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Cadiz. Almost the whole Spanish coast- This business is transacted without the ing trade is in the hands of the French, Turks having the slightest part in it. Dutch and English. The independence Hungary. Hungary is considered by of Spanish America has almost totally an- Austria as a foreign country, and is circled nihilated the colonial power of Spain. in by a line of custom officers. The trade The situation of Cuba may be considered of Hungary, therefore, is under different dubious, like that of the Philippines. (See regulations from that of the rest of the Philippines and South America.)

empire, and is any thing but favored by Turkey. The Turks are, as yet, very the government. Its foreign commerce far from being a commercial nation, al- is, nevertheless, by no means insignificant. though their commerce with Austria, The exports are wine, tobacco, gall-nuts, France, Italy, Great Britain, Holland, &c. antimony, alum, potash, horned cattle, by means of the Jews, Armenians and wool, iron, copper, wheat, rye and barley. Greeks living in Turkey, who have the The exports by far exceed the imports. trade of this country almost wholly in Goods can only be introduced through their hands, is by no means insignificant. Austria and Turkey, the government havThe insurrection of the Greeks did, in- ing prohibited every other way that might deed, at first, interrupt very much the be selected for the purpose. commerce of Austria and other states ; II. Asia. The commerce of Asia is and the British were also formidable rivals mostly inland, carried on chiefly, in Weston the Ionian isles; but Vienna, the cen- ern and Middle Asia, by means of those tre of the Greek trade, has, nevertheless, caravans (called, by a poet, the fleets of the retained its connexion with Turkey, while desert), in which, sometimes, more than the productions and the demands of the free 50,000 merchants and travellers are colGreeks must soon much increase. They lected, while the number of camels is far offer cotton for linen, silk for cloths, gold greater. The central point of this trade for iron. Nature and habit recommend by caravans is Mecca, which, during the to them-intercourse with Austria. On the presence of the caravans, offers to the eye other hand, the commerce with European of the traveller a more active trade and a Russia, by way of Constantinople to greater accumulation of merchandise than Odessa, was very much restricted by the any other city in the world. The muslins Porte, subsequently to 1823, by the neces- and other goods of the East Indies, the sity of relading, to which it subjected the productions of China, all the spices of the European vessels destined for Odessa, and East, the shawls of Cashmere, &c., are by other burdensome regulations. This, transported on the backs of camels to however, has been changed by the peace Mecca, from whence they are scattered concluded with Russia in 1829. Every over, not only the Asiatic, but also the vessel can, at present, pass the Darda- African continent. nelles unmolested. This must soon have The Arabs, who were, before the disa great influence upon the Turkish trade covery of the passage to the East Indies also. In the Archipelago, the Greek around the cape of Good Hope, the first struggle for freedom has given rise to commercial people of the world, have now many dangers to the commerce of neu- no commerce of consequence. Coffee, trals. The chief commercial place is aloes, almonds, the balsam of Mecca, Constantinople, particularly in regard to spices and drugs, and their African imthe trade with Russia. Till within a short ports of myrrh, frankincense and gumperiod, it distributed the Russian products arabic, are their chief articles of export. through the ports of the Mediterranean. Yemen, rich in the costly productions of The exports of this city, which, under a nature, resorts for a market to Mecca. wise and active government, might become The Arabian gulf and the Red sea conthe true mart of the world, are of such nect the commerce of Arabia with that of little importance, that the great quantities Africa, especially with that of Egypt and of goods, imported for the use of Turkey, Abyssinia. have to be paid for, almost wholly, with From Masuah, the capital of Abyssinia, gold and diamonds. In this port, the Eng- are exported gold, civet, ivory, rhinoceros' lish, French, Italians and Dutch obtain horns, rice, honey, wax and slaves; and for the produce of Poland, the salt, the honey, these the Africans obtain, in Mocha, or the wax, the tobacco and the butter of the Mecca, and Jedda, cotton, cloves, cinnaUkraine; the hides, the tallow, the hemp, mon, pepper, musk, ginger, cardamom, the canvass, the peltry, and the metals of camphor, copper, lead, iron, tin, steel, turRussia and Siberia, and, in exchange, give meric, vermilion, tobacco, gunpowder, the productions of their own countries. sandal-wood, rice, hardware, arms, and a number of other kinds of European man- hair, and stuffs made of the same mateufactures.

