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unfaithful to the severe studies which he des Negres). In 1787, Condorcet pubhad chosen. At the age of 21, he pre- lished Voltaire's Life, a sort of sequel to sented to the academy of sciences an Es- the complete edition of Voltaire's works, sai sur le Calcul Intégral, which caused which he had given to the world with Fontaine to observe, that he was jealous notes and illustrations, and therein exof the young man. His Mémoire sur le pressed the admiration which the versaProblème des Trois Points appeared in tility of talent and the zeal in the cause of 1767. Both works were afterwards united humanity of this great man had awakened under the title of Essais d'Aralyse. The in him. Meanwhile his opinions of the merit of this work gained for him, in 1769, rights of citizens and of men, estranged the distinction of a seat in the academy of him from the duke of Rochefoucault
, his sciences. With astonishing facility and former benefactor. His enemies have asversatility, Condorcet treated the most dif- serted that the refusal of the post of inficult problems in mathematics; but his structer to the dauphin induced him to genius inclined him rather to lay down join the popular party. The real cause beautiful formulas than to pursue them to was his enthusiasm for the great and useful applications. Condorcet also wrote good. He wrote, in favor of the popular academical eulogies, as Fontenelle's tal- cause, Sur les Assemblées provinciales, subents in this department were very much sequently in the Bibliothèque de l'Homme missed. Although his Éloges des Acadé- public and the Feuille villageoise. Under miciens Morts avant 1699 (Paris, 1773) a cold exterior, he possessed the most arleave much to be desired, yet they were dent passions. D'Alembert compared him received with so much applause, that the to a volcano covered with snow. His place of secretary of the academy, in 1777, Feuille villageoise, in which he simply was not refused to him even by his rivals. stated the first principles of political econThis office imposed on him the necessity omy, and of the relations of states, exerted of investigating the various departments considerable influence. On the intelliof the sciences (the most distinguished gence of the flight of the king, he reprepromoters of which he was obliged to sented, in a speech which was highly eulogize), in order to be able to exhibit the admired, the royal dignity as an antilatest discoveries ; but he did not allow social institution. The royal treasury, of himself to be drawn away from his math- which he was appointed, in 1791, comematical studies. His theory of comets missary, received, at his suggestion, the gained, in 1777, the prize offered by the name of national treasury. He was finally academy of Berlin, and he enriched the elected a deputy of Paris to the legislative transactions of the learned societies of assembly, and very soon, though his Petersburg, Berlin, Bologna, Turin and bodily strength seemed inadequate for the Paris with profound contributions in the office, he was chosen secretary of the asdepartment of the higher mathematics. sembly. In February, 1792, he was apThe aversion of the minister Maurepas to pointed president; composed the proclaCondorcet delayed his entrance into the mation addressed to the French and to French academy till 1782. His inaugural Europe, which announced the abolition discourse was on the advantages which of the royal dignity ; spoke in the national society may derive from the union of the convention, where he had a seat as depuphysical and moral sciences. Being inti- ty of the department of Aisne, for the mately connected with Turgot, he was led most part, indeed, with the Girondists; into a thorough examination of the system but, on the trial of Louis, he was in favor of the economists, and his acquaintance of the severest sentence not capital ; at with D'Alembert made him take an active the same time, he proposed to abolish part in the Encyclopédie, for which he capital punishments, except in case of wrote many articles. He was the friend crimes against the state. This particiof most of the contributors to this great pation in the proceedings against the king work. In all his writings, he displays an was the reason why his name was struck exalted view of human nature-a circum- off from the list of members of the acadestance much to his honor, considering the mies of Petersburg and Berlin. The revcharacter of those with whom he was olution of May 31, 1793, prevented the associated. This feeling determined him constitution which Condorcet had drawn in favor of the cause of the American col- up from being accepted. The constitution onies during their contest with England. then adopted he attacked without moderaHe was also a friend of the enslaved Ne- tion or reserve, and was, in consequence, groes, and was anxious for their restora- denounced at the bar (q v.), July 8. He tion to freedom (Reflexions sur l'Esclavage was accused, Oct. 3, of being an accom
