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first third, or mediant, these combinations are either major or minor; thus, major C, and major sixth, thus, E, G, or minor C, E flat, and G. The minor triachord is to be distinguished from the diminished triachord, which, by 2. the chord of the third and fourth some, is called the false or dissonant, and is formed by two minor thirds, or by the in which the seventh and the fundafundamental tone and the minor third and mental tone of the essential chord of the minor fifth; thus, C, E flat, G flat. There seventh become the third and fourth, is also a redundant triachord, constituted by two major thirds. By the transposition -b of the tones composing these triachords 0

; 3. by further transinto higher or lower octaves (changing the positions or inverting the intervals), all position, the chord of the second is formed, other consonant chords are formed. It is by which the seventh, with the fundausual to fix the designation of chords by mental tone, forms the interval of the counting the intervals ascending. Thus arises, 1. the chord of the sixth (hexachord), in which the fundamental tone is

second, thus,

The

.b placed an octave higher, so that the third becomes a fundamental tone; the fifth is then the third, and the transposed funda- other chords of the seventh, which Godfr. mental becomes the sixth ; thus, E, G, C, Weber terms by-chords of the seventh, in designated by the figure 6. 2. T'he chord opposition to principal chords of the seventh, of the fourth and sixth, where the funda- are, the chord of the seventh, formed by mental tone and its third are both placed the minor triachord and the minor sevin a higher octave, so that the fifth becomes the fundamental, the original fun- entlı,

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again, by the dimindamental is changed to the fourth, and the transposed third becomes the sixth. Hence the name, from the characteristic ished triachord, with the subsisting minor

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seventh of the chord of the seventh, intervals and the notation, thus The

4 dissonant chords are first obtained by

b

; finally, the chord of the adding to the triad another third, which, consequently, stands in the relation of a seventh to the fundamental, and produces seventh, with the major triachord and a quadrichord. The seventh is the dissonant interval, and, to relieve the ear, re

seventh major,

By the transquires to be resolved. The chord of the seventh is formed of the fundamental, the third, the fifth and the seventh. The first, position of these by-chords of the seventh and most usual, is constituted by the major are formed the chords of the fifth and triad with the minor seventh ; thus C, E, sixth, the third and fourth, and the chord G, B flat. It is called the principal, some of the second. We have thus, as appears times the essential chord of the seventh, and from this review, nine fundamental chords, is simply designated thus, 7. It rests upon viz. two simple accords, three triachords, the dominant of that key in which it is to and four chords of the seventh (the essenbe resolved; for the minor seventh resolves tial chord and the by-chords of the sev

enth). However complicated the harmony itself downwards, thus,

may be, it is reducible to these chords. There is yet a five-toned chord, the quint

chord, which is a union of simultaneous while the major dissonant ascends. Hence tones, and is formed by the addition of it may also be called the dominant chord of another third (major or minor) to the the seventh, or the chord of the dominant chord of the seventh, which, consequently, seventh. If we transpose the intervals of makes the ninth from the fundamental these chords, in the same manner as with tone, and is termed the chord of the ninth. the triachords, we form, 1. the chord of But if, from the adverse concurrence of

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the seconds, we omit the fundamental tone,

as is usual in close harmony, and transsisting of the minor third, the minor fifth pose the notes as above, we obtain thus

the fifth and sixth (denoted by ş),

con

chord ;

the proper modifications of the quadri- north part, the other connecting the town

for example, the enharmonic chord with Pembroke. of C, E flat, G flat, A ; C sharp, E, G, B. CONCORD, BATTLE AT. (See LexingThese concords, then, are capable of being ton.) presented in the most diversified forms CONCORD, FORM OF (formula concor in immediate collision, or broken, so that diæ); one of the most important doctrinal the tones constituting them are heard in books of the Protestant church,

composed succession. Further, the intervals may be at the command of Augustus elector of confined to one octave, or distributed Saxony, by several distinguished theolothrough distant and different octaves. gians. Augustus had long suspected the This forms the ground-work and the dis- existence of secret adherents to the doctinction between