The exports from Aden, an rial; for the Angora goats' hair is manuArab city, on the straits of Babelmandeb, factured into camlet, in the Levant itself, where many Jews reside for the purpose and in Europe, especially in England, of trade, are coffee, elephants’ tusks, gold, France and Holland, some of whose camand various kinds of gums; for which it let manufactories keep agents in Angora, imports chiefly East India and Chinese through whom they make their purchases. productions. Muscat, a port in the Ara- Damascus is the centre of trade in Syria bian province Oman, the key of Arabia and does a good deal of business through and Persia, carries on considerable trade the caravans, which go from the north of with British India, Sumatra, the Malay Asia to Mecca, and from Bagdad to Cairo. islands, the Red sea, and the eastern coast Aleppo has much commercial intercourse of Africa.

with Constantinople, Bassora, Bagdad, Well adapted as the geographical situa- Damascus and Scanderoon, or Alexantion of Persia is for commerce, it is pur- dretta, to which places caravans go every sued, nevertheless, with very

little energy, year, through Aleppo. Its exports are its and little enterprise. Its exports consist own silk and cotton goods, the shawls and mostly of horses, silk, pearls, brocades, muslins of the East Indies, the gall-nuts carpets, cotton goods, shawls, rose-water, of Curdistan, copper, pistachio-nuts, and wine of Schiras, dates, wool of Caramania, drugs. Alexandretta has some trade of gums, drugs of various kinds, &c. The importance. Erzerum is the mart of silk chief places for Persian trade are the and cotton goods, printed linens, groceries, Turkish cities of Bagdad and Bassora. rhubarb, madder, and East Indian zedoary. The harbor of Abuschar, or Buschir, on The British East Indies, and the Malay the Persian gulf, is also a mart for Per- Peninsula. For the long period of 4000 sian and Indian goods. Bagdad, once the years, the products of India, so important centre of a brilliant and extensive com- in commerce, have remained the same; merce, may still be considered as the great for all the commodities and treasures of mart of the East, though it is by no means India, mentioned by the ancients, are, to what it has been. From Bassora, the this day, those for which the nations of productions of Arabia, India, Persia and the other quarters of the world resort the Asiatic islands are sent to Bagdad, thither, viz., rice, indigo, cochineal and where they find a very good market, and other dye-stuffs, opium, cotton, silk, drugs, from whence they are scattered through cinnamon, cassia, cocoa-nuts, &c. The the other cities of the Turkish empire. East India trade is mostly in the hands of By means of the Arab caravans, Europe the English, under the management of the supplies Persia with goods of all kinds, East India company. Next to the Engand even with the productions of America. lish, the U. States are most extensively On the other hand, it has nothing to give engaged in the East India trade. Denbut dates, tobacco, and a very moderate mark carries on but an inconsiderable quantity of woollen stuffs, its whole trade trade with the East Indies, and that once consisting in the distribution and sale of carried on by Sweden is now almost anthe products of other countries. Bassora nihilated, although, prior to the late great is, by its situation, the mart of the active changes in the government of that counEast Indian, Persian and Arabic trade, try, the Swedish East India company was, carried on in the Persian gulf. Its trade of all the commercial societies of Europe, with the East Indies is very considerable, the best regulated, and the most successit being the channel through which the ful in its operations, next to the English. Ottoman empire is supplied with the gro- The trade of Portugal with the British ceries of the East, and with the manufac- possessions in the East Indies is of imtures of the British possessions in the East portance; that of Spain, on the other Indies.

hand, inconsiderable. Calcutta is the most Asiatic Turkey. The principal port of important commercial city of the East Inthe Levant is Smyrna, a very important dies. Besides it, Benares, Guzerat, Oude depot of the merchandise of the East and and Moultan are worthy of note, among West. The articles exported from the the commercial towns of northern India ; Levant are coffee, cotton, wool, silk, mad- Madras and Pondicherry, on the eastern der, camels' and goats' hair, hides, raisins, coast; Bombay, Surat and Cochin, on the figs, pearls, rotten-stone, whet-stones, nut- western; Goa, &c. From Queda, on the galls, opium, rhubarb and other drugs. peninsula of Malacca, are obtained tin, Angora sends to Smyrna, by caravans, rice, wax, fish maws and sharks' fins; at considerable quantities of Angora goats' Salengore, Pahang and Trangano, cloves,

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nutmegs, pepper, camphor, betel, ivory, probably amount annually to £500,000.gold dust, tortoise shell, tin, &c. Gold Next to the English, the people of the U. dust is exported chiefly from Malacca. States have the most trade with China. Since 1819, the British government in In the following years, their imports into, Calcutta, through sir Thomas Stamford and exports of tea from, Canton were as Raffles, has founded, according to his plan, stated below, the value of the imports a new commercial town on the fertile, being given in dollars, the amount of tea well-wooded island of Sincapore (q. v.), exported being stated in pounds. on the south extremity of the peninsula of Years.

