Imatges de pÓgina

negotiations with Spain, and fought against princes, he returned an answer of refusal, his native country with such success, that from Coblentz. On the breaking out of he advanced almost to the gates of Paris. the war, his corps distinguished itself; but He obtained possession of the neighbor- the Austrian plan of operations did not ing places, while Turenne was approach- agree with the views of the emigrants; ing the capital in order to cover it. Both therefore the connexion of prince Condé generals fought with great valor, very near with Pichegru had no results. In 1795, the suburb Št. Antoine, and added to their he entered with his corps into the English former reputation (July 2, 1652). A short service. In 1796, he fought in Suabia. In time after, peace was concluded, in which, 1797, he entered the Russian service, and however, Condé did not concur, but went marched with his corps to Russia, where he to the Netherlands. The peace of the was most hospitably received into the resiPyrenees, in 1659, at last restored this dence of Paul I; and returned, in 1799, to great general to France. After Turenne's the Rhine, under Suwaroff. In 1800, after death, in 1675, he commanded, for a long the separation of Russia from the coalition, time, the French army in Germany. The he rëentered the English service. The gout at last compelled him to retire to his campaign of 1800 ended the military cabeautiful estate at Chantilly, near Paris, reer of the prince. He lived in England where he devoted himself to the sciences. till 1813, in which year his second wife, Here he was visited by Corneille, Bossuet, the princess of Monaco, died. He returnRacine, Boileau, Bourdaloue, who en- ed to Paris, May 14, 1814, received the joyed his conversation as much as he did 10th regiment of the line, and the office theirs. He died in 1687 at Fontainebleau. of colonel-general of infantry, as also that In the church of St. Louis, at Paris, a of grand maître de France, and the promonument was erected to him.

tectorate of the order of St. Louis. He CONDÉ, Louis Joseph de Bourbon, prince attended the celebrated royal council, of; born at Chantilly, in 1736; only son March 17, 1815, fled with the king to of the duke of Bourbon and the princess Ghent, and returned with him to Paris in of Hesse-Rheinfels. By the death of both July, where, being appointed president of his parents, he came, in his 5th year, un- a bureau of the chamber of peers, he reder the guardianship of count Charolais, mained some time, but at last retired to his uncle. The prince was educated with Chantilly, where he had formerly written great strictness, and made some progress the interesting Essai sur la Vie du Grand in the sciences. In 1753, he married

the Condé, par L. J. de Bourbon, son 4me Deprincess of Rohan-Soubise, who, in 1756, scendant, of which two editions have apbore him the prince Bourbon-Condé. In peared since 1806. He died at Paris in the seven years' war, he distinguished him- 1818. His grandson was the duke d’Enself by his courage and skill, and, in 1762, ghien. (9. v.) gained a victory, at Johannisberg, over the Condé, Louis Henry Joseph, duke of hereditary prince of Brunswick. True to Bourbon, son of the preceding, born April the old constitution, he opposed Louis 13, 1756, was educated to the profession XV, on account of the introduction of a of arms. He had hardly passed the age newly formed parliament, and was, on of childhood, when he was inspired with this account, banished, but soon recalled. the most violent passion for Louisa Maria His leisure he devoted to study, in friendly Theresa of Orleans. It was resolved that intimacy with the most learned men of his he should travel two years, and then retime, and to the embellishment of Chan- ceive the hand of the lady. But the imtilly, where Paul I visited him. He was patience of the prince would not admit of wounded in a duel with count Agoult. this delay. He carried off his mistress In the revolution, he emigrated, in 1789, to from the convent where she resided, marBrussels, and from there to Turin: he ried her, and, in 1772, she bore him the afterwards formed, in 1792, at Worms, a prince d'Enghien. Condé's impetuosity little corps of emigrant nobility, 6806 men occasioned a duel between him and the strong, which joined the Austrian army count d'Artois, in 1778. This was followunder Wurmser. After an interview with ed by his banishment to Chantilly. He Gustavus III, of Sweden, at Aix-la-Cha- likewise quarrelled with his wife, and, in pelle, in 1791, on the subject of measures 1780, separated himself from her (she died to be undertaken, he was summoned at in 1822). In 1782, he was present, with Worms, by a deputy of the national as- the count d’Artois, at the siege of Gibraltar, sembly, and by the king himself, to return distinguished himself there, and was apto France within 14 days, under penalty pointed marshal. The pride of his name, of the loss of his estates. With the other the ardor of his character, and his confi


