hosiery of Nismes, various Sweden and Norway. The articles ex- kinds of stuffs and cotton goods, German ported from the 28 Swedish ports are linen and dried stock-fish from England, iron, steel, copper, pitch, tar, fir, alum and amounting to about $3,000,000. The exfish. The chief commercial cities are ports of Valencia consist, principally, of Stockholm, Gottenburg and Gefle. Carls- silk, barilla (soda), coarse wool, dried fruits, crona carries on considerable trade in wine and brandy. The latter is exported, iron, timber, pitch, tar, tallow, potash, lin- chiefly, by the Dutch, and carried to Norseed, &c., which articles are sent mainly mandy and Bretagne. The English carry to the French, Spanish and Italian ports, to Spain, chiefly, woollen cloth; the commonly in exchange for salt. The ex- French, linen, woollen cloth, cutlery, groports of Gottenburg are fish, iron, steel ceries, &c. From the port of Alicant,

the and boards. The institutions of Sweden Spaniards export, chiefly, dried fruits, silk, for the promotion of commerce are the wool, barilla, wine, Castile soap, olives, bank, the East India company, the West saffron, a kind of cochineal called grana, India company, the Levant commercial and salt; of which last, the English and company, the association of industry, &c. Swedes annually take upwards of 9,000,000 From Norway are exported fish, oak and pounds. 'In Carthagena and Malaga, also, fir timber, deal boards, masts, alum, vitriol, much business is done. From the latter, fish and seal oil, pitch, hides, woollen wines, dried fruit, almonds, sumach, anstockings, iron, copper and tar. The chovies, olive-oil, &c., are exported. Cachief commercial cities are Christiania, diz has been one of the principal marts in Bergen, Drontheim, Christiansand, Dram- the world, both in ancient and modern mer and Stavanger.

times. In 1792, its exports to the two InSwitzerland. Switzerland has a consid- dies amounted to the sum of 276,000,000 erable foreign trade. Its exports consist, reals, and its imports to upwards of chiefly, of fine linen, silks, velvets, imita- 700,000,000 reals (8 reals make 1 dollar). tions of East India goods and shawls, Madrid, the royal residence, is likewise an fine calicoes, clocks, watches, ribbons, important commercial place and depot. wine, cheese, honey, &c. The most im- Seville carries on a considerable trade in portant articles of importation are colonial oil and oranges, which are exported from

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