Imports. Tea exported. Malacca, on the straits of this name, which 1815-16 $2,527,500 7,245,290 is of extreme importance to the British 1816_17 5,609,600 8,954,100 trade with China, and must destroy the 1817–18 7,076,828 China trade of the Dutch. If Sincapore 1818–19

9,622,130

10,017,151 10,988,649 is made a free port, England will be able to supply from thence all of Further India Average exports to 1800, 2,735,090

of 1824–25, 13,314,449 with the productions of its industry.

China. The trade which China carries having increased 387 per cent. in 25 years. on with Europe, British India, the U. The exports of tea by the East India comStates of America, Cochin-China and pany, in this time, have also greatly inSiam, with Japan and the other Asiatic creased. The company's export trade from islands, is very considerable. The British Europe to China has long been stationary. imports into China are partly shipped by The imports of the nations on the contithe East India company, partly by pri- nent of Europe into China consist chiefly vate merchants. From 1781 to 1791, the of gold bullion, for which tea is received; company sent thither to the amount of but these imports are small, since most of £3,471,521 in goods, and £3,588,264 in them obtain their tea from the English and bullion; from 1792 to 1809, £16,502,338 Americans. With Siam, Cambodia, Coworth of goods, and £2,466,946 in bull- chin-China, the Asiatic islands and Japan, ion. The exports which the company China has a very active intercourse, and, made to England, amounted, from 1793 of late, with Russia also, both by land to 1810, including duties, freights, &c., through Kiachta to Irkutsk, &c., and by to £41,203,422, and they were sold for water. The Dutch, English and Ameri£57,896,274, leaving the company a net cans have factories at Canton, the French profit of £16,692,852. As the English an agent there or at Macao, the Spaniards East India company trades more exten- an agent at Macao, where the Portuguese sively with the Chinese than any other have a colony. body, we shall subjoin the following offi- From Siam and Tonquin are exported cial statement of its exports of tea and tin, ivory, diamonds and other precious raw silk from the port of Canton, for each stones, gold dust, copper, salt, betel, pepof the following ten years, as given in the per, wax, silk, timber and lackered wares, appendix to the report of the committee and the commerce of these two countries of the house of lords, printed in 1821. is mostly in the hands of the Chinesa and Years.

Tea, pounds. Silk, pounds. Portuguese. The trade of Cochin-China 1810–11 19,710,737 81,828

is mostly in the hands of the Chinese. 1811-12 26,164,221 87,074

The exports are sugar, silk, gold, betel1812-13 28,267,413 145,889

nuts, ebony, Japan-wood, buffaloes' horns,

dried fish and fish-skins. 1813-14 24,727,436

The Chinese 140,129 1814-15 26,195,144 209,073

empire is so vast, and the variety of the 1815 16 33,013,387 37,642

products of the different provinces so 181617 29,353,973 67,518

great, that the inland commerce of this

world in itself has withdrawn the atten1817-18 20,151,597 55,597 181819 21,085,860