plice of Brissot. To save his life, he con- They included, however, many people cealed himself, and was declared out of who had been deprived of their fortunes the protection of the law. Madame Ver- by these wars. As these men had not ney, a woman of noble feelings, secreted the slightest interest in those who hired him for eight months. She procured him them, but that of being paid, and of finding the means of subsistence, and even wrote opportunities for plunder, wars terminated little poems to enliven his spirits. While with very little bloodshed, sometimes with in this retreat, without the assistance of none; for when the bands of condottieri others, and surrounded by all the horrors met, the smallest in number not unfreof his situation, Condorcet wrote his ex- quently surrendered to the other. The cellent Esquisse d'un Tableau historique most ambitious among them, however, des Progrès de l'Esprit humain, full of en- had higher views. Such was Francesco thusiasm for that liberty, the degeneracy Sforza, who, being chosen by the Milanof which caused him so much suffering. ese to command their army, made himIn answer to the encouraging words of self, in 1451, their duke and lord, and his protectress, he wrote the Epitre d'un whose posterity continued to possess Polonais exilé en Sibérie à sa Femme, full sovereign power. There is little differof those noble sentiments which had been ence between most of the condottieri and the rules of his life. He at last learned some of the nobler kinds of robbers. (See from the public papers, that death was Captain.) denounced against all those who concealed CONDUCTOR OF LIGHTNING is an instrua proscribed individual. In spite of the ment, by means of which either the elecprayers of the generous woman who had tricity of the clouds—the cause of lightning given him refuge, he left her, and fled in -is conducted, without explosion, into disguise from Paris. He wandered about the earth, or the lightning itself is interfor a long time, until, driven by hunger, cepted and conducted, in a particular way, he entered a small inn at Clamar, where into the earth or water, without injuring he was arrested, as a suspicious person, by buildings, ships, &c. This invention bea member of the revolutionary tribunal of longs to doctor Franklin. While making Clamar, and thrown into prison, to un- experiments on electricity, he observed dergo a more strict examination. On the that a pointed metallic wire, if brought following morning, March 28, 1794, he near an electrified body, gradually dewas found dead on the floor of his room, prives the latter of its electricity in such a apparently having swallowed poison, which manner that no sparks appear. Therehe always carried about him, and which fore, as clouds are electrified, he thought nothing but his love for his wife and that they might be deprived of their elecdaughter had prevented him from using tricity (which is the cause of lightning and before. A collection of his numerous writ- of its striking), if a pointed metallic rod ings, complete with the exception of his were fastened upon the highest part of a mathematical works, appeared in Paris in building, and a wire carried down from 1804 (Cuvres complètes, publiés par Garat this into the earth, so that the electricity et Cabanis, 21 vols.). An excellent histor- of the cloud, attracted by the point, might ical notice of them is to be found in the be conducted into the ground. Franklin's Notice sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de Con- conjecture proved to be well founded, and dorcet, par Antoine Diannyère, 1796. The conductors were soon after introduced into Mémoires de Condorcet sur la Révolution many countries. They at first consisted Française is a poor work.
