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negotiations with Spain, and fought against his native country with such success, that he advanced almost to the gates of Paris. He obtained possession of the neighboring places, while Turenne was approaching the capital in order to cover it. Both generals fought with great valor, very near the suburb St. Antoine, and added to their former reputation (July 2, 1652). A short time after, peace was concluded, in which, however, Condé did not concur, but went to the Netherlands. The peace of the Pyrenees, in 1659, at last restored this great general to France. After Turenne's death, in 1675, he commanded, for a long time, the French army in Germany. The gout at last compelled him to retire to his beautiful estate at Chantilly, near Paris, where he devoted himself to the sciences. Here he was visited by Corneille, Bossuet, Racine, Boileau, Bourdaloue, who enjoyed his conversation as much as he did theirs. He died in 1687 at Fontainebleau. In the church of St. Louis, at Paris, a monument was erected to him.

CONDE, Louis Joseph de Bourbon, prince of; born at Chantilly, in 1736; only son of the duke of Bourbon and the princess of Hesse-Rheinfels. By the death of both his parents, he came, in his 5th year, under the guardianship of count Charolais, his uncle. The prince was educated with great strictness, and made some progress in the sciences. In 1753, he married the princess of Rohan-Soubise, who, in 1756, bore him the prince Bourbon-Condé. In the seven years' war, he distinguished himself by his courage and skill, and, in 1762, gained a victory, at Johannisberg, over the hereditary prince of Brunswick. True to the old constitution, he opposed Louis XV, on account of the introduction of a newly formed parliament, and was, on this account, banished, but soon recalled. His leisure he devoted to study, in friendly intimacy with the most learned men of his time, and to the embellishment of Chantilly, where Paul I visited him. He was wounded in a duel with count Agoult. In the revolution, he emigrated, in 1789, to Brussels, and from there to Turin: he afterwards formed, in 1792, at Worms, a little corps of emigrant nobility, 6806 men strong, which joined the Austrian army under Wurmser. After an interview with Gustavus III, of Sweden, at Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1791, on the subject of measures to be undertaken, he was summoned at Worms, by a deputy of the national assembly, and by the king himself, to return to France within 14 days, under penalty of the loss of his estates. With the other

princes, he returned an answer of refusal, from Coblentz. On the breaking out of the war, his corps distinguished itself; but the Austrian plan of operations did not agree with the views of the emigrants; therefore the connexion of prince Condé with Pichegru had no results. In 1795, he entered with his corps into the English service. In 1796, he fought in Suabia. In 1797, he entered the Russian service, and marched with his corps to Russia, where he was most hospitably received into the residence of Paul I; and returned, in 1799, to the Rhine, under Suwaroff. In 1800, after the separation of Russia from the coalition, he reentered the English service. The campaign of 1800 ended the military career of the prince. He lived in England till 1813, in which year his second wife, the princess of Monaco, died. He returned to Paris, May 14, 1814, received the 10th regiment of the line, and the office of colonel-general of infantry, as also that of grand maître de France, and the protectorate of the order of St. Louis. He attended the celebrated royal council, March 17, 1815, fled with the king to Ghent, and returned with him to Paris in July, where, being appointed president of a bureau of the chamber of peers, he remained some time, but at last retired to Chantilly, where he had formerly written the interesting Essai sur la Vie du Grand Condé, par L. J. de Bourbon, son 4me Descendant, of which two editions have appeared since 1806. He died at Paris in 1818. His grandson was the duke d'Enghien. (q. v.)

CONDE, Louis Henry Joseph, duke of Bourbon, son of the preceding, born April 13, 1756, was educated to the profession of arms. He had hardly passed the age of childhood, when he was inspired with the most violent passion for Louisa Maria Theresa of Orleans. It was resolved that he should travel two years, and then receive the hand of the lady. But the impatience of the prince would not admit of this delay. He carried off his mistress from the convent where she resided, married her, and, in 1772, she bore him the prince d'Enghien. Condé's impetuosity occasioned a duel between him and the count d'Artois, in 1778. This was followed by his banishment to Chantilly. He likewise quarrelled with his wife, and, in 1780, separated himself from her (she died in 1822). In 1782, he was present, with the count d'Artois, at the siege of Gibraltar, distinguished himself there, and was appointed marshal. The pride of his name, the ardor of his character, and his confi

