Imatges de pągina

the Scotists and the Thomists. The Dominicans espoused the opinion of St. Thomas, the Franciscans that of Scotus. Sixtus IV, himself a Franciscan, allowed toleration on this point. In the 5th session of the council of Trent, it was resolved, that the doctrine of the conception of all men in original sin was not intended to include the Virgin. The controversy was revived in the university of Paris towards the close of the 16th century. During the times of Paul V and Gregory XV, such was the dissension in Spain, that both Philip and his successor sent special embassies to Rome, in the vain hope that this contest might be terminated by a bull. The dispute continued to run so high in Spain, that, in the military orders of St. James, of the Sword, of Calatrava, and of Alcantara, the knights, on their admission, vowed to maintain the doctrine. In 1708, Clement XI appointed a festival to be celebrated throughout the church in honor of the immaculate conception. Since that time, it has been received in the Roman church as an opinion, but not as an article of faith. This belief is held by the Greek church also, which celebrates the feast under the title of the conception of St. Anne. Petrus de Alva et Astorga published more than 40 volumes on this subject. He died in 1667.

CONCEPTION, LA, or PENCO; a city and seaport of Chile, on the coast of the South Pacific ocean, capital of a jurisdiction, formerly the capital of Chile; lon. 73° 5′ W.; lat. 36° 49′ 10′′ S.; population, 13,000. The bay of Conception is one of the most commodious harbors found in any part of the world. The city is of great extent, because the houses are built only one story high, that they may be the better able to resist the earthquakes that happen every year. It is the residence of the bishop, and of the major-general, who is at the head of the military department. Conception was founded by Peter Valdivia, in 1550. In 1823, the Indians devastated a part of it.-There is not in the universe a soil more fertile than that of this part of Chile. Grain yields 60 for 1; the vineyards are equally productive, and the plains are covered with innumerable flocks, which multiply astonishingly, though abandoned entirely to themselves. All the inhabitants have to do is to set up fences round their respective possessions, and to leave the oxen, horses, mules and sheep in the enclosures. The common price of a fat ox is $8; that of a sheep, of a dollar; but there are few purchasers, and the natives are accustomed, every year, to kill a

great number of oxen, of which the hides and tallow are alone preserved, and sent to Lima. There is no particular disease incident to this country. There are at Concention several persons who have completed a century.

CONCERT; a musical performance, in which any number of practical musicians, either vocal or instrumental, or both, unite in the exercise of their respective talents. The concerts of the ancient Greeks were executed only in the unison or octave.

CONCERTO; a kind of musical composition, which is an imitation of the solo song with accompaniments-in short, an imitation of the aria. In the concerto, one chief instrument is distinguished, and leads the rest. In the case of such concertos, the performance is called after this instrument, or it is called, in general, concerto di camera. The term double concerto is used if there are two chief instruments.

Concerto grosso is an expression applied to the great or grand chorus of the concert, or to those places of the concert in which the ripienos and every auxiliary instrument are brought into action, for the sake of contrast and to increase the effect. Concerto spirituale was a concert Paris, performed in the religious seasons, when the theatres were closed. The pieces performed, however, were not always of a spiritual kind. It was introduced in 1725, by Anne Danican, called Philidor.


CONCETTI; Sparkling but strained sentences, far-fetched plays on words, &c., which have become famous, in particular since the use of them by the Italian poet Marino. The taste for them is a disease which has manifested itself in the developement of almost all literatures. The Spaniards and English suffered from it for a long time. Marino, who introduced them into Italy, caught this poetical infection in France, where a poet called the wind the courier of Eolus, the sun, the prince of tapers. Germany has had its Lohenstein; and, even now, there are, in every country, writers afflicted with this passion for a false brilliancy.

