Imatges de pÓgina


the Scotists and the Thomists. The Do- great number of oxen, of which the hides minicans espoused the opinion of St. and tallow are alone preserved, and sent Thomas, the Franciscans that of Scotus. to Lima. There is no particular disease Sixtus IV, himself a Franciscan, allowed incident to this country. There are at toleration on this point. In the 5th session Concention several persons who have of the council of Trent, it was resolved, completed a century. that the doctrine of the conception of all CONCERT; a musical performance, in men in original sin was not intended to which any number of practical musicians, include the Virgin. The controversy was

either vocal or instrumental, or both, unite revived in the university of Paris towards in the exercise of their respective talents. the close of the 16th century. During the The concerts of the ancient Greeks were times of Paul V and Gregory XV, such executed only in the unison or octave. was the dissension in Spain, that both CONCERTO; a kind of musical compoPhilip and his successor sent special em- sition, which is an imitation of the solo bassies to Rome, in the vain hope that this song with accompaniments—in short, an contest might be terminated by a bull. imitation of the aria. In the concerto, one The dispute continued to run so high in chief instrument is distinguished, and leads Spain, that, in the military orders of St. the rest. In the case of such concertos, James, of the Sword, of Calatrava, and of the performance is called after this instruAlcantara, the knights, on their admission, ment, or it is called, in general, concerto di vowed to maintain the doctrine. In 1708, camera. The term double concerto is used Clement XI appointed a festival to be cel- if there are two chief instruments. ebrated throughout the church in honor Concerto grosso is an expression applied of the immaculate conception. Since that to the great or grand chorus of the contime, it has been received in the Roman cert, or to those places of the concert in church as an opinion, but not as an article which the ripienos and every auxiliary inof faith. This belief is held by the Greek strument are brought into action, for the church also, which celebrates the feast un- sake of contrast and to increase the effect. der the title of the conception of St. Anne. Concerto spirituale was a concert Petrus de Alva et Astorga published more Paris, performed in the religious seasons, than 40 volumes on this subject. He died when the theatres were closed. The in 1667.

pieces performed, however, were not alCONCEPTION, LA, or Penco; a city and ways of a spiritual kind. It was introduseaport of Chile, on the coast of the South ced in 1725, by Anne Danican, called Paeific ocean, capital of a jurisdiction, for Philidor. merly the capital of Chile; lon. 730 5 W.; CONCETTI; sparkling but strained senlat. 36° 49 10" S.; population, 13,000. tences, far-fetched plays on words, &c., The bay of Conception is one of the most which have become famous, in particular commodious harbors found in any part of since the use of them by the Italian poet the world. The city is of great extent, Marino. The taste for them is a disease because the houses are built only one sto- which has manifested itself in the develry high, that they may be the better able opement of almost all literatures. The to resist the earthquakes that happen eve- Spaniards and English suffered from ry year. It is the residence of the bishop, it for a long time. Marino, who introduand of the major-general, who is at the ced them into Italy, caught this poetical head of the military department. Con- infection in France, where a poet called ception was founded by Peter Valdivia, the wind the courier of Æolus, the sun, in 1550. In 1823, the Indians devastated the prince of tapers. Germany has had a part of it. There is not in the universe its Lohenstein; and, even now, there are, a soil more fertile than that of this part of in every country, writers afflicted with Chile. Grain yields 60 for 1; the vineyards this passion for a false brilliancy. are equally productive, and the plains are CONCHOLOGY (derived from kúyxn, a covered with innumerable flocks, which shell-fish with two shells, and Xbyos, word), multiply astonishingly, though abandon- more correctly, CoNCHYLIOLOGY (derived ed entirely to themselves. All the in- from koyxulcov, all sorts of shell-tish, and habitants have to do is to set up fences lóyos), is that branch of natural history round their respective possessions, and to which describes those animals which proleave the oxen, horses, mules and sheep in duce shells, and teaches the art of arthe enclosures. The common price of a ranging the shells themselves. The befat ox is $8 ; that of a sheep, & of a dollar ;' ginnings of this science are to be found in but there are few purchasers, and the na- the writings of Aristotle, who established tives are accustomed, every year, to kill a some of those divisions which are in use