dence in the power of the king, caused found inquiries on many points. He him, in the beginning of the revolution, to himself, however, thought that he had not treat with contempt a people in a state of sufficiently explained the first principles violent fermentation. He continually ad- of the faculties of the human mind, and vised the use of force. In 1789, he emi- therefore wrote the Traité des Systèmes grated, with his father, to Turin, joined (1749, 2 vols.), in which he frequentthe corps of French emigrants, and, in ly referred to more accurate observa1792, 1793 and 1794, showed the ancient tions. Any one would misunderstand courage of the Condés. In 1795, he em- Condillac, who should believe that he disbarked at Bremen for Quiberon, in order approved of all systems; but instead of to make a diversion in La Vendée, but was those maxims and theories which Des obliged to return to England without suc- Cartes, Spinoza, Malebranche, &c., had

In 1797, he went with the corps to laid down as the basis of their speculaRussia, and, in 1799, returned to the Rhine. tions, he demanded observations of the After the dissolution of the royal French simplest kind. His Traité des Sensations army, he went to England, in 1800, where (1754, 2 vols.) is interesting for the ingenhe lived till May, 1814. May 15, 1814, he ious manner, in which he has explained was appointed, at Paris, colonel-general the consciousness of impressions on the of the light-infantry, and, on Napoleon's senses. Mortified by the supposition that return from Elba, in 1815, received the he had followed the course of ideas in chief command in the departments of the Diderot’s and Buffon's works, he wrote his west. But he was obliged, by a conven- Traité des Animaux (1775), in which he tion, to embark from Nantes. He sailed refuted Buffon's opinions, by principles to Spain, whence he returned, in August, which he had advanced in his Traité des through Bordeaux and Nantes, to Paris. Sensations. The sagacity and the clear

CONDENSATION. Besides the mechan- ness which distinguish all Condillac's wriical powers (see Condenser), there are also tings obtained for him the distinction of chemical means for converting gaseous being chosen instructer of the infant duke fluids into liquids by condensation; for of Parma, nephew of Louis XV. The example, steam into water, by means of intimate friendship which subsisted becold. * Volta gives the name of condenser tween him and his colleague, M. de Keraof electricity to an instrument invented by lio, made this situation the more agreeable. him for collecting and measuring electrici- To this cause we are indebted for his acute ty in cases in which it is feebly developed; work, the Cours d'Études (1755, 13 vols.), and an apparatus for the collection of in which, with his peculiar talent of exsensible caloric is called a condenser of planation, he investigates the external signs caloric.

of ideas. Thus his Grammar necessarily CONDENSER; a pneumatic engine, or became a universal one; his Art of Writsyringe, whereby an uncommon quantity ing, course of instruction for giving the of air may be crowded into a given space; most suitable expression to trains of so that sometimes 10 atmospheres, or 10 thought. With the same view, he composed times as much air as there is at the same his L'Art de juger, and L’Art de penser, time in the same space without the en- which constitute a part of the Cours d'Étugine, may be thrown in by means of it, des. His history has been less successful and its egress prevented by valves properly than his other works. . Considered apart disposed. (See Pneumatics.)

from the tameness of its execution, it CONDILLAC, Stephen Bonnot de, arnong might be objected to it, that it reprethe French the founder of the sensual sents occurrences in subservience to presystem, born in 1715, at Grenoble, lived, ëstablished theories. Condillac returned, like his brother, the abbe Mably, from his after the completion of the education of youth, devoted to study. His Essai sur the young prince, to Paris, where, in 1768, l'Origine des Connaissances humaines he was admitted into the French acad(1746, 2 vols.) first drew the attention of the emy, which, however, he did not visit world to a thinker, who, with much acute- again after the day of his entrance. His ness of mind, sought to explain, by the law work, Le Commerce et le Gouvernement conof the association of ideas, almost all the sidérés relativement l'un à l'autre (1776), phenomena of the human mind. Although which is an application of his analytical Locke's discoveries in the department of method to several problems in the adminpsychology, founded upon experience, istration of the state, met, however, with might have had an influence on this little approbation. His Logic, the last of work, yet no one can deny to Condil- his works, he wrote by request, in 1780, lac the merit of having made more pro- as a manual for the Polish schools. The tracing back of the thoughts to their sim- upon mankind. His careful measureplest beginnings, as the most certain means ments establish the fact, that the wonderof finding the truth, is, urgently enjoined fully gigantic condor is not generally larger by him. Condillac died at his estate of than the lammergeyer, or bearded vulFlux, near Bougenci, Aug. 3, 1780. His ture of the Alps, which it closely resemLangue des Calculs first appeared in 1798. bles in various points of character. We The collection of his works, the revision shall soon see whether the rational student of which he had begun, appeared at Paris has lost by stripping the condor of qualiin 1798, in 23 vols., and again in the same ties bestowed upon it solely by credulous year, in 35 vols. A later edition, of_1803, ignorance, and whether the truth to be consists of 32 vols., 12mo. (See French told of its history be not more interesting Philosophy.)