dence in the power of the king, caused him, in the beginning of the revolution, to treat with contempt a people in a state of violent fermentation. He continually advised the use of force. In 1789, he emigrated, with his father, to Turin, joined the corps of French emigrants, and, in 1792, 1793 and 1794, showed the ancient courage of the Condés. In 1795, he embarked at Bremen for Quiberon, in order to make a diversion in La Vendée, but was obliged to return to England without success. In 1797, he went with the corps to Russia, and, in 1799, returned to the Rhine. After the dissolution of the royal French army, he went to England, in 1800, where he lived till May, 1814. May 15, 1814, he was appointed, at Paris, colonel-general of the light-infantry, and, on Napoleon's return from Elba, in 1815, received the chief command in the departments of the west. But he was obliged, by a convention, to embark from Nantes. He sailed to Spain, whence he returned, in August, through Bordeaux and Nantes, to Paris.

CONDENSATION. Besides the mechanical powers (see Condenser), there are also chemical means for converting gaseous fluids into liquids by condensation; for example, steam into water, by means of cold. Volta gives the name of condenser of electricity to an instrument invented by him for collecting and measuring electricity in cases in which it is feebly developed; and an apparatus for the collection of sensible caloric is called a condenser of caloric.

CONDENSER; a pneumatic engine, or syringe, whereby an uncommon quantity of air may be crowded into a given space; so that sometimes 10 atmospheres, or 10 times as much air as there is at the same time in the same space without the engine, may be thrown in by means of it, and its egress prevented by valves properly disposed. (See Pneumatics.)

found inquiries on many points. He himself, however, thought that he had not sufficiently explained the first principles of the faculties of the human mind, and therefore wrote the Traité des Systémes (1749, 2 vols.), in which he frequently referred to more accurate observations. Any one would misunderstand Condillac, who should believe that he disapproved of all systems; but instead of those maxims and theories which Des Cartes, Spinoza, Malebranche, &c., had laid down as the basis of their speculations, he demanded observations of the simplest kind. His Traité des Sensations (1754, 2 vols.) is interesting for the ingenious manner, in which he has explained the consciousness of impressions on the senses. Mortified by the supposition that he had followed the course of ideas in Diderot's and Buffon's works, he wrote his Traité des Animaux (1775), in which he refuted Buffon's opinions, by principles which he had advanced in his Traité des Sensations. The sagacity and the clearness which distinguish all Condillac's writings obtained for him the distinction of being chosen instructer of the infant duke of Parma, nephew of Louis XV. The intimate friendship which subsisted between him and his colleague, M. de Keralio, made this situation the more agreeable. To this cause we are indebted for his acute work, the Cours d'Études (1755, 13 vols.), in which, with his peculiar talent of explanation, he investigates the external signs of ideas. Thus his Grammar necessarily became a universal one; his Art of Writing, a course of instruction for giving the most suitable expression to trains of thought. With the same view, he composed his L'Art de juger, and L'Art de penser, which constitute a part of the Cours d'Études. His history has been less successful than his other works. Considered apart from the tameness of its execution, it might be objected to it, that it represents occurrences in subservience to preestablished theories. Condillac returned, after the completion of the education of the young prince, to Paris, where, in 1768, he was admitted into the French academy, which, however, he did not visit again after the day of his entrance. His work, Le Commerce et le Gouvernement considérés relativement l'un à l'autre (1776), which is an application of his analytical method to several problems in the administration of the state, met, however, with little approbation. His Logic, the last of his works, he wrote by request, in 1780, as a manual for the Polish schools. The

CONDILLAC, Stephen Bonnot de, among the French the founder of the sensual system, born in 1715, at Grenoble, lived, like his brother, the abbe Mably, from his youth, devoted to study. His Essai sur Origine des Connaissances humaines (1746, 2 vols.) first drew the attention of the world to a thinker, who, with much acuteness of mind, sought to explain, by the law of the association of ideas, almost all the phenomena of the human mind. Although Locke's discoveries in the department of psychology, founded upon experience, might have had an influence on this work, yet no one can deny to Condillac the merit of having made more pro

tracing back of the thoughts to their simplest beginnings, as the most certain means of finding the truth, is. urgently enjoined by him. Condillac died at his estate of Flux, near Bougenci, Aug. 3, 1780. His Langue des Calculs first appeared in 1798. The collection of his works, the revision of which he had begun, appeared at Paris in 1798, in 23 vols., and again in the same year, in 35 vols. A later edition, of 1803, consists of 32 vols., 12mo. (See French Philosophy.)