among modern authors. - He divided shells suggested one year before, namely, that into monothyra and dithyra ; that is, uni- the consideration of the animal is as nevalves and bivalves. The monothyra were cessary as that of the shell, in order to turbinated or not turbinated; they were form a natural system of conchyliology. terrestrial or aquatic ; both were marine He described and figured the different or fluviatile, fixed or free. To the facts species of shell-fish that he found in Senrecorded by Aristotle, other ancient au- egal, and thereby formed a store from thors have added little ; to his distribution, which the most valuable materialş have nothing. The first modern author who been drawn by later authors to enrich the attempted a systematic arrangement of science. Contemporary with Adanson shells, seems to have been Daniel Ma- was the celebrated Linnæus, whose genius jor, who, in 1675, published Synoptical has exercised such great influence over Tables, containing a few Genera, natural- the arrangements of the vegetable and anly arranged, and established upon the imal kingdoms. The ninth edition of the Species described by Fabricius Columna. Systema Nature of Linnæus was publishHe divided shells into univalves and multi- ed in 1746, 11 years before the appearance valves, placing the bivalves among the lat- of Adanson's work, forming only an octer. In 1681, Grew, in his Musæum Re- tavo volume of 236 pages, in which Lingium, added a division analogous to our næus does not appear to have used the bivalves, and indicated most of the subdi- term mollusca, the animals now thus desvisions that have since obtained. About ignated being distributed by him, the na1687, the celebrated Lister published his ked species in the order zoophyta, in the Historia sive Synopsis Methodicæ Conchyli- class vermes, and the species bearing shells orum, Libri quatuor. This work contains in the order testacea of the same class. a great number of accurate figures of The 10th edition, which appeared in 1758, shells, pays great attention to the hinge of one year after the publication of the Voybivalves, and considers them as equivalve age to Senegal, was much enlarged; and or not. Tournefort, who died in 1708, in the 12th edition, which may


supposseems to have first suggested, in bivalves, ed to have received the last touches of its the distinction of close or gaping (clause illustrious author, the part relating to the vel hiantes). In 1711, Rumph added to animal kingdom had swelled to 1327 the conchyliological catalogue many shells pages. This edition was published about from the Indian seas, and indicated some 10 years after Adanson's work, the perusal good generic divisions. In 1730, Breyn of which had probably somewhat modipointed out a character in univalves, until fied the views of Linnæus. Linnæus dithen not noticed ; namely, that some of vides his sixth class of animals into five them possess more than one compartment orders, in the second of which are eight or chamber. This character divides the genera of true mollusca, viz., ascidia, limax, univalves into monothalamia and polythala- aplysia, doris, tethys, sepia, clio and scyllaa. mia. After 1730, no improvements of The third order is almost entirely devoted much value were made in the science, to testacea,* divided into, 1. multivalves, until 1757, in which year the publication the shell having more than two pieces; of Adanson's Voyage to Senegal took 2. bivalves, having two pieces; 3. uniplace, and probably suggested many con- valves, having one piece. The first divissiderations, that became fixed principles ion contains three genera, chiton, lepas and of conchyliology by the adoption of Lin- pholas. The second contains 14' genera næus. In studying the univalves (lima- mya, solen, tellina, cardium, mactra, donar, çons), Adanson considered the spire, the venus, spondylus, chama, arca, ostrea, anoapex, the aperture, the operculum, the mia, mytilus and pinna. The third dinacre, the periosteum; in the bivalves vision, separated into two sections, accord(conques), the valves, whether equal or un- ing as the spire is regular or not, conequal, whether shutting close or gaping; tains 19 genera-argonauta, nautilus, conus, the beaks (sommets), whether prominent cypræa, bulla, voluta, buccinum, strombus, or not, and according to their relative po- murex, trochus, turbo, helix, nerita, haliosition with respect to the middle of the tis, patella, dentalium, serpula, teredo and valve ; the hinge, according to the num- sabella. In giving the characters of his ber of the teeth and cavities; the ligament, genera, with respect to the animals, Linaccording to its shape and situation; the næus is always satisfied with citing the muscles, according to their figure, size name of a naked molluscum described in and number. In forming his conchylio

