« AnteriorContinua »
first third, or mediant, these combinations
2. the chord of the third and fourth
in which the seventh and the fundamental tone of the essential chord of the seventh become the third and fourth,
; 3. by further trans
position, the chord of the second is formed, by which the seventh, with the fundamental tone, forms the interval of the
are either major or minor; thus, major C, and major sixth, thus,
other chords of the seventh, which Godfr. Weber terms by-chords of the seventh, in opposition to principal chords of the seventh, are, the chord of the seventh, formed by the minor triachord and the minor sev
I; again, by the dimin
ished triachord, with the subsisting minor seventh of the chord of the seventh,
finally, the chord of the
By the trans
dissonant chords are first obtained by adding to the triad another third, which, consequently, stands in the relation of a seventh to the fundamental, and produces seventh, with the major triachord and a quadrichord. The seventh is the dissonant interval, and, to relieve the ear, requires to be resolved. The chord of the seventh is formed of the fundamental, the third, the fifth and the seventh. The first, and most usual, is constituted by the major triad with the minor seventh; thus C, E, G, B flat. It is called the principal, sometimes the essential chord of the seventh, and is simply designated thus, 7. It rests upon the dominant of that key in which it is to be resolved; for the minor seventh resolves
position of these by-chords of the seventh are formed the chords of the fifth and sixth, the third and fourth, and the chord of the second. We have thus, as appears from this review, nine fundamental chords, viz. two simple accords, three triachords, and four chords of the seventh (the essential chord and the by-chords of the seventh). However complicated the harmony may be, it is reducible to these chords. There is yet a five-toned chord, the quintchord, which is a union of simultaneous tones, and is formed by the addition of another third (major or minor) to the chord of the seventh, which, consequently, makes the ninth from the fundamental tone, and is termed the chord of the ninth. But if, from the adverse concurrence of the seconds, we omit the fundamental tone, as is usual in close harmony, and transpose the notes as above, we obtain thus
the proper modifications of the quadrichord; for example, the enharmonic chord of C, E flat, G flat, A; C sharp, E, G, B. These concords, then, are capable of being presented in the most diversified formsin immediate collision, or broken, so that the tones constituting them are heard in succession. Further, the intervals may be confined to one octave, or distributed through distant and different octaves. This forms the ground-work and the distinction between close and dispersed harmony, according to the close or dispersed position of the chords. Further, the application of the intervals composing the chords is governed by the variety of positions, inasmuch as the music may be adapted for two, three, four, five voices or parts. In the former, some intervals must be omitted; in the latter, doubled. One of the first systems of chords was offered by Rameau, grounded on the ideas of D'Alembert, and afterwards elucidated in Marpurg's system, which much resembled Vogler's. It has been more recently elucidated by Türk. Another is by Tartini, which is given in Rousseau's Dictionnaire de la Musique. The one deduces and explains the chords from fundamental keys (of the base), the other from melody (the upper tones). Another very simple system of chords is that of Kirnberger, which is much followed by Godfr. Weber, in his treatise on thorough-base. From music, the idea of harmony is transferred to colors, and we may speak of the harmony of colors, as opposed to the harsh and dazzling contrast of them, which is avoided by a judicious middle tone of coloring.
CONCORD; a post-town of New Hampshire, and the seat of the state government, in Merrimack county, on both sides of the river Merrimack ; 45 miles W. N. W. Portsmouth, 63 N. N. W. Boston, 100 W. S. W. Portland; lon. 71° 29′ W.; lat. 43° 12 N. population, in 1810, 2391; in 1820, 2838. The principal village is pleasantly situated, extending along the western bank of the river nearly two miles in length. It contains a state-house, a state-prison, both of stone, a courthouse, 3 houses of public worship, and about 200 dwelling-houses. The statehouse, erected in 1817, is a large and very elegant edifice, and cost $60,232. Much of the trade of the upper country centres here; and the importance of the town is increased by the boat navigation, which is opened between this place and Boston by means of the Merrimack river and Middlesex canal. There are two bridges in Concord across the Merrimack-one in the
north part, the other connecting the town with Pembroke.