CONCHOLOGY (derived from κóyx”, a shell-fish with two shells, and λóyos, word), more correctly, CONCHYLIOLOGY (derived from Koyxov, all sorts of shell-fish, and λóyos), is that branch of natural history which describes those animals which produce shells, and teaches the art of arranging the shells themselves. The beginnings of this science are to be found in the writings of Aristotle, who established some of those divisions which are in use

suggested one year before, namely, that the consideration of the animal is as necessary as that of the shell, in order to form a natural system of conchyliology. He described and figured the different species of shell-fish that he found in Senegal, and thereby formed a store from which the most valuable materials have been drawn by later authors to enrich the science. Contemporary with Adanson was the celebrated Linnæus, whose genius has exercised such great influence over the arrangements of the vegetable and animal kingdoms. The ninth edition of the Systema Natura of Linnæus was published in 1746, 11 years before the appearance of Adanson's work, forming only an octavo volume of 236 pages, in which Linnæus does not appear to have used the term mollusca, the animals now thus designated being distributed by him, the naked species in the order zoophyta, in the class vermes, and the species bearing shells in the order testacea of the same class. The 10th edition, which appeared in 1758, one year after the publication of the Voyage to Senegal, was much enlarged; and in the 12th edition, which may be supposed to have received the last touches of its illustrious author, the part relating to the animal kingdom had swelled to 1327 pages. This edition was published about 10 years after Adanson's work, the perusal of which had probably somewhat modified the views of Linnæus. Linnæus divides his sixth class of animals into five orders, in the second of which are eight genera of true mollusca, viz., ascidia, limax, aplysia, doris, tethys, sepia, clio and scyllaa. The third order is almost entirely devoted to testacea,* divided into, 1. multivalves, the shell having more than two pieces; 2. bivalves, having two pieces; 3. univalves, having one piece. The first division contains three genera, chiton, lepas and pholas. The second contains 14 genera mya, solen, tellina, cardium, mactra, donax, venus, spondylus, chama, arca, ostrea, anomia, mytilus and pinna. The third division, separated into two sections, according as the spire is regular or not, contains 19 genera-argonauta, nautilus, conus, cypræa, bulla, voluta, buccinum, strombus, murex, trochus, turbo, helix, nerita, haliotis, patella, dentalium, serpula, teredo and sabella. In giving the characters of his genera, with respect to the animals, Linnæus is always satisfied with citing the name of a naked molluscum described in

among modern authors. He divided shells into monothyra and dithyra; that is, univalves and bivalves. The monothyra were turbinated or not turbinated; they were terrestrial or aquatic; both were marine or fluviatile, fixed or free. To the facts recorded by Aristotle, other ancient authors have added little; to his distribution, nothing. The first modern author who attempted a systematic arrangement of shells, seems to have been Daniel Major, who, in 1675, published Synoptical Tables, containing a few Genera, naturally arranged, and established upon the Species described by Fabricius Columna. He divided shells into univalves and multivalves, placing the bivalves among the latter. In 1681, Grew, in his Museum Regium, added a division analogous to our bivalves, and indicated most of the subdivisions that have since obtained. About 1687, the celebrated Lister published his Historia sive Synopsis Methodica Conchyliorum, Libri quatuor. This work contains a great number of accurate figures of shells, pays great attention to the hinge of bivalves, and considers them as equivalve or not. Tournefort, who died in 1708, seems to have first suggested, in bivalves, the distinction of close or gaping (clausa vel hiantes). In 1711, Rumph added to the conchyliological catalogue many shells from the Indian seas, and indicated some good generic divisions. In 1730, Breyn pointed out a character in univalves, until then not noticed; namely, that some of them possess more than one compartment or chamber. This character divides the univalves into monothalamia and polythalamia. After 1730, no improvements of much value were made in the science, until 1757, in which year the publication of Adanson's Voyage to Senegal took place, and probably suggested many considerations, that became fixed principles of conchyliology by the adoption of Linnæus. In studying the univalves (limaçons), Adanson considered the spire, the apex, the aperture, the operculum, the nacre, the periosteum; in the bivalves (conques), the valves, whether equal or unequal, whether shutting close or gaping; the beaks (sommets), whether prominent or not, and according to their relative position with respect to the middle of the valve; the hinge, according to the number of the teeth and cavities; the ligament, according to its shape and situation; the muscles, according to their figure, size and number. In forming his conchyliological arrangement, Adanson adopted an important principle, which Guettard had