of an iron rod, running down the sides of CONDOTTIERI (leaders); the captains of a building into the earth, while its point those bands of soldiers which were fre- rose several feet above the building. Exquent in Italy towards the end of the perience, thus far, shows the best conmiddle ages, who sought for service in struction of conductors to be this :—The every war, and fought not for their coun- conductor consists of a rod of iron, an try, but for pay and plunder, and offered inch thick, to the upper end of which is their assistance to every party which could attached a tapering piece of copper, 8 pay them. These bands originated in the or 9 inches in length, gilded, to prevent endless wars and feuds of the Italian its rusting. This rod is fixed to the highstates and governments at that time, and est part of a building, in such a way as to the whole military power soon came into rise at least 5 or 6 feet above it: to this their hands. They consisted principally are fastened strips of copper, 3 or 4 inches of men too ignorant or too indolent to broad, and riveted together, which must obtain an honest livelihood, or who wished reach to the earth, and be carried into it to escape the punishment of some crime. about a foot deep. The strips are to be
carefully nailed upon the roof and against with the base than is made by the side of the wall of the building. The first con- the cone, the curve obtained is called a ductors in Europe were erected at Paynes- hyperbola. Thirdly, the section may be hill, in England, by doctor Watson, in made parallel with one side of the cone, 1762, and upon the steeple of St. James' in which case the curve is called a parabchurch, at Hamburg, in Germany, in 1769. ola. These three lines, figures and planes In modern times, conductors have been are called conic sections, and form one of proposed to supersede those formerly in the most important parts of mathematuse. Among them is the cheap one of ics, which is distinguished for elegance, Nicolai, made of strips of tin, which has demonstrating, with surprising simplicity already been used; for instance, at Loh- and beauty, and in the most harmonious men, near Pirna.
connexion, the different laws, according CONDUIT (French), in architecture ; a to which the Creator has made worlds to long, narrow passage between two walls
, revolve, and the light to be received and or under ground, for secret communication reflected, as well as the ball thrown into between various apartments, of which the air by the playful boy, to describe its many are to be found in old buildings; line, until it falls again to the earth. Few also a canal of pipes, for the conveyance branches of mathematics delight a youthof water; a sort of subterraneous or con- ful mind so much as conic sections; and cealed aqueduct. The construction of the emotion which the pupil manifests, conduits requires science and care. The when they unfold to him the great laws ancient Romans excelled in them, and of the universe, might be called natural formed the lower parts, whereon the wa- piety: Considering conic sections as ter ran, with cement of such an excellent opening the mind to the true grandeur quality, that it has become as hard as the and beauty of the mathematical world, stone itself, which it was employed to join. whilst all the preceding study only teaches There are conduits of Roman aqueducts the alphabet of the science, we are of still remaining, of from five to six feet in opinion that the study of them might height, and three feet in width. Conduits, be advantageously extended beyond the in modern times, are generally pipes of walls of colleges, into the higher seminawood, lead, iron, or pottery, for conveying ries for the education of females. The the water from the main spring or reser- Greeks investigated the properties of the voirs to the different houses and places conic sections with admirable acuteness. where it is required.
A work on them is still extant, written by CONE, in geometry; a solid figure having Apollonius of Perge. The English have a circle for its base, and its top terminat- · done great deal towards perfecting the ed in a point, or vertex. This definition, theory of them. In teaching conic secwhich is commonly given, is not, in math- tions to young people, the descriptive ematical strictness, correct; because no method (resting on diagrams) ought always circle, however small