CONCORD, BATTLE AT. (See Lexing
CONCORD, FORM OF (formula concor dia); one of the most important doctrinal books of the Protestant church, composed at the command of Augustus elector of Saxony, by several distinguished theologians. Augustus had long suspected the existence of secret adherents to the doctrine of Calvin; and, being confirmed in this suspicion by investigation, he thought a book of concord, that is, of union, which should definitively settle the form of doctrine to be received, would be the best means for terminating the religious troubles. Twelve divines were invited to Lichtenburg, who, in the assembly afterwards convoked at Torgau, examined and settled the principal points, and finished the work in Kloster-Bergen, in 1577; after which followed the solemn signing by the several electors, princes, counts, states of the empire, and the printed publication of the work in 1580. It is said that this affair cost the elector $53,000. (See Symbolical Books.)
CONCORD, GODDESS OF. (See Concor
CONCORDANCE; a book containing the principal words in the Holy Scriptures, in alphabetical order, with a designation of the places in which they are to be found. There are concordances of subjects and of words; and, for both kinds, either the Greek or Hebrew text, or a universally received translation, may serve as a basis. Works of this kind are useful for the exegetical theologian, because the comparison of parallel passages is one of the most important auxiliaries of exegesis; and not less so for the preacher, because they enable him to examine, at once, all the passages of scripture which treat of the same subject. The first work of this kind was published by Hugo Sancto Caro, who used the universally-received Latin translation of the Bible, called the Vulgate. Some of the most approved concordances in English, are those of Cruden, Butterworth, Brown and Taylor. The name concordance might be given, without impropriety, to similar indices of other works, as the writings of Homer and Shakspeare. In fact, it is so applied in Germany. ` The index of Samuel Ayscough to Shakspeare is a concordance.
CONCORDATE; a convention between the bishop of Rome, as head of the church, and any secular government, for the settling of ecclesiastical relations. Treaties
which the pope, as a secular sovereign, concludes with other princes respecting political concerns, are not called concordates. One of the most important of the earlier concordates is that of Worms, called, also, the Calixtine Concordate, made in 1122, between pope Calixtus II and the emperor Henry V, in order to put an end to the long contest on the subject of investiture, and which has since been considered a fundamental ordinance in respect to the relations between the Catholic church and the government in Germany. Most of the concordates have been extorted from the popes by the different nations or governments. This was done as early as the 15th century; for, when the council of Constance urged a reformation of the papal court, Martin V saw himself obliged, in 1418, to conclude concordates with the Germans, and soon afterwards, also, with other nations. The popes, however, succeeded, even in the 15th and 16th centuries, in concluding concordates for their advantage. This was the case with the concordates of Aschaffenburg. That, also, which was made by Leo X and Francis I of France (1516), was chiefly to the advantage of the pope. In later times, in particular, towards the end of the 18th century, the papal court could not any longer maintain a struggle with the spirit of the times and with the secular powers, and was obliged to resign many privileges by concordates. Bonaparte, when first consul of the French republic, concluded a concordate with pope Pius VII, July 15, 1801, which went into operation in April, 1802. It reestablished the Catholic church in France, and has become the basis of the present ecclesiastical constitution of that country. The government obtained by it the right to appoint the clergy; the public treasury gained by the diminution of the large number of metropolitan and episcopal sees to 60; the pope was obliged to give up the plan of restoring the spiritual orders and the influence which he exercised by means of delegates, but retained the right of the canonical investiture of bishops and the revenues connected with this right. The interests of religion suffered by this compact, inasmuch as most of the dioceses became now too large to be properly administered; and the lower clergy, the very soul of the church, who were in a poor condition before, were made entirely dependent on the government. Louis XVIII concluded, at Rome, with Pius VII (July 11, 1817), a new concordate, by which that of 1516, so injurious to the liberties of the Gallican
church, was again revived; the concordate of 1801 and the articles organiques of 1802 were abolished; the nation subjected to an enormous tax by the demand of endowments for 42 new metropolitan and episcopal sees, with their chapters and seminaries; and free scope afforded to the intolerance of the Roman court by the indefinite language of article 10, which speaks of measures against the prevailing obstacles to religion and the laws of the church. This revival of old abuses, this provision for the luxury of numerous clerical dignitaries at the expense of the nation, could please only the ultra-royalist nobility, who saw in it means for providing their sons with benefices. The nation received the concordate with almost universal disapprobation; voices of the greatest weight were raised against it (Grégoire, Essai historique sur les Libertés de l'Église Gallicane, Paris, 1818; Lanjuinais, Appréciation du Projet de Loi rel. aux trois Concordats, 5th ed., Paris, 1818; De Pradt, Les quatre Concordats, Paris, 1818, 3 vols.); and the new ministers saw themselves obliged to withdraw their proposition. The pope was more fortunate in the concordate made with Naples (Feb. 16, 1818), at Terracina, in which stipulations were made for the exclusive establishment of