* As Linnæus has said so little about the animals, logical arrangement, Adanson adopted an

if we translate testacea by the term shells, perhaps important principle, which Guettard had the error will be scarcely appreciable.

the preceding order, which he supposes Linnæus, except that the genera are someto be analogous to the animal of the genus what more numerous and better defined. 'under consideration; therefore it is prob- This order contains three divisions, acable that the influence exerted by Adan- cording to the number of the valves. He son's work over the latter editions of the divides the genus lepas of Linnæus into Systema Nature extended only to increas- balanus and anatifa, dropping the term ing the number of genera, and causing lepas altogether, in which he has been folthem to be more rigorously marked out lowed by Lamarck. This is so unusual, and described. Some of the approxima- and, indeed, so ungracious a proceeding, tions of the Linnæan system are unnatu- that we would recommend to American ral and inconvenient, and some genera, conchyliologists always to use the term nearly related, are too far separated in the lepas instead of anatifa. Besides the two arrangement; but its nomenclature, and genera above-mentioned, he places among the clearness and precision of its techni- the multivalves, chiton, teredo, fistulana, cal terms, gave it a predominance that it pholas, anomia and crania. Among the has maintained almost to the present day. bivalves, his new genera are, placuna, A detailed explanation of the conchylio- perna, trigonia, unio, tridacna, cardita and logical system of Linnæus may be found terebratula. Among his univalves are the in a dissertation by I. Murray, publish- following new genera : fissurella, siliquaed in the eighth volume of the Aca- ria, aspergillum, ovula, oliva, purpura, casdemical Amenities. The Neues systema- sis, terebra, fusus, cerithium, bulimus, platisches Conchylien Kabinet—a great work, norbis, natica, camerina, ammonites and commenced by Martini in 1769, continued orthocera. In 1791 appeared the first volby Chemnitz, and finished by Schröter in ume of Testacea utriusque Siciliæ, eorum1793—may be considered rather as a mag- que Historia et Anatomea splendid work, nificent collection of figures of shells, well by Poli, an Italian physician, who first atdrawn and colored, than as a system of tempted to establish the genera of mollusconchyliology. As its figures are con- ca from the consideration of the animal stantly referred to by the modern authors, only, without reference to the shell. This it will be found very useful to students in work may be considered as forming a reidentifying species and arranging their markable epoch in the science, because, cabinets. The whole work consists of 12 since its appearance, the classification of volumes 4to. In 1776, Da Costa publish- the mollusca and of the bivalves has beed his Elements of Conchology, in which come much more conformable to nature. more attention was paid by him to the The subjects figured in the superb plates characters of the aperture in univalves, of this work had been previously modelled and to the hinge in bivalves, than had in wax by the scholars of the author. In been done by his predecessors; and the 1798, G. Cuvier proposed a new classifiscience is indebted to him for some valua- cation of molluscous animals. (Tableau ble hints on the indelicacy. of some of the élémentaire de l'Histoire naturelle des Aniterms employed by Linnæus to designate maux.) In this, he acknowledged himself particular parts of bivalve shells. In indebted to the critical observations of 1766, Pallas had published his Miscellanea Pallas, and carried nearer to perfection Zoologica, the principles of which, per- the inventions of Poli. In this arrangehaps, entitle him to be considered as the ment, also, may be found the improvefounder of that new school which the ments successively introduced by BruFrench conchyliologists have since so suc- guière into the distinction of genera, which cessfully supported. He indicated the Lamarck was then increasing every year, impropriety of separating the testacea from in his course at the jardin du roi. Lathe naked mollusca, in the arrangement of marck did not begin to publish the results Linnæus, and showed that a natural meth- of his labors until 1798, when a memoir od could only arise from the considera- on the division of the genus sepia into tion, not of the shells, but of the generic three genera, sepia, loligo and octopus, apdifferences of the animals inhabiting them. peared in the Journ. d'Hist. Nat., t. 1. Notwithstanding the light struck out by Early in 1799, Lamarck published his Pallas, Bruguière, one of the modern au- Prodromus of a new classification of shells, thors to whom the science is most indebt- laying down, more precisely, the generic ed, in 1792, still followed so closely the characters, and establishing many new Linnean arrangement as to admit the