than all the fictions. Upon a chain of CONDITION. (See Bond.)

mountains, whose summits, lifted far above CONDOR. The popular name of the the highest clouds, are robed in snows great vulture of the Andes, formed by a coëval with creation, we find a race of mispronunciation of the Indian name birds, whose magnitude and might, comkunter, which, according to Humboldt, is pared with others of the feathered kind, is derived from another word in the lan- in something like the proportion of their guage of the Incas, signifying to smell well. huge domicils to earth's ordinary elevaThis species (vultur gryphus L., hodie ca- tions. Above all animal life, and at the thartes gryphus) belongs to the vulturine extreme limit of even Alpine vegetation, family of diurnal rapacious birds, and the these birds prefer to dwell, inhaling an air genus cathartes of Illiger, &c., which is too highly rarified to be endured, unless distinguished by the following charac- by creatures expressly adapted thereto. ters:—the bill is elongated and straight at From such immense elevations they soar, base; the upper mandible is covered to still more sublimely, upwards into the darkthe middle by the cere; the nostrils are blue heavens, until their great bulk diminmedial, approximate, oval, pervious and ishes to a scarcely perceptible speck, or is naked; the tongue is canaliculate, with lost to the aching sight of the observer. In serrated edges; the head is elongated, de- these pure fields of ether, unvisited even pressed and rugous; the tarsus rather by the thunder-cloud-regions which may slender;

the lateral toes equal; the middle be regarded as his own exclusive domaintoe is much the longest, the inner free, the condor delights to sail

, and with piercand the hind one shortest; the first pri- ing glance surveys the surface of the mary is rather short, the third and fourth earth, towards which he never stoops his are longest.—The natural history of the wing, unless at the call of hunger. Surely condor was in a fair way to rival the an- this power to waft and sustain himself in cient fables of griffins, basilisks and drag- the loftiest regions of the air ; his ability ons, or even of exceeding the roc of Sin- to endure, uninjured, the exceeding cold bad the Sailor, in extravagant exaggera- attendant on such remoteness from the tion, until that admirable and judicious earth; and to breathe, with ease, in an atobserver, Von Humboldt, placed it upon mosphere of such extreme rarity; together the basis of truth. By divesting this bird with the keenness of sight, that, from such of all fictitious attributes, and bringing it vast heights, can minutely scan the objects into its proper family, he certainly spoiled below, are sufficiently admirable to entitle a great number of romantic narratives the condor to our attention, though we no of their principal embellishment; but he longer regard it as a prodigy, or as standamply compensated therefor, by giving ing altogether solitary in the scale of creathis additional proof, that there are no tion.-Notwithstanding that the condor is monsters in nature, and that even when a lover of the clearest and purest air, it she appears to depart most from the ordi- must be confessed that he is a carrion bird, nary standard, as to size, situation or hab- and is quickly lured to the plains by the its, her beings are parts of a single plan, in sight or scent of a carcass, especially of a which all the agents are modifications of sheep or ox. To such a feast considerable one great type. We therefore feel grate- numbers repair, and commence their filthy ful to the indefatigable naturalist, whose banquet by first plucking out the eyes, and residence of 17 months in the native then tearing away the tongue of the animountains of the condor enabled him mal, their favorite delicacies ; next to daily to observe its peculiarities, and hab- these, the bowels are the morsels most its, and to furnish us with satisfying state- eagerly sought for, and devoured with that ments of realities, in place of the wild and greedy gluttony which distinguishes the inconclusive figments, so long imposed whole vulture tribe. The appetite of these