Catholicism in this kingdom; for the independence of the theological seminaries on the secular power; the free disposal of benefices to the value of 12,000 ducats, in Naples, in favor of Roman subjects; the reversion of the revenues of vacant places to the church; unlimited liberty of appeal to the papal chair; the abolition of the royal permission, formerly necessary for the pastoral letters of the bishops; the right of censorship over books; besides many other highly important privileges. The king obtained the right to appoint bishops, to tax the clergy, to reduce the number of the episcopal sees and monasteries, which existed before Murat's reign. The quiet possession of the estates of the church, which had been alienated, was also secured to the proprietors. In the concordate concluded with Bavaria, July 5, 1817, two archbishoprics were established for the 2,400,000 Catholics in Bavaria. These were Münich (with the bishoprics of Augsburg, Passau and Ratisbon) and Bamburg (with the bishoprics of Würzburg, Eichstädt and Spire). Seminaries, moreover, were instituted and provided with lands; the nominations were left to the king, with the reservation of the papal right of confirmation; the limits of the civil and ecclesiastical jurisdiction
were precisely settled, and the erection of new monasteries was promised. This concordate was published in May, 1818, together with the new political constitution, by which all apprehensions for the Protestant church in Bavaria were allayed. (Respecting the concordate between Prussia and the pope, see German Church and Prussia.) The other German princes have formed a plan for a common concordate with the pope. On the whole, the contest which has been carried on for more than 800 years between the secular power and the church is as little settled as it was in the times of Gregory VII and the emperor Henry IV, and the concordates are to be considered only as temporary agreements, which are followed as long as either party is obliged or thinks it best to observe them. In fact, it is vain to think of putting an end to the dispute, while secular governments maintain that it rests with them to appoint the officers and instructers of the people, and the pope maintains that the authority of the church is prior in time and superior in degree to any other. The light in which the Roman court views the cessions made in concordates appears from a letter of pope Innocent I, in 1416: Ergo quod pro remedio necessitas reperit, cessante necessitate debet utique cessare, quia alius est ordo legitimus, alia usurpatio, quam ad præsens tantum fieri tempus impellit. The governments, on the contrary, add reservations to the concordates, as in the case of the articles which the French government prefixed to the concordate of 1801, before it was promulgated. Against the appeal to a divine institution, on which the pope founds his authority, the sovereigns maintain the following claims:-1. The sovereign of the state is, at the same time, the secular head of the church, and all the power of the church to make regulations and appoint clerical functionaries has been given by him, and remains under his superintendency; 2. the temporal possessions of the church are properly subject to the state, which has a right to prevent them from becoming excessive; 3. the secular government can prohibit such acts of worship as are opposed to the interest and peace of the state, and interfere with the rights of other religious societies; 4. the state has the right of protecting new sects; 5. the civil rights of subjects (even with regard to the validity and consequences of marriage) are to be exclusively regulated by the laws of the state. It is easily understood that no such contest between church and state can take place
where the church does not claim any political authority, and the sovereign does not consider religion as an instrument for state purposes. Of course there is no such contest in the U. States of America.
CONCORDIA; or concord, personified and worshipped as a goddess in Rome, where she had several temples, the most important of which was that in the capitol, erected by Camillus. An annual feast was celebrated, in her honor, the 16th of January. She was represented with wreaths of flowers on her head, and in one hand two cornucopiæ, in the other, a bundle of rods or a pomegranate. Symbolically, Concordia was represented by two hands clasped together, or by the caduceus. (See Grecian Mythology.)
CONCRETE; a technical word in logic. If we conceive of certain qualities as existing in an object, we then regard them, according to philosophical language, in concreto; but if we think of them separately from the object, we then regard them in abstracto; for example, a just man is a concrete conception, but justice is an abstract idea. (See Philosophy.)
CONCRETIONS, MORBID, in animal economy; hard substances that occasionally make their appearance in different parts of the body, as well in the solids as in those cavities destined to contain fluids: in the former case, they are denominated concretions or ossifications; in the latter, calculi. The concretions that make their appearance in the solids of the animal body are denominated pineal concretions, from their being found in that part of the brain called the pineal gland; or salivary concretions, as being discovered, occasionally, in the salivary glands; or pancreatic concretions, which are hard substances found in the pancreas; or pulmonary concretions, which have been sometimes coughed up by consumptive persons; or hepatic concretions, of which the liver is sometimes full. Concretions have also been found in the prostate. These have all been examined by chemists, and found to consist of phosphate of lime and other substances. Concretions have been discovered in the intestines and stomach of man, but more frequently in the bodies of other animals. Those found in the intestines of a horse were examined by Fourcroy, and found to consist of magnesia, phosphoric acid, ammonia, water and animal matter. (See Calculi.)