As Linnæus has said so little about the animals, if we translate testacea by the term shells, perhaps the error will be scarcely appreciable.

the preceding order, which he supposes to be analogous to the animal of the genus 'under consideration; therefore it is probable that the influence exerted by Adanson's work over the latter editions of the Systema Natura extended only to increasing the number of genera, and causing them to be more rigorously marked out and described. Some of the approximations of the Linnæan system are unnatural and inconvenient, and some genera, nearly related, are too far separated in the arrangement; but its nomenclature, and the clearness and precision of its technical terms, gave it a predominance that it has maintained almost to the present day. A detailed explanation of the conchyliological system of Linnæus may be found in a dissertation by I. Murray, published in the eighth volume of the Academical Amenities. The Neues systematisches Conchylien Kabinet-a great work, commenced by Martini in 1769, continued by Chemnitz, and finished by Schröter in 1793-may be considered rather as a magnificent collection of figures of shells, well drawn and colored, than as a system of conchyliology. As its figures are constantly referred to by the modern authors, it will be found very useful to students in identifying species and arranging their cabinets. The whole work consists of 12 volumes 4to. In 1776, Da Costa published his Elements of Conchology, in which more attention was paid by him to the characters of the aperture in univalves, and to the hinge in bivalves, than had been done by his predecessors; and the science is indebted to him for some valuable hints on the indelicacy of some of the terms employed by Linnæus to designate particular parts of bivalve shells. In 1766, Pallas had published his Miscellanea Zoologica, the principles of which, perhaps, entitle him to be considered as the founder of that new school which the French conchyliologists have since so successfully supported. He indicated the impropriety of separating the testacea from the naked mollusca, in the arrangement of Linnæus, and showed that a natural method could only arise from the consideration, not of the shells, but of the generic differences of the animals inhabiting them. Notwithstanding the light struck out by Pallas, Bruguière, one of the modern authors to whom the science is most indebted, in 1792, still followed so closely the Linnæan arrangement as to admit the division of the molluscous worms and testaceous worms into two orders. His order testacea is nearly the same as that of

Linnæus, except that the genera are somewhat more numerous and better defined. This order contains three divisions, according to the number of the valves. He divides the genus lepas of Linnæus into balanus and anatifa, dropping the term lepas altogether, in which he has been followed by Lamarck. This is so unusual, and, indeed, so ungracious a proceeding, that we would recommend to American conchyliologists always to use the term lepas instead of anatifa. Besides the two genera above-mentioned, he places among the multivalves, chiton, teredo, fistulana, pholas, anomia and crania. Among the bivalves, his new genera are, placuna, perna, trigonia, unio, tridacna, cardita and terebratula. Among his univalves are the following new genera: fissurella, siliquaria, aspergillum, ovula, oliva, purpura, cassis, terebra, fusus, cerithium, bulimus, planorbis, natica, camerina, ammonites and orthocera. In 1791 appeared the first volume of Testacea utriusque Siciliæ, eorumque Historia et Anatome-a splendid work, by Poli, an Italian physician, who first attempted to establish the genera of mollusca from the consideration of the animal only, without reference to the shell. This work may be considered as forming a remarkable epoch in the science, because, since its appearance, the classification of the mollusca and of the bivalves has become much more conformable to nature. The subjects figured in the superb plates of this work had been previously modelled in wax by the scholars of the author. In 1798, G. Cuvier proposed a new classification of molluscous animals. (Tableau élémentaire de l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux.) In this, he acknowledged himself indebted to the critical observations of Pallas, and carried nearer to perfection the inventions of Poli. In this arrangement, also, may be found the improvements successively introduced by Bruguière into the distinction of genera, which Lamarck was then increasing every year, in his course at the jardin du roi. Lamarck did not begin to publish the results of his labors until 1798, when a memoir on the division of the genus sepia into three genera, sepia, loligo and octopus, appeared in the Journ. d' Hist. Nat., t. 1. Early in 1799, Lamarck published his Prodromus of a new classification of shells, laying down, more precisely, the generic characters, and establishing many new genera, and still continuing the old division into univalves, bivalves and multivalves. Up to this time, Lamarck does not seem to have profited much by the labors of his