close and dispersed har- trine of Calvin ; and, being confirmed in mony, according to the close or dispersed this suspicion by investigation, he thought position of the chords. Further, the ap- a book of concord, that is, of union, which plication of the intervals composing the should definitively settle the form of docchords is governed by the variety of po- trine to be received, would be the best sitions, inasmuch as the music may be means for terminating the religious trouadapted for two, three, four, five voices or bles. Twelve divines were invited to parts. In the former, some intervals must Lichtenburg, who, in the assembly afterbe omitted ; in the latter, doubled. One wards convoked at Torgau, examined and of the first systems of chords was offered settled the principal points, and finished by Rameau, grounded on the ideas of the work in Kloster-Bergen, in 1577; afD'Alembert, and afterwards elucidated in ter which followed the solemn signing by Marpurg's system, which much resembled the several electors, princes, counts, states Vogler's. It has been more recently elu- of the empire, and the printed publication cidated by Túrk. Another is by Tartini, of the work in 1580. It is said that this which is given in Rousseau's Dictionnaire affair cost the elector $53,000. (See Symde la Musique. The one deduces and ex- bolical Books.) plains the chords from fundamental keys Concord, GODDESS OF. (See Concor(of the base), the other from melody (the dia.) upper tones). Another very simple sys- CONCORDANCE ; a book containing the tem of chords is that of Kirnberger, which principal words in the Holy Scriptures, in is much followed by Godfr. Weber, in his alphabetical order, with a designation of treatise on thorough-base. From music, the places in which they are to be found. the idea of harmony is transferred to col- There are concordances of subjects and ors, and we may speak of the harmony of of words; and, for both kinds, either the colors, as opposed to the harsh and daz- Greek or Hebrew text, or a universally zling contrast of them, which is avoided received translation, may serve as a basis. by a judicious middle tone of coloring. Works of this kind are useful for the exe

CONCORD; a post-town of New Hamp- getical theologian, because the comparishire, and the seat of the state government, son of parallel passages is one of the most in Merrimack county, on both sides of the important auxiliaries of exegesis; and not river Merrimack ; 45 miles W. N. W. less so for the preacher, because they enaPortsmouth, 63 N. N. W. Boston, 100 W. ble him to examine, at once, all the pasS. W. Portland ; lon. 71° 29 W.; lat. 43° sages of scripture which treat of the same 12 N. : population, in 1810, 2391 ; in subject. The first work of this kind was 1820, 2838. The principal village is published by Hugo Sancto Caro, who pleasantly situated, extending along the used the universally-received Latin transwestern bank of the river nearly two lation of the Bible, called the Vulgate. miles in length. It contains a state-house, Some of the most approved concordances a state-prison, both of stone, a court- in English, are those of Cruden, Butterhouse, 3 houses of public worship, and worth, Brown and Taylor. The name about 200 dwelling-houses. The state- concordance might be given, without imhouse, erected in 1817, is a large and very propriety, to similar indices of other works, elegant edifice, and cost $60,332. Much as the writings of Homer and Shakspeare. of the trade of the upper country centres In fact, it is so applied in Germany. The here; and the importance of the town is index of Samuel Ayscough to Shakspeare increased by the boat navigation, which is is a concordance. opened between this place and Boston by CONCORDATE; a convention between means of the Merrimack river and Mid- the bishop of Rome, as head of the church, dlesex canal. There are two bridges in and any secular government, for the setConcord across the Merrimack—one in the tling of ecclesiastical relations. Treaties