tion of the people from the foreign trade, 48,007

which oppressive regulations have inAverage of 1825, 6, 7 37,090,898

jured. Formerly, however, Chinese vesFrom the different ports of the British sels went to Arabia, and even to Egypt. possessions in the East, 35 ships entered Japan. Since the expulsion of the the port of Canton in the years 1818 and Portuguese from Japan, the commerce of 1819, and the value of their cargoes was this country has been almost wholly do$8,714,272, and, including what was ship- mestic. The only foreigners, with whom ped to Macao, the total was $11,999,272. the Japanese still have any trade, are the The exports of the English merchants not Chinese and the Dutch, and these are connected with the company, to China, limited to the single port of Nangasaki. The Chinese supply the Japanese with this island, the Dutch took great pains to rice, common porcelain, sugar, ginseng, extirpate all the clove-trees on the neighivory, silks, nankeen, lead, tin plates, al- boring islands. For this purpose, also, um, &c.; and, in return, receive copper, the government of Amboyna, with a nucamphor, lackered wares, pearls, coals, merous retinue, still makes a journey evand a metallic composition, called sowas, ery year to the other Dutch islands. Banconsisting of copper and a small quantity ca is celebrated for its tin mines, and the of gold. The Dutch obtain chiefly cop- exportation of this tin to China is of much per, camphor, lacker and lackered wares. importance, as the Chinese prefer it to the Only 2 Dutch and 12 Chinese vessels are English on account of its malleability. allowed to enter the harbor of Nangasaki About 4,000,000 pounds of tin are obannually. After the arrival of a vesseltained annually. The Banda islands proand the performance of the preliminary duce nutmegs and mace. The staple exceremonies, the goods are sent on shore. ports from Batavia, where all the goods Then come the imperial officers (for the of the Dutch East India company are detrade with foreign countries is the monop- posited, are pepper, rice, cotton, sugar, oly of the emperor), who examine the coffee and indigo. 6,250,000 pounds of quality and the quantity of the goods, de- pepper, part of which is raised on the liberate together, and fix the price of the island itself, part brought from Bantam, native commodities that are demanded in Sumatra, Borneo, and the other islands, return. Foreigners must submit to these are annually stored in the magazines. conditions, or keep the goods which they Both coffee and sugar have also been culhave brought The Japanese merchants tivated here, of late years, to the amount can obtain foreign goods only by pur- each of 10,000,000 pounds. Borneo has, chasing them of the emperor. În the besides pepper, gold in dust and bars, wax, manufacture of silks and woollens, porce- sago, camphor, the last of the most excellain and lackered wares, the Japanese are lent quality. In addition to the Dutch in no degree inferior to the Europeans. and English, the Chinese have here an In the manufacture of hardware, they active trade. The exports of Ceylon are have also attained great skill. The Japan- cinnamon, pepper, coffee, tobacco, betel, ese sabres and daggers are very excellent, cocoa-nuts, drugs, timber, pearls

, precious and are perhaps surpassed only by the stones, corals, &c. Of the Philippines, sabres of Damascus. In polishing steel the principal are Lucon or Manilla, and and all other metals, they are also very Magindanao or Mindana. The exports are skilful, and their fine porcelains are much indigo, sugar, silk, gold dust, quassia, pepsuperior to the Chinese. In the begin- per, tortoise-shell, wax, precious stones, ning of the 17th century, the English be- silver, sago and tobacco. The trade of gan to trade with Japan; but the Portu- the Philippines with China and South guese missionaries, and afterwards the America is considerable. Dutch, succeeded in prejudicing the gov- duces sugar, the best Asiatic tobacco, inernment against them. In 1673, the at- digo, and a kind of hemp. The Prince tempt to renew the trade was again frus- of Wales' island, from its situation betrated by the Dutch. On account of the tween India, China and the Eastern isles, great advantages which it was thought has an important trade. Its exports are this trade would ensure to England, a chiefly benzoin, pepper, betel-nuts, grothird attempt was made in 1699, and the ceries, metals, East India zinc, cochineal, factory at Canton was instructed to enter eagle-wood, Japan-wood, elephants' teeth, into connexion with Japan, if by any sugar, and silver bullion. Sumatra carmeans possible. The result

, however, did ries on considerable trade. The exports not satisfy expectation, and all further at- are gold dust, betel, benzoin, pepper, tempts have been given up. In 1813, camphor, Japan-wood, sulphur and rathowever, when Java was subjected to tans, wax, gum-lac, groceries, tin, &c. Great Britain, the East India company III. AFRICA. The want of navigable had some slight intercourse with Japan. rivers, and the immeasurable deserts by The Russian mission to Japan, under which the fruitful regions of Africa are Krusenstern, in 1805, was no less unsuc- separated, form an insurmountable obstacessful than the English had been. (See cle to that extension of commerce, which Golownin.)

the great fertility of this quarter of the The Islands of Amboyna, Banca, the globe would promise. In addition to the Bandas, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, &c.— intercourse of the interior, the commerce From Amboyna are exported cloves, to of Africa has its sources in Egypt, the confine the cultivation of which solely to Barbary states, on the west coast in