CONDITION. (See Bond.)

CONDOR. The popular name of the great vulture of the Andes, formed by a mispronunciation of the Indian name kunter, which, according to Humboldt, is derived from another word in the language of the Incas, signifying to smell well. This species (vultur gryphus L., hodie cathartes gryphus) belongs to the vulturine family of diurnal rapacious birds, and the genus cathartes of Illiger, &c., which is distinguished by the following characters: the bill is elongated and straight at base; the upper mandible is covered to the middle by the cere; the nostrils are medial, approximate, oval, pervious and naked; the tongue is canaliculate, with serrated edges; the head is elongated, depressed and rugous; the tarsus rather slender; the lateral toes equal; the middle toe is much the longest, the inner free, and the hind one shortest; the first primary is rather short, the third and fourth are longest. The natural history of the condor was in a fair way to rival the ancient fables of griffins, basilisks and dragons, or even of exceeding the roc of Sinbad the Sailor, in extravagant exaggeration, until that admirable and judicious observer, Von Humboldt, placed it upon the basis of truth. By divesting this bird of all fictitious attributes, and bringing it into its proper family, he certainly spoiled a great number of romantic narratives of their principal embellishment; but he amply compensated therefor, by giving this additional proof, that there are no monsters in nature, and that even when she appears to depart most from the ordinary standard, as to size, situation or habits, her beings are parts of a single plan, in which all the agents are modifications of one great type. We therefore feel grateful to the indefatigable naturalist, whose residence of 17 months in the native mountains of the condor enabled him daily to observe its peculiarities and habits, and to furnish us with satisfying statements of realities, in place of the wild and inconclusive figments, so long imposed

upon mankind. His careful measurements establish the fact, that the wonderfully gigantic condor is not generally larger than the lammergeyer, or bearded vulture of the Alps, which it closely resembles in various points of character. We shall soon see whether the rational student has lost by stripping the condor of qualities bestowed upon it solely by credulous ignorance, and whether the truth to be told of its history be not more interesting than all the fictions. Upon a chain of mountains, whose summits, lifted far above the highest clouds, are robed in snows coeval with creation, we find a race of birds, whose magnitude and might, compared with others of the feathered kind, is in something like the proportion of their huge domicils to earth's ordinary elevations. Above all animal life, and at the extreme limit of even Alpine vegetation, these birds prefer to dwell, inhaling an air too highly rarified to be endured, unless by creatures expressly adapted thereto. From such immense elevations they soar, still more sublimely, upwards into the darkblue heavens, until their great bulk diminishes to a scarcely perceptible speck, or is lost to the aching sight of the observer. In these pure fields of ether, unvisited even by the thunder-cloud-regions which may be regarded as his own exclusive domainthe condor delights to sail, and with piercing glance surveys the surface of the earth, towards which he never stoops his wing, unless at the call of hunger. Surely this power to waft and sustain himself in the loftiest regions of the air; his ability to endure, uninjured, the exceeding cold attendant on such remoteness from the earth; and to breathe, with ease, in an atmosphere of such extreme rarity; together with the keenness of sight, that, from such vast heights, can minutely scan the objects below, are sufficiently admirable to entitle the condor to our attention, though we no longer regard it as a prodigy, or as standing altogether solitary in the scale of creation.-Notwithstanding that the condor is a lover of the clearest and purest air, it must be confessed that he is a carrion bird, and is quickly lured to the plains by the sight or scent of a carcass, especially of a sheep or ox. To such a feast considerable numbers repair, and commence their filthy banquet by first plucking out the eyes, and then tearing away the tongue of the animal, their favorite delicacies; next to these, the bowels are the morsels most eagerly sought for, and devoured with that greedy gluttony which distinguishes the whole vulture tribe. The appetite of these