food, and to teach them to supply themselves. In relation to all these points, satisfactory information still remains to be desired. We have seen that hunger impels the condors to descend to the plains, and it is also true, that they are occasionally seen even on the shores of the Southern ocean, in the cold and temperate regions of Chile, where the Andes so closely approach the shores of the Pacific. Their sojourn, however, in such situations, is but for a short time, as they seem to require a much cooler and more highly rarified air, and prefer those lofty solitudes where the barometer does not rise higher than 16 degrees. When they descend to the plains, they alight on the ground, rather than upon trees or other projections, as the straightness of their toes renders the first mentioned situation most eligible. Humboldt saw the condor only in New Grenada, Quito and Peru, but was informed that it follows the chain of the Andes from the equator to the 7th degree of north latitude, into the province of Antioquia. There is now no doubt of its appearing even in Mexico, and the south-western territory of the U. States.-The head of the male condor is furnished with a sort of cartilaginous crest, of an oblong figure, wrinkled, and quite slender, resting upon the forehead and hinder part of the beak, for about a fourth of its length; at the base of the bill it is free. The female is destitute of this crest. The skin of the head, in the male, forms folds behind the eye, which descend towards the neck, and terminate in a flabby, dilatable or erectile membrane. The structure of the crest is altogether peculiar, bearing very little resemblance to the cock's comb, or the wattles of a turkey. The auricular orifice is of considerable size, but concealed by folds of the temporal membrane. The eye, which is peculiarly elongated, and farther distant from the beak than in the eagles, is of a purple hue, and very brilliant. The neck is uniformly marked by parallel longitudinal wrinkles, though the membrane is not so flabby as that covering the throat, which appear to be caused by the frequent habit of drawing the neck downwards, to conceal or warm it within the collar or hood. The collar, in both sexes, is a fine silken down, forming a white band between the naked part of the neck and beginning of the true feathers, and is rather more than 2 inches broad, not entirely surrounding the neck, but leaving a very narrow naked space in front. The rest of the surface, the back, wings and tail, are of a slightly grayish-black, though

birds seems to be limited only by the quantity of food that can be gorged into their stomachs; and when thus overloaded, they appear sluggish, oppressed, and unable to raise themselves into the air. The Indians profit by this condition to revenge themselves on the condors for the many robberies which they commit upon their flocks, and, watching while they eat, until flight has become exceedingly difficult, attack and secure them by nooses, or knock them down with poles, before they can get out of the way. If the condor, thus loaded, succeeds in rising a short distance from the ground, he makes a violent effort, kicking his feet towards his throat, and relieves himself by vomiting, when he soon ascends out of reach. Many, however, are surprised, and captured or killed before they are able to ascend. But the condor does not exclusively feed upon dead or putrefying flesh; he attacks and destroys deer, vicunas, and other middling-sized or small quadrupeds; and, when pinched by hunger, a pair of these birds will attack a bullock, and, by repeated wounds with their beaks and claws, harass him, until, from fatigue, he thrusts out his tongue, which they immediately seize, and tear from his head; they also pluck out the eyes of the poor beast, which, if not speedily rescued, must soon fall a prey to their voracity. It is said to be very common to see the cattle of the Indians, on the Andes, suffering from the severe wounds inflicted by these rapacious birds. It does not appear that they have ever attacked the human race. When Humboldt, accompanied by his friend Bonpland, was collecting plants near the limits of perpetual snow, they were daily in company with several condors, which would suffer themselves to be quite closely approached without exhibiting signs of alarm, though they never showed any disposition to act offensively. They were not accused, by the Indians, of ever carrying off children, though frequent opportunities were presented, had they been so disposed. Humboldt believes that no authenticated case can be produced, in which the lammergeyer of the Alps ever carried off a child, though so currently accused of such theft, but that the possibility of the evil has led to the belief of its actual existence. The condor is not known to build a nest, but is said to deposit its eggs on the naked rocks. The eggs are reported to be altogether white, and 3 or 4 inches long. When hatched, the female is said to remain with the young for a whole year, in order to provide them with