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which the pope, as a secular sovereign,' church, was again revived; the concorconcludes with other princes respecting po- date of 1801 and the articles organiques of litical concerns, are not called concordates. 1802 were abolished; the nation subjected One of the most important of the earlier to an enormous tax by the demand of enconcordates is that of Worms, called, also, dowments for 42 new metropolitan and the Calixtine Concordate, made in 1122, be- episcopal sees, with their chapters and tween pope Calixtus II and the emperor seminaries; and free scope afforded to the Henry V, in order to put an end to the intolerance of the Roman court by the long contest on the subject of investiture, indefinite language of article 10, which and which has since been considered a speaks of measures against the prevailing fundamental ordinance in respect to the obstacles to religion and the laws of the relations between the Catholic church and church. This revival of old abuses, this the government in Germany. Most of provision for the luxury of numerous clerthe concordates have been extorted from ical dignitaries at the expense of the nathe popes by the different nations or gov- tion, could please only the ultra-royalist ernments. This was done as early as the nobility, who saw in it means for provid15th century; for, when the council of ing their sons with benefices. The nation Constance urged a reformation of the pa- received the concordate with almost unipal court, Martin V saw himself obliged, versal disapprobation; voices of the greatin 1418, to conclude concordates with the est weight were raised against it (Grégoire, Germans, and soon afterwards, also, with Essai historique sur les Libertés de l'Église other nations. The popes, however, suc- Gallicane, Paris, 1818; Lanjuinais, Appréceeded, even in the 15th and 16th cen- ciation du Projet de Loi rel. aux trois Conturies, in concluding concordates for their cordats, 5th ed., Paris, 1818; De Pradt, advantage. This was the case with the Les quatre Concordats, Paris, 1818, 3 vols.); concordates of Aschaffenburg. That, also, and the new ministers saw themselves which was made by Leo X and Francis I obliged to withdraw their proposition. of France (1516), was chiefly to the ad- The pope was more fortunate in the convantage of the pope. In later times, in cordate made with Naples (Feb. 16, 1818), particular, towards the end of the 18th at Terracina, in which stipulations were century, the papal court could not any made for the exclusive establishment of longer maintain a struggle with the spirit Catholicism in this kingdom; for the indeof the times and with the secular powers, pendence of the theological seminaries on and was obliged to resign many privileges the secular power; the free disposal of by concordates. Bonaparte, when first benefices to the value of 12,000 ducats, in consul of the French republic, concluded Naples, in favor of Roman subjects; the a concordate with pope Pius VII, July 15, reversion of the revenues of vacant places 1801, which went into operation in April, to the church; unlimited liberty of appeal 1802. It reëstablished the Catholic church to the papal chair; the abolition of the in France, and has become the basis of royal permission, formerly necessary for the present ecclesiastical constitution of the pastoral letters of the bishops; the that country. The government obtained right of censorship over books; besides by it the right to appoint the clergy; the many other highly important privileges. public treasury gained by the diminution The king obtained the right to appoint of the large number of metropolitan and bishops, to tax the clergy, to reduce episcopal sees to 60; the pope was obliged the number of the episcopal sees and to give up the plan of restoring the spirit- monasteries, which existed before Murat's ual orders and the influence which he reign. The quiet possession of the esexercised by means of delegates, but re- tates of the church, which had been alientained the right of the canonical investi- ated, was also secured to the proprietors. ture of bishops and the revenues connected In the concordate concluded with Bavawith this right. The interests of religion ria, July 5, 1817, two archbishoprics were suffered by this compact, inasmuch as established for the 2,400,000 Catholics in most of the dioceses became now too Bavaria. These were Múnich (with the large to be properly administered ; and the bishoprics of Augsburg, Passau and Ratislower clergy, the very soul of the church, bon) and Bamburg (with the bishoprics of who were in a poor condition before, Würzburg, Eichstädt and Spire). Semwere made entirely dependent on the inaries, moreover, were instituted and progovernment. Louis XVIII concluded, at vided with lands; the nominations were Rome, with Pius VII (July 11, 1817), a left to the king, with the reservation of the new concordate, by which that of 1516, so papal right of confirmation; the limits of injurious to the liberties of the Gallican the civil and ecclesiastical jurisdiction

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VOL. III.