, can become a math- to be connected with the analytic method. ematical point. But these deficiencies CONFEDERATION, GERMAN. (See Gerof mathematical strictness connected with many.) constructive geometry, which is based on CONFEDERATION OF THE PRINCES (of figures and diagrams, are avoided by ana- Germany ; in German, Fürstenbund). lytical geometry, which operates without The occasion of the confederation of the figures. The word cone is derived froń German princes was the extinction of the the Latin conus. The figure might be male line of the family of the elector of called the round pyramid, according to the Bavaria, by the death of the elector Maxidefinition of a pyramid. Cones are either milian Joseph, Dec. 30, 1777. After his perpendicular, if the axis, that is, the line death, his territories féll to the nearest from the vertex to the centre of the base, collateral relation, Charles Theodore, electstands perpendicularly on the base; or or of the Palatinate. This prince, being oblique, or scalenous, if the axis does without children, had yielded to the proponot form a right angle with the base. If sitions of the house of Austria, and obliged a cone is cut parallel with its base, the himself
, by the convention of Vienna, Jan. section, of course, is a circle : if, however, 3, 1778, to renounce all claim to the inherthe section is made obliquely, that is, nearer itance. This convention was opposed by to the base at one end than at the other, the presumptive heir of the Palatinate, the a curve is obtained, which is called an duke of Deux-Ponts, and also by the elector ellipse. If the section be made parallel of Saxony, nephew to the deceased elector with the axis, perpendicularly from the of Bavaria. Both princes sought the invertex, or so as to make a greater angle tercession of Frederic the Great of Prus
sia, who, after fruitless negotiations on the months, this league was joined by the electsubject with Austria, took up arms. At or of Mentz and his coadjutor, Dalberg the the
peace of Teschen, May 13, 1779, which elector of Treves, the landgrave of Hesseended this short war for the Bavarian suc- Cassel, the margraves of Anspach and cession, the convention of Vienna was an- Baden, and the dukes of Deux-Ponts, of nulled. Austria obtained of Bavaria merely Brunswick, of Mecklenburg, of Weimar the Innviertel, with Braunau, and Charles and Gotha, with the prince of Anhalt-DesTheodore received possession of the rest sau. The views of Austria were frustrated of the territories. France and Russia, the by this open act of the king of Prussia, and allies of Prussia, guarantied the peace. both Austria and Russia entirely relinSome years after, the emperor Joseph II quished their project. (See Von Dohm, Ueagain thought of enlarging and strength- ber den deutschen Fürstenbund on the Conening the Austrian monarchy by the addi- federation of the German Princes, Berlin, tion of the state of Bavaria, and the em- 1785; John Müller's Description of the press of Russia proposed an exchange Confederation of the German Princes; and of the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria. Reuss's Deutsche Staatskanzlei, vol 13). The elector Charles Theodore was to have This confederation is to be considered as the Austrian Netherlands, with the excep- one of the many proofs of the utter insuftion of Luxemburg and Namur, with the ficiency of the German empire for the title of king of Burgundy. The elector purposes of a general government. was induced to agree to this by the Aus- CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE. In trian ambassador, Von Lehrbach; the duke the war of 1805, which turned out so unof Deux-Ponts, the presumptive heir, by fortunately for Austria, several of the count Romanzoff
, the Russian ambassador; princes of the south of Germany were and both were promised, in addition to what obliged to ally themselves to France, or they received by exchange, the sum of did it voluntarily. The peace of Presburg 3000 florins from the Austrian coffers. At (Dec. 26, 1805) gave the first impulse to the same time, the duke was told that the the entire dissolution of the German emconsent of the elector had been secured, pire, by conferring crowns on the electors and that the exchange would take place, of Bavaria and Würtemberg, and on both, even without his concurrence. Bút thé as well as on Baden, complete sovereignty, duke afterwards refused his consent to such as had been already exercised by the the exchange of the and of his forefa- other great German states. Soon after thers, and again had recourse to Frederic. (May 28, 1806), the first German elector, This monarch supported with zeal the arch-chancellor of the empire, announced remonstrance sent by the duke to the em- to the diet that he had appointed cardinal press Catharine of Russia, and received a Fesch, uncle of Napoleon, his coadjutor communication from the empress, that she and successor,-an act inconsistent with thought the exchange advantageous to the constitution of the empire. Ultimately, both parties, but that it ought not to take 16 German princes made a formal declarplace without their mutual consent. Al- ation of their separation from the emperor though Louis XVI, who had guarantied and the empire, in the act of confederathe peace of Teschen, and would not con- tion signed at Paris, July 12, 1806, by the sent to the exchange, now caused the king kings of Bavaria and Würtemberg, the of Prussia to be assured that Joseph II, elector arch-chancellor of the empire, the his ally, had given up the plan, on