sometimes they are brilliantly black; the the condor of the Andes, we cannot avoid feathers are triangular, and placed over believing that a full grown individual of each other tile-wise. Humboldt never saw the latter species would be much more than male condors with white backs, though a match, in every respect, for any Eurodescriptions of such have been given by pean species. The condor is peculiarly Molina and others. The primaries are tenacious of life, and has been observed, black; the secondaries, in both sexes, are after having been hung for a considerable exteriorly edged with white. The wing time by the neck, in a noose, to rise and coverts, however, offer the best distinction walk away quickly when taken down for of the sexes, being grayish-black in the dead, and to receive several pistol bullets female, while, in the male, their tips, and in its body without appearing greatly ineven half of the shafts, are white, so that jured. The great size and strength of its his wings are ornamented with beautiful plumage defends its body, to a considerwhite spots. The tail is blackish, wedge- able degree, from the effects of shot. It is shaped, rather short, and contains 12 feath- easily killed when shot, or struck suffi

The feet are very robust, and of an ciently hard, about the head. ashen-blue color, marked with white wrin- CONDORCANQUI, Joseph Gabriel ; an kles. The claws are blackish, very long, American Spaniard, who, having been ill and but slightly hooked. The 4 toes are treated by a magistrate, and sustained an united by an obvious but delicate mem- act of injustice from the audiencia of Librane ; the fourth is the smallest, and has ma, attempted to redress his own grievthe most crooked claw. The following ances, and the oppressions of the Indians, are the dimensions of the largest male by inciting them to insurrection against condor described by Humboldt (it was the Spanish government in 1780. He was killed on the eastern declivity of Chim- an artful and intrepid man; and, with a borazo):-length, from tip of the beak to view to conciliate the Indians, he assumed the tip of the tail

, 3 feet 3 inches 2 lines the name of Tupac-Amaru, one of the an(French); height, when perched, with the cient incas, professing a design to restore neck moderately extended, 2 feet 8 inches; the ancient dynasty of Manco-Capac in entire length of head and beak, 6 inches Peru, a project which had been enter11 lines; beak alone, 2 inches 9 lines ; tained by sir Walter Raleigh, in the reign breadth of beak, closed, 1 inch 2 lines; of queen Elizabeth. The scheme was, at envergure, or from the tip of one extended first, very successful. The spirit of revolt wing to the other, 8 feet 9 inches; breadth extended far and wide into the interior of of leg bone, 11 lines; length of longest toe, the country ; the contest_lasted three without the claw, 3 inches 11 lines ; claw, years, and the pretended Tupac-Amaru 2 inches; length of two lateral toes, with was hailed inca of Peru. His conduct, their claws, 3 inches 7 lines; claw, 2 however, proved obnoxious to the Spanish inches 3 lines; shortest toe and claw, 1 settlers, and the efforts of the Indians inch 8 lines. From this measurement, it were too feeble and desultory to support is obvious that the condor does not exceed so gigantic an undertaking. Troops were the average size of the largest European sent against him, and, being deserted by vulture; and Humboldt states that he never his followers, he was taken and put to saw a condor whose envergure measured death. more than 9 French feet. He was also CONDORCET, Marie Jean Nicolas Cariassured, by very credible inhabitants of tal, marquis de; born Sept. 17, 1743, at the country, that they never saw one Ribemont, near St. Quentin, of one of the whose envergure was greater than 11 feet. oldest families in Dauphiny. By the asHe finally concludes that 14 feet is about sistance of his uncle Jacques Marie de the maximum size to which the largest Condorcet, bishop of Lisieux, he was educondor would attain. Two or three spe- cated in the college of Navarre, at Paris. cimens of the condor have been exhibited At a public examination, which was atin Philadelphia and New York within the tended by D'Alembert, Clairaut and Fonlast 7 years, and were evidently not full taine, the manner in which he solved a grown birds; yet the envergure of the mathematical proposition gained their aplargest of them measured 11 English feet. plause, and the youth of 16 was so much The envergure of the specimen belonging excited by their praises, that, from that to the Leverian museum, described by Dr. time, he resolved to devote himself enShaw, measured 14 English feet. Not- tirely to the exact sciences. The duke of withstanding, therefore, what is said by Rochefoucault was his patron, and introHumboldt, of the general correspondence duced him into the world at the age of 19. in size of the Alpine lammergeyer and But its allurements could not render him

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