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Guinea, in the neighborhood of the rivers state in Barbary. Its chief harbors are Gambia, Niger and Senegal, at the cape Biserta, Susa and Soliman. Tripoli has of Good Hope and the Portuguese colo- little trade, and its exports consist mostly nies, and on the coasts of the Red sea. of saffron, ashes, senna leaves and madThe inland trade is carried on by means der. The trade of Morocco and Sallee is of caravans. The African caravans con- also of little importance. Agadeez, or sist of from 500 to 2000 camels. The Santa Cruz, is the most southerly harbor three principal countries from which they of Morocco, and was once the centre of a proceed are Morocco, Fez and Egypt. very important trade. Fez is still such a The chief articles of the inland trade of centre between the ports of Morocco, the Africa are salt, gold and slaves. The Mediterranean sea and the interior of Afgreatest caravans go from the western' rica. (See Timbuctoo and Wassanah.) coast and from the interior by way of Cape of Good Hope. The trade with Timbuctoo, the great mart of the inland the cape of Good Hope is extremely adtrade, and other places of depot, to the vantageous to Great Britain. In 1809, the eastern coast, where the most important importation of English goods exceeded commercial places are Natal (on the coast £330,000, while the exports of the colony of Lagoa), Soffala, Quilimane, Mozam- (mostly Cape wine) did not amount to bique, Querimba, Quiloa, Mombaza, Me- £6000. The amount of the trade has linda, Brava, Magadoxo, Berbera, Zeila since been very much enlarged by the inand Adel. Quilimane, Mozambique and crease of colonization. The average exMelinda Portuguese settlements. ports from Great Britain to the cape of From Adel, Zeila, Berbera and Brava are Good Hope amount to $2,119,000, and exported, mainly, gold dust, ivory and the imports into England from the Cape incense, for which the products of Arabia to $1,561,000. and the East Indies are returned. There

Egypt. From its uncommonly favorais considerable trade between the British ble situation in the centre of three portions settlements in the East Indies and Mo- of the globe, this country seems destined zambique, and the English obtain ele- by nature to be also the centre of their phants' and hippopotamus' teeth, tortoise- commerce; but it has altogether lost its shell , drugs, cowries, gold, &c.

former high rank in the commercial world, The Barbary States. The commercial since it has ceased to be the channel of intercourse of the Barbary states with the India trade. It has, nevertheless, conEuropeans is very inconsiderable and siderable inland trade, which extends into vacillating, and the little business which the interior of Africa. Three caravans go is transacted is mainly in the hands of the thither, every year, from Egypt. One French, British and Americans. The goes to Sennaar, and collects the producexports consist of olive-oil, wax, wool, tions of this country and Abyssinia ; anwheat, gums, almonds, dates, aromatic other to Darfour, and the third to Fez, seeds, ivory, leather, hides and ostrich- whither the productions of Bornou, and feathers. Even the coral fisheries on the all the countries lying along the Nile, are coasts (from cape Rosa to cape Roux) are brought. Other caravans exchange Egypin the hands of the French and Italians; tian commodities for those of the East and the annual produce of about 50,000 Indies and Arabia. But the most considpounds of coral is more than $420,000. erable is that which consists of the united But a far more important commerce is caravans of Abyssinia and Western Africa, pursued by the Barbary states with Ara- and goes annually to Mecca. The exports bia, Egypt, and the interior of Africa. of Egypt are rice, corn, cotton, myrrh, Their caravans are met with in Mecca, incense, opium, dates, mother-of-pearl

, Cairo and Alexandria. The chief com- ivory, gums and drugs of various kinds, mercial cities are Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, hides, wax, &c., most of which go to Sallee, and Agadeez, or Santa Cruz, and in Constantinople, the Barbary states, Great Morocco, Mogadore. Before the French Britain, Venice and Marseilles. It also revolution, the commerce of Algiers was exports the productions of Arabia, e. g., wholly in the hands of a company of Mocha coffee. The chief commercial French merchants at Marseilles, who had cities are Cairo and Alexandria, since regular settlements in the ports of Bona, 1819 united again by a canal. Cairo has La Calle and Il-Col. But, in 1806, the dey two ports, Rosetta and Damietta. France conveyed, for $50,000, the possession of sends to Egypt woollen cloth, red caps, those ports to England. The chief ports fringes of all kinds, and ornaments of of export of Algiers are Bona and Oran. dress, ordinary china ware, arms, &c. Tunis is the most important commercial England sends muslins, and cloths of

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