di- genera, and still continuing the old divisvision of the molluscous worms and tes- ion into univalves, bivalves and multivalves. taceous worms into two orders. His or- Up to this time, Lamarck does not seem der testacea is nearly the same as that of to have profited much by the labors of his predecessors towards the establishment of philomathean society, a memoir, pointing a natural conchyliological method, but out a necessary relation subsisting between acknowledges that he has adopted the the shell and the respiratory organs, and principles and views of Bruguière. Late drawing therefrom a new principle of arin 1799, Cuvier published a table of the rangement, depending on the existence or divisions of the class of mollusca, at the non-existence of a symmetry or regularity end of the first volume of his Lessons of of form in those organs, and the protectComparative Anatomy. We see, in this, ing body, the shell. In 1825, De Blainthat Cuvier had derived light from the ville published his Manuel de Malacologie et Prodromus of Lamarck. Indeed, these de Conchyliologie-a very valuable work, to two great naturalists, by their successive which we are indebted for most of the works, seem to have afforded light alter- historical facts recorded in this article. nately to each other for a number of The first chapter of the second section of years. In 1801, Lamarck published his this work, consisting of 80 pages, treats of Animaux sans Vertèbres, in which, not shells, or the principles of conchyliology, and confining himself entirely to the shells, he recommends itself strongly to students by has, like Cuvier, paid attention also to the the fulness, accuracy and clearness of its animals. From this period until 1822, definitions, and the consistency of its genwhen he finished publishing the second eral views. In modern times, the study edition of Animauc sans Vertebres, under of the mollusca and their coverings has the title of Histoire naturelle des Animaux become very important from geological sans Vertèbres, many authors,* both con- considerations. As particular genera are tinental and English, had published me- known to belong to particular strata of the moirs and treatises on conchyliology, and earth's crust, and as the positions assumed many interesting facts had been collected, by the living animals are known, the asshedding much additional light on the certained position of the fossils deterscience. Part of the 5th, and the whole mines, with sufficient certainty, whether of the 6th and 7th volumes of the Histoire the stratum has undergone removal, disnaturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres, are ruption or subversion since the death of devoted to the conchyliophorous ani- the animals. The most interesting conmals, the proper subjects of conchyliology. siderations are presented to the inquiring In this excellent work, Lamarck has im- mind by some of the genera of microproved upon the views of his friend Bru- scopic shells; and the magnitude of the guière in the following particulars :—not results produced by their infinite multiconfining himself to the consideration of plicity causes their importance in the the shell; viewing the shell as forming economy of nature to be felt with astonishpart of an animal; introducing into con- ment and admiration. Take, for instance, chyliology a great number of new generic the miliolites, thus commented on by Lagroups; using a very rigorous and exact marck : “The miliolites is a shell of most terminology; and treating as the founda- singular form, and perhaps one of the tion of the principal division among bi- most interesting to study, on account of valves, the number of the muscular im- its multiplicity in nature, and the influence pressions. He has also abandoned the which it has upon the condition and size division of multivalves, bivalves and uni- of the masses at the surface of the earth, valves, which had been followed by most or which compose its external crust. It of the preceding conchyliologists, and has is one of those numerous examples which increased the number of genera to up- prove, that, in producing living bodies, wards of 200, the enumeration of which what nature seems to lose in size, she would swell this article beyond a reason- fully regains in the number of individuals, able limit. The specific descriptions of which she multiplies to infinity, and with Lamarck, although short, are admirable a readiness almost miraculous. The bodies for their precision, and the skill displayed of these minute animals exert more influin them in distinguishing clearly minute ence on the condition of the masses which specific differences. The study of them compose the surface of the earth, than will be found, by young naturalists, very those of the largest animals, such as elebeneficial and instructive. In 1812, H. M. phants, hippopotami, whales, &c., which, Ducrotay de Blainville read, before the although constituting much larger indi