food, and to teach them to supply themselves. In relation to all these points, satisfactory information still remains to be desired. We have seen that hunger impels the condors to descend to the plains, and it is also true, that they are occasionally seen even on the shores of the Southern ocean, in the cold and temperate regions of Chile, where the Andes so closely approach the shores of the Pacific. Their sojourn, however, in such situations, is but for a short time, as they seem to require a much cooler and more highly rarified air, and prefer those lofty solitudes where the barometer does not rise higher than 16 degrees. When they descend to the plains, they alight on the ground, rather than upon trees or other projections, as the straightness of their toes renders the first mentioned situation most eligible. Humboldt saw the condor only in New Grenada, Quito and Peru, but was informed that it follows the chain of the Andes from the equator to the 7th degree of north latitude, into the province of Antioquia. There is now no doubt of its appearing even in Mexico, and the south-western territory of the U. States.-The head of the male condor is furnished with a sort of cartilaginous crest, of an oblong figure, wrinkled, and quite slender, resting upon the forehead and hinder part of the beak, for about a fourth of its length; at the base of the bill it is free. The female is destitute of this crest. The skin of the head, in the male, forms folds behind the eye, which descend towards the neck, and terminate in a flabby, dilatable or erectile membrane. The structure of the crest is altogether peculiar, bearing very little resemblance to the cock's comb, or the wattles of a turkey. The auricular orifice is of considerable size, but concealed by folds of the temporal membrane. The eye, which is peculiarly elongated, and farther distant from the beak than in the eagles, is of a purple hue, and very brilliant. The neck is uniformly marked by parallel longitudinal wrinkles, though the membrane is not so flabby as that covering the throat, which appear to be caused by the frequent habit of drawing the neck downwards, to conceal or warm it within the collar or hood. The collar, in both sexes, is a fine silken down, forming a white band between the naked part of the neck and beginning of the true feathers, and is rather more than 2 inches broad, not entirely surrounding the neck, but leaving a very narrow naked space in front. The rest of the surface, the back, wings and tail, are of a slightly grayish-black, though

birds seems to be limited only by the quantity of food that can be gorged into their stomachs; and when thus overloaded, they appear sluggish, oppressed, and unable to raise themselves into the air. The Indians profit by this condition to revenge themselves on the condors for the many robberies which they commit upon their flocks, and, watching while they eat, until flight has become exceedingly difficult, attack and secure them by nooses, or knock them down with poles, before they can get out of the way. If the condor, thus loaded, succeeds in rising a short distance from the ground, he makes a violent effort, kicking his feet towards his throat, and relieves himself by vomiting, when he soon ascends out of reach. Many, however, are surprised, and captured or killed before they are able to ascend. But the condor does not exclusively feed upon dead or putrefying flesh; he attacks and destroys deer, vicunas, and other middling-sized or small quadrupeds; and, when pinched by hunger, a pair of these birds will attack a bullock, and, by repeated wounds with their beaks and claws, harass him, until, from fatigue, he thrusts out his tongue, which they immediately seize, and tear from his head; they also pluck out the eyes of the poor beast, which, if not speedily rescued, must soon fall a prey to their voracity. It is said to be very common to see the cattle of the Indians, on the Andes, suffering from the severe wounds inflicted by these rapacious birds. It does not appear that they have ever attacked the human race. When Humboldt, accompanied by his friend Bonpland, was collecting plants near the limits of perpetual snow, they were daily in company with several condors, which would suffer themselves to be quite closely approached without exhibiting signs of alarm, though they never showed any disposition to act offensively. They were not accused, by the Indians, of ever carrying off children, though frequent opportunities were presented, had they been so disposed. Humboldt believes that no authenticated case can be produced, in which the lammergeyer of the Alps ever carried off a child, though so currently accused of such theft, but that the possibility of the evil has led to the belief of its actual existence. The condor is not known to build a nest, but is said to deposit its eggs on the naked rocks. The eggs are reported to be altogether white, and 3 or 4 inches long. When hatched, the female is said to remain with the young for a whole year, in order to provide them with