CONCUBINAGE; the cohabitation of a man with a concubine. Among the Greeks, concubinage was allowed even to married men: the number of their con
cubines, also, was unlimited. Among the Romans, concubinage was neither unlawful nor disgraceful. It was, moreover, formally permitted to unmarried men, by the Lex Julia, and by the Lex Papia Poppaa, but with the provision, that it should be limited to a single concubine, and that only women of mean descent, as freed-women, actresses and the like, should be chosen for the purpose. The children begotten in concubinage were not considered as legitimate, but were called natural, and the right of inheritance of the concubine and her children was very much limited. With the introduction of Christianity, concubinage ceased; and, indeed, Constantine the Great made laws against it. The Code Napoléon did not expressly forbid concubinage, but the lawful wife could sue for a divorce (since the restoration of the Bourbons, only for separation), in case of the introduction of a concubine by her husband into their common residence. The Prussian code does not allow concubinage, as some authors have asserted, but it establishes two kinds of marriages, one of which does not confer the rank, &c., of the husband on the wife, nor give the children the same rights as those enjoyed by the children born in the other kind of marriage. This form of marriage seems to have been allowed by the code chiefly for the benefit of poor officers of government, whose rank far exceeds their salary; but, though it stands in the code, it never has received from the king the authority of law. The ruling family, however, sometimes contracts such marriages. The present king is married to the princess of Lignitz in this form. There is no want of legality in the connexion; it is merely to prevent the wife from becoming a queen, and her children royal princes.
CONDAMINE, Charles Marie la, a naturalist, born at Paris in 1701, died at the same place in 1774. With an ardent spirit and a powerful frame, the young Condamine, who had entered the military profession, gave himself up to pleasure; but he soon renounced the military career, and devoted himself to the sciences. He entered the academy as adjoint chimiste. His desire of knowledge induced him to apply himself to several sciences, without advancing very deeply in any particular one. After he had visited the coasts of Asia and Africa on the Mediterranean, he was, in 1736, chosen, with Godin and Bouguer, to determine the figure of the earth, by a measurement to be made in Peru. (See Earth.) He there made the
discovery, that mountains attract heavy bodies, and give them a direction different from that which they would take according to the simple law of gravity—a truth which was afterward confirmed by Makelyne and Cavendish. Having finished his labors in America, and escaped a thousand dangers, he returned to his native land, after an absence of eight years, and soon after went to Rome, where Benedict XIV gave him a dispensation to marry one of his nieces. Of his curiosity the following anecdote is related. At the execution of Damiens, he mingled with the executioners, in order to let no circumstance of this horrible manner of death pass unobserved. They were about to send him back, but the chief executioner, who knew Condamine, prevented them with these words: "Laissez, messieurs, c'est un amateur." His principal works are his account of his travels, his work on the figure of the earth, and that on the measurement of three degrees of the meridian in the equatorial regions. Besides these, he published treatises on inoculation for the small-pox.
CONDÉ; a fortress of France, in the department du Nord, nine leagues and a half S. E. of Lisle. Inhabitants, 6,080. It is, according to the French military terminology, a place de guerre de première classe. During the revolution, it was called Nord-Libre. Its port is much frequented.
CONDE, Louis de Bourbon, prince of (the great Condé); born in 1621; a general of distinguished talents, great advantages of person, and very attractive manners. During the life of his father, he bore the title of duke d'Enghien. He immortalized this name at the battle of Rocroi, in which, at the age of 22, he defeated the Spaniards (1643). After he had arranged every thing for the battle, on the evening previous, he fell into so sound a sleep, that it was necessary to awake him when the time for engaging came on. Wherever he appeared, he was victorious. He was so fortunate as to repair the consequences of a defeat of marshal Turenne. He besieged Dunkirk in sight of the Spanish army, and gained this place for France, in 1646. He was equally fortunate in putting a stop to the civil war which Mazarin had occasioned, who was afterwards obliged to seek the support of Condé. Jealous of the glory of the prince, and fearing his pride, Mazarin, in 1650, caused his deliverer to be brought captive to Vincennes, and did not restore him his freedom until after the expiration of a year. The offended Condé now entered into