* De Ferussac, Draparnaud, Denys de Montfort, vidual masses, are infinitely less multiplied de Roissy, Bosc, Perron, Lesueur, De Blainville, in nature. In the environs of Paris, some Duméril

, Chamisso, Kuhl, Von Moll, Von Fichtel, species of miliolites are found in so great Megerle, Oken, Rafinesque, Desmarest, Savigny, Leach, Olfers, Sowerby, Schweiger, Swainson, a quantity, that they form almost the prinRanzani, Say.

cipal part of the stony masses of certain


ranges.” The naturalists of the U. States the pope, or on the 10th day after his have also contributed much valuable mat- death, after having heard a mass, which is ter to the science in question, and some called Missa spiritus sancti, and remain new genera and many new species have till the election is finished. The conclave been added by their labors. Among the which chose pope Pius VII was held at scientific gentlemen in the U. States who Venice by the assembled cardinals, as have written on this subject, are Thomas Pius VI died far from Rome. Say, of Philadelphia, the late D. H. CONCLAVIST; the companion, either lay Barnes, of New York, doctor Hildreth, or clerical, whom the cardinal is allowed doctor Jacob Green and Isaac Lea, of to take with him into the conclave (q. v.) Philadelphia. The papers lately contrib- during the election of a pope, or to send uted by the last-named gentleman to the for if he should fall sick. The conclavists Journal of the Transactions of the Ameri.. are, in this case, subject to the same laws can Philosophical Society on the Naiades as the cardinals; they are not permitted of Lamarck, containing descriptions of to leave the conclave except in case of several new species, are illustrated by severe sickness; they partake at the same plates executed with remarkable beauty table with the cardinals, and have a cell and accuracy

of the same size. The place of conclavist CONCLAVE (a room); the place where is honorable, and very much sought for. the cardinals assemble for the election of The conclavist of the cardinal who is the

pope; also the electoral assembly of chosen pope seldom fails to make his the cardinals themselves. Pope Gregory fortune. As every cardinal generally beX, whose election had been delayed for comes a member of the committee of three years, established, in the council at regency, consisting of three cardinals, who Lyons (1274), the regulations of the con- are changed daily, each of the conclavists clave. It was settled, that if the pope of the cardinals thus engaged has an opshould die in a city where he had resided portunity to display his talents before the with his court, the cardinals present cardinal and his colleagues, as secretary should not be obliged to wait longer than of the committee. 10 days for their absent brethren. After CONCORD (also called accord, from the the laps

of 10 days, all the cardinals Italian accordare, and this from the Latin present should assemble in the palace in chorda); an expression used in music. It which the pope had died. Here they denotes an association of sounds, founded were all to be shut up in one room (con- on the natural relations of simultaneous clave), without partitions or curtains, which, tones. Upon this association depends all with the exception of one outlet, was tó harmony; in fact, every proper chord is

' be closed on all sides, so that no one of itself harmony; hence, e. g.,

the expresshould speak with them, nor be admitted sion harmony of the dominant. In its proper into their presence, except those who acceptation,

harmony is the result of conwere called, with the consent of all the nected tones in consecutive chords. With brethren, for the purpose of assisting, in regard to their simultaneous expression, some way, in the election. No one was however, tones differ in their relations, to be permitted either to send in a mes- Some, by the mere act of being sounded senger, or to write to the cardinals; but a together, convey to the ear a sense of window was to be left open in the room, pleasure. They harmonize in themselves, through which the necessary food could and are therefore termed consonant chords, be handed to them. If, in three days after or concords. Take, for example, one tone entering the conclave, they had not chosen as the fundamental tone; then, to form a a pope, they were, on the five following concord, all the other tones must harmondays, to receive but one dish at noon and ize with it and with each other. The in the evening; and, after this, nothing idea of a chord has no reference to the but bread, wine and water, till the election number of consonant tones of which it is should take place. These regulations of formed. The most simple and least perGregory X have been observed in their fect concord is made by the combination essential provisions in recent times, though of two tones, and is formed by connecting not always in every particular. As most the interval of the third with the fundaof the popes have died in Rome, the con- mental tone. The most perfect consonant clave has usually been held in the Vatican, chord is the harmonic triachord, which is in the galleries of which, as many cells formed by the addition of another third, are built in a row as there are cardinals to and constitutes the perfect fifth from the be present. There the cardinals repair, fundamental tone: it is usually termed two by two, the day after the funeral of the dominant. From the character of the

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