sometimes they are brilliantly black; the feathers are triangular, and placed over each other tile-wise. Humboldt never saw male condors with white backs, though descriptions of such have been given by Molina and others. The primaries are black; the secondaries, in both sexes, are exteriorly edged with white. The wing coverts, however, offer the best distinction of the sexes, being grayish-black in the female, while, in the male, their tips, and even half of the shafts, are white, so that his wings are ornamented with beautiful white spots. The tail is blackish, wedgeshaped, rather short, and contains 12 feathers. The feet are very robust, and of an ashen-blue color, marked with white wrinkles. The claws are blackish, very long, and but slightly hooked. The 4 toes are united by an obvious but delicate membrane; the fourth is the smallest, and has the most crooked claw. The following are the dimensions of the largest male condor described by Humboldt (it was killed on the eastern declivity of Chimborazo):-length, from tip of the beak to the tip of the tail, 3 feet 3 inches 2 lines (French); height, when perched, with the neck moderately extended, 2 feet 8 inches; entire length of head and beak, 6 inches 11 lines; beak alone, 2 inches 9 lines; breadth of beak, closed, 1 inch 2 lines; envergure, or from the tip of one extended wing to the other, 8 feet 9 inches; breadth of leg bone, 11 lines; length of longest toe, without the claw, 3 inches 11 lines; claw, 2 inches; length of two lateral toes, with their claws, 3 inches 7 lines; claw, 2 inches 3 lines; shortest toe and claw, 1 inch 8 lines. From this measurement, it is obvious that the condor does not exceed the average size of the largest European vulture; and Humboldt states that he never saw a condor whose envergure measured more than 9 French feet. He was also assured, by very credible inhabitants of the country, that they never saw one whose envergure was greater than 11 feet. He finally concludes that 14 feet is about the maximum size to which the largest condor would attain. Two or three specimens of the condor have been exhibited in Philadelphia and New York within the last 7 years, and were evidently not full grown birds; yet the envergure of the largest of them measured 11 English feet. The envergure of the specimen belonging to the Leverian museum, described by Dr. Shaw, measured 14 English feet. Notwithstanding, therefore, what is said by Humboldt, of the general correspondence in size of the Alpine lammergeyer and

the condor of the Andes, we cannot avoid believing that a full grown individual of the latter species would be much more than a match, in every respect, for any European species. The condor is peculiarly tenacious of life, and has been observed, after having been hung for a considerable time by the neck, in a noose, to rise and walk away quickly when taken down for dead, and to receive several pistol bullets in its body without appearing greatly injured. The great size and strength of its plumage defends its body, to a considerable degree, from the effects of shot. It is easily killed when shot, or struck sufficiently hard, about the head.

CONDORCANQUI, Joseph Gabriel; an American Spaniard, who, having been ill treated by a magistrate, and sustained an act of injustice from the audiencia of Lima, attempted to redress his own grievances, and the oppressions of the Indians, by inciting them to insurrection against the Spanish government in 1780. He was an artful and intrepid man; and, with a view to conciliate the Indians, he assumed the name of Tupac-Amaru, one of the ancient incas, professing a design to restore the ancient dynasty of Manco-Capac in Peru, a project which had been entertained by sir Walter Raleigh, in the reign of queen Elizabeth. The scheme was, at first, very successful. The spirit of revolt extended far and wide into the interior of the country; the contest_lasted three years, and the pretended Tupac-Amaru was hailed inca of Peru. His conduct, however, proved obnoxious to the Spanish settlers, and the efforts of the Indians were too feeble and desultory to support so gigantic an undertaking. Troops were sent against him, and, being deserted by his followers, he was taken and put to death.

CONDORCET, Marie Jean Nicolas Carital, marquis de; born Sept. 17, 1743, at Ribemont, near St. Quentin, of one of the oldest families in Dauphiny. By the assistance of his uncle Jacques Marie de Condorcet, bishop of Lisieux, he was educated in the college of Navarre, at Paris. At a public examination, which was attended by D'Alembert, Clairaut and Fontaine, the manner in which he solved a mathematical proposition gained their applause, and the youth of 16 was so much excited by their praises, that, from that time, he resolved to devote himself entirely to the exact sciences. The duke of Rochefoucault was his patron, and introduced him into the world at the age of 19. But its allurements could not render him

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