were precisely settled, and the erection where the church does not claim any poof new monasteries was promised. This litical authority, and the sovereign does concordate was published in May, 1818, not consider religion as an instrument for together with the new political constitu- state purposes. Of course there is no such tion, by which all apprehensions for the contest in the U. States of America. Protestant church in Bavaria were allay- CONCORDIA; or concord, personified and ed. (Respecting the concordate between worshipped as a goddess in Rome, where Prussia and the pope, see German Church she had several temples, the most imporand Prussia.) The other German princes tant of which was that in the capitol, have formed a plan for a common concor- erected by Camillus. An annual feast date with the pope. On the whole, the was celebrated, in her honor, the 16th of contest which has been carried on for January. She was represented with more than 800 years between the secular wreaths of flowers on her head, and in power and the church is as little settled one hand two cornucopiæ, in the other, a as it was in the times of Gregory VII and bundle of rods or a pomegranate. Symthe emperor Henry IV, and the concor- bolically, Concordia was represented by dates are to be considered only as tempo- two hands clasped together, or by the rary agreements, which are followed as caduceus. (See Grecian Mythology.) long as either party is obliged or thinks it CONCRETE; a technical word in logic. best to observe them. In fact, it is vain to If we conceive of certain qualities as exthink of putting an end to the dispute, isting in an object, we then regard them, while secular governments maintain that according to philosophical language, in it rests with them to appoint the officers concreto; but if we think of them sepaand instructers of the people, and the rately from the object, we then regard pope maintains that the authority of the them in abstracto ; for example, a just man church is prior in time and superior in is a concrete conception, but justice is an degree to any other. The light in which abstract idea. (See Philosophy.) the Roman court views the cessions made CONCRETIONS, MORBID, in animal econin concordates appears from a letter of omy; hard substances that occasionally pope Innocent I, in 1416: Ergo quod pro make their appearance in different parts remedio necessitas reperit, cessante necessi- of the body, as well in the solids as in tate debet utique cessare, quia alius est ordo those cavities destined to contain fluids : legitimus, alia usurpatio, quam ad præsens in the former case, they are denominated tantum fieri tempus impellit. The govern- concretions or ossifications ; in the latter, ments, on the contrary, add reservations calculi. The concretions that make their to the concordates, as in the case of the appearance in the solids of the animal articles which the French government body are denominated pineal concretions, prefixed to the concordate of 1801, before from their being found in that part of the it was promulgated. Against the appeal brain called the pineal gland; or salivary to a divine institution, on which the pope concretions, as being discovered, occafounds his authority, the sovereigns main- sionally, in the salivary glands; or pantain the following claims :1. The sove- creatic concretions, which are hard subreign of the state is, at the same time, the stances found in the pancreas; or pulmosecular head of the church, and all the nary concretions, which have been somepower of the church to make regulations times coughed up by consumptive perand appoint clerical functionaries has sons ; or hepatic concretions, of which the been given by him, and remains under his liver is sometimes full. Concretions have superintendency ; 2. the temporal pos- also been found in the prostate. These sessions of the church are properly subject have all been examined by chemists, and to the state, which has a right to prevent found to consist of phosphate of lime and them from becoming excessive ; 3. the other substances. Concretions have been secular government can prohibit such acts discovered in the intestines and stomach of worship as are opposed to the interest of man, but more frequently in the bodies and peace of the state, and interfere with of other animals. Those found in the the rights of other religious societies ; 4. intestines of a horse were examined by the state has the right of protecting new Fourcroy, and found to consist of magsects; 5. the civil rights of subjects (even nesia, phosphoric acid, ammonia, water with regard to the validity and conse- and animal matter. (See Calculi.) quences of marriage) are to be exclusively CONCUBINAGE; the cohabitation of a regulated by the laws of the state. It is man with a concubine. Among the easily understood that no such contest be- Greeks, concubinage was allowed even to tween church and state can take place married men: the number of their concubines, also, was unlimited. Among the discovery, that mountains attract heavy Romans, concubinage was neither unlaw- bodies, and give them a direction different ful nor disgraceful. It was, moreover, from that which they would take accordformally permitted to unmarried men, by ing to the simple law of gravity-a truth the Lex Julia, and by the Lex Papia Pop- which was afterward confirmed by Ma:pea, but with the provision, that it should be kelyne and Cavendish. Having finished limited to a single concubine, and that only his labors in America, and escaped a thouwomen of mean descent, as freed-women, sand dangers, he returned to his native actresses and the like, should be chosen land, after an absence of eight years, and for the purpose. The children begotten soon after went to Rome, where Benedict in concubinage were not considered as XIV gave him a dispensation to marry legitimate, but were called natural, and the one of his nieces. Of his curiosity the right of inheritance of the concubine and following anecdote is related. At the her children was very much limited. execution of Damiens, he mingled with the With the introduction of Christianity, con- executioners, in order to let no circumcubinage ceased; and, indeed, Constantine stance of this horrible manner of death the Great made laws against it. The pass unobserved. They were about to Code Napoléon did not expressly forbid send him back, but the chief executioner, concubinage, but the lawful wife could who knew Condamine, prevented them sue for a divorce (since the restoration of with these words: “ Laissez, messieurs, c'est the Bourbons, only for separation), in case un amateur." His principal works are his of the introduction of a concubine by her account of his travels, his work on the fighusband into their common residence. ure of the earth, and that on the measureThe Prussian code does not allow concu- ment of three degrees of the meridian in binage, as some authors have asserted, the equatorial regions. Besides these, he but it establishes two kinds of marriages, published treatises on inoculation for the one of which does not confer the rank, small-pox. &c., of the husband on the wife, nor give CONDÉ; a fortress of France, in the the children the same rights as those en- department du Nord, nine leagues and a joyed by the children born in the other half S. E. of Lisle. Inhabitants, 6,080. kind of marriage. This form of marriage It is, according to the French military seems to have been allowed by the code terminology, a place de guerre de première chiefly for the benefit of poor officers of classe. During