predecessors towards the establishment of a natural conchyliological method, but acknowledges that he has adopted the principles and views of Bruguière. Late in 1799, Cuvier published a table of the divisions of the class of mollusca, at the end of the first volume of his Lessons of Comparative Anatomy. We see, in this, that Cuvier had derived light from the Prodromus of Lamarck. Indeed, these two great naturalists, by their successive works, seem to have afforded light alternately to each other for a number of years. In 1801, Lamarck published his Animaux sans Vertèbres, in which, not confining himself entirely to the shells, he has, like Cuvier, paid attention also to the animals. From this period until 1822, when he finished publishing the second edition of Animaux sans Vertèbres, under the title of Histoire naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres, many authors,* both continental and English, had published memoirs and treatises on conchyliology, and many interesting facts had been collected, shedding much additional light on the science. Part of the 5th, and the whole of the 6th and 7th volumes of the Histoire naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres, are devoted to the conchyliophorous animals, the proper subjects of conchyliology. In this excellent work, Lamarck has improved upon the views of his friend Bruguière in the following particulars :-not confining himself to the consideration of the shell; viewing the shell as forming part of an animal; introducing into conchyliology a great number of new generic groups; using a very rigorous and exact terminology; and treating as the foundation of the principal division among bivalves, the number of the muscular impressions. He has also abandoned the division of multivalves, bivalves and univalves, which had been followed by most of the preceding conchyliologists, and has increased the number of genera to upwards of 200, the enumeration of which would swell this article beyond a reasonable limit. The specific descriptions of Lamarck, although short, are admirable for their precision, and the skill displayed in them in distinguishing clearly minute specific differences. The study of them will be found, by young naturalists, very beneficial and instructive. In 1812, H. M. Ducrotay de Blainville read, before the * De Ferussac, Draparnaud, Denys de Montfort, de Roissy, Bosc, Perron, Lesueur, De Blainville, Duméril, Chamisso, Kuhl, Von Moll, Von Fichtel, Megerle, Oken, Rafinesque, Desmarest, Savigny, Leach, Olfers, Sowerby, Schweiger, Swainson, Ranzani, Say.

philomathean society, a memoir, pointing out a necessary relation subsisting between the shell and the respiratory organs, and drawing therefrom a new principle of arrangement, depending on the existence or non-existence of a symmetry or regularity of form in those organs, and the protecting body, the shell. In 1825, De Blainville published his Manuel de Malacologie et de Conchyliologie-a very valuable work, to which we are indebted for most of the historical facts recorded in this article. The first chapter of the second section of this work, consisting of 80 pages, treats of shells, or the principles of conchyliology, and recommends itself strongly to students by the fulness, accuracy and clearness of its definitions, and the consistency of its general views. In modern times, the study of the mollusca and their coverings has become very important from geological considerations. As particular genera are known to belong to particular strata of the earth's crust, and as the positions assumed by the living animals are known, the ascertained position of the fossils determines, with sufficient certainty, whether the stratum has undergone removal, disruption or subversion since the death of the animals. The most interesting considerations are presented to the inquiring mind by some of the genera of microscopic shells; and the magnitude of the results produced by their infinite multiplicity causes their importance in the economy of nature to be felt with astonishment and admiration. Take, for instance, the miliolites, thus commented on by Lamarck: "The miliolites is a shell of most singular form, and perhaps one of the most interesting to study, on account of its multiplicity in nature, and the influence which it has upon the condition and size of the masses at the surface of the earth, or which compose its external crust. It is one of those numerous examples which prove, that, in producing living bodies, what nature seems to lose in size, she fully regains in the number of individuals, which she multiplies to infinity, and with a readiness almost miraculous. The bodies of these minute animals exert more influence on the condition of the masses which compose the surface of the earth, than those of the largest animals, such as elephants, hippopotami, whales, &c., which, although constituting much larger individual masses, are infinitely less multiplied in nature. In the environs of Paris, some species of miliolites are found in so great a quantity, that they form almost the principal part of the stony masses of certain