the revolution, it was called government, whose rank far exceeds their Nord-Libre. Its port is much frequented. salary; but, though it stands in the code, CONDÉ, Louis de Bourbon, prince of it never has received from the king the (the great Condé); born in 1621; a genauthority of law. The ruling family, eral of distinguished talents, great advanhowever, sometimes contracts such mar- tages of person, and very attractive manriages. The present king is married to ners. During the life of his father, he the princess of Lignitz in this form. bore the title of duke d’Enghien. He imThere is no want of legality in the con- mortalized this name at the battle of Ronexion ; it is merely to prevent the wife croi, in which, at the age of 22, he defrom becoming a queen, and her children feated the Spaniards (1643). After he had royal princes.

arranged every thing for the battle, on the CONDAMINE, Charles Marie la, a natu- evening previous, he fell into so sound ralist, born at Paris in 1701, died at the a sleep, that it was necessary to awake same place in 1774. With an ardent him when the time for engaging came on. spirit and a powerful frame, the young Wherever he appeared, he was victorious. Condamine, who had entered the military He was so fortunate as to repair the conprofession, gave himself up to pleasure; sequences of a defeat of marshal Turenne. but he soon renounced the military career, He besieged Dunkirk in sight of the Spanand devoted himself to the sciences. He ish army, and gained this place for France, entered the academy as adjoint chimiste. in 1646. He was equally fortunate in His desire of knowledge induced him to putting a stop to the civil war which Mazapply himself to several sciences, without arin had occasioned, who was afterwards advancing very deeply in any particular obliged to seek the support of Condé.

After he had visited the coasts of Jealous of the glory of the prince, and Asia and Africa on the Mediterranean, fearing his pride, Mazarin, in 1650, caused he was, in 1736, chosen, with Godin and his deliverer to be brought captive to VinBouguer, to determine the figure of the cennes, and did not restore him his freeearth, by a measurement to be made in dom until after the expiration of a year. Peru. (See Earth.) He there made the The offended Condé now entered into

one.

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