ranges." The naturalists of the U. States have also contributed much valuable matter to the science in question, and some new genera and many new species have been added by their labors. Among the scientific gentlemen in the U. States who have written on this subject, are Thomas Say, of Philadelphia, the late D. H. Barnes, of New York, doctor Hildreth, doctor Jacob Green and Isaac Lea, of Philadelphia. The papers lately contributed by the last-named gentleman to the Journal of the Transactions of the Ameri... can Philosophical Society on the Naiades of Lamarck, containing descriptions of several new species, are illustrated by plates executed with remarkable beauty and accuracy.

CONCLAVE (a room); the place where the cardinals assemble for the election of the pope; also the electoral assembly of the cardinals themselves. Pope Gregory X, whose election had been delayed for three years, established, in the council at Lyons (1274), the regulations of the conclave. It was settled, that if the pope should die in a city where he had resided with his court, the cardinals present should not be obliged to wait longer than 10 days for their absent brethren. After the lapse of 10 days, all the cardinals present should assemble in the palace in which the pope had died. Here they were all to be shut up in one room (conclave), without partitions or curtains, which, with the exception of one outlet, was to be closed on all sides, so that no one should speak with them, nor be admitted into their presence, except those who were called, with the consent of all the brethren, for the purpose of assisting, in some way, in the election. No one was to be permitted either to send in a messenger, or to write to the cardinals; but a window was to be left open in the room, through which the necessary food could be handed to them. If, in three days after entering the conclave, they had not chosen a pope, they were, on the five following days, to receive but one dish at noon and in the evening; and, after this, nothing but bread, wine and water, till the election should take place. These regulations of Gregory X have been observed in their essential provisions in recent times, though not always in every particular. As most of the popes have died in Rome, the conclave has usually been held in the Vatican, in the galleries of which, as many cells are built in a row as there are cardinals to be present. There the cardinals repair, two by two, the day after the funeral of

the pope, or on the 10th day after his death, after having heard a mass, which is called Missa spiritus sancti, and remain till the election is finished. The conclave which chose pope Pius VII was held at Venice by the assembled cardinals, as Pius VI died far from Rome.

CONCLAVIST; the companion, either lay or clerical, whom the cardinal is allowed to take with him into the conclave (q. v.) during the election of a pope, or to send for if he should fall sick. The conclavists are, in this case, subject to the same laws as the cardinals; they are not permitted to leave the conclave except in case of severe sickness; they partake at the same table with the cardinals, and have a cell of the same size. The place of conclavist is honorable, and very much sought for. The conclavist of the cardinal who is chosen pope seldom fails to make his fortune. As every cardinal generally becomes a member of the committee of regency, consisting of three cardinals, who are changed daily, each of the conclavists of the cardinals thus engaged has an opportunity to display his talents before the cardinal and his colleagues, as secretary of the committee.

CONCORD (also called accord, from the Italian accordare, and this from the Latin chorda); an expression used in music. It denotes an association of sounds, founded on the natural relations of simultaneous tones. Upon this association depends all harmony; in fact, every proper chord is of itself harmony; hence, e. g., the expres sion harmony of the dominant. In its proper acceptation, harmony is the result of connected tones in consecutive chords. With regard to their simultaneous expression, however, tones differ in their relations. Some, by the mere act of being sounded together, convey to the ear a sense of pleasure. They harmonize in themselves, and are therefore termed consonant chords, or concords. Take, for example, one tone as the fundamental tone; then, to form a concord, all the other tones must harmonize with it and with each other. The idea of a chord has no reference to the number of consonant tones of which it is formed. The most simple and least perfect concord is made by the combination of two tones, and is formed by connecting the interval of the third with the fundamental tone. The most perfect consonant chord is the harmonic triachord, which is formed by the addition of another third, and constitutes the perfect fifth from the fundamental tone: it is usually termed the dominant. From the character of the

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