account elector of Baden, the new duke of Cleves of the opposition of the duke of Deux- and Berg (Joachim Murat), the landgrave Ponts, the court of Vienna still refused to of Hesse-Darmstadt, the princes of Nasmake satisfactory arrangements. Frederic sau-Usingen and Nassau-Weilburg, HoII therefore, in March, 1785, induced the henzollern-Hechingen, and Hohenzollernelectors of Saxony and Hanover to form a Sigmaringen, of Salm-Salm and Salmleague, and, in spite of the opposition of Kyrburg, the duke of Ahremberg, the Austria, the terms of union were signed in princes of Isenburg-Birstein and of LiechBerlin, July 23, 1785, by Brandenburg, tenstein, and the count Von der Leyen. Saxony and Hanover, for the support and This was communicated to the diet Aug. defence of the German constitution, agree- 1, 1806. They assigned, as the reason for ably to the terms of the peace of West- this separation, the deficiencies of the phalia and the treaties which followed, of constitution of the German empire, and the electoral capitulations, and of the other invited the other members of the empire laws of the empire. The measures to be to join their confederation. The French taken against the exchange of Bavaria were ambassador, Bacher, announced, on the provided for by a secret article. In a few same day, that his sovereign would no longer acknowledge a German empire. Rhine, he was not recognised as a chief to (See Germany.). The emperor Francis II whom the rulers of the several states were resigned his dignity as head of the Ger- to be subject. To deliberate on the muman empire Aug. 6, being induced to take tual affairs of the confederates, a confedthis step, according to his declaration, by erate diet was to be established at Frankthe demands contained in several articles fort on the Maine, with two divisions—the of the peace of Presburg, and the new royal, in which the grand-dukes were confederation of the German states, which likewise to have seats, and that of the he considered inconsistent with his rank princes. The prince-primate was to be as head of the empire. After the signing general president of the diet, and particuof the act of confederation, to which the larly of the royal chamber; in that of the name of the prince of Liechtenstein was princes, the duke of Nassau was to preattached without his knowledge, the elect- side. At the death of every prince-prior arch-chancellor received the title of mate, his successor was to be appointed prince primate; the elector of Baden, the by the protector of the confederation of landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and the the Rhine. No member of the latter was duke of Berg, received each the title of to be allowed to enter the service of any grand-duke, with royal privileges and state not included in the confederacy, or rights, Nassau-Usingen was raised to a allied with the same, nor was any member duchy, and Von der Leyen to a principal- to be allowed to cede his sovereignty in ity. The emperor of France adopted the favor of any but a confederate. The distitle of protector of the confederation of the putes of the confederate princes were to Rhine. By the establishment of this con- be decided at the diets, and, for the sake federation, the following states lost their of adjusting complaints against the mempolitical independence:-the imperial free bers of the
confederacy, two courts of juscity of Nuremberg, which was ceded to tice were to be established. But neither Bavaria; Frankfort, to the prince-primate; these, nor the meeting of the confederacy, the principality of Heitersheim, belonging ever took place. Finally, Catholics and to the order of the knights of St. John, Protestants were to enjoy equal rights in which became subject to Baden; and the all the confederated states. Thus, in the burggravate of Friedberg, to Hesse-Darm- place of the German empire, which had stadt. Furthermore, by mediatisation, the existed nearly 1000 years, at least in name, princes of Nassau and Orange-Fulda, of a confederation was formed, which, tranHohenlohe, Schwarzenberg, and many sitory as it may seem in many respects, others; the landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, nevertheless brought about a total and the dukes of Corswarern-Looz and of Croy, lasting revolution in the political relations many counts of the empire, and all the of the former German states of the emformer knights of the empire, were sub- pire and their subjects, and is erroneously jected to the princes of the confederation judged, if it is considered as merely the of the Rhine. These mediatised members offspring of foreign ambition, and not as of the empire only kept possession of their the inevitable consequence of the internal patrimonial estates and private property, dissolution of the ancient constitution of the jurisdiction in the first and second the empire. Sept. 25, 1806, the elector of instances, the feudal rights, and mining Würtzburg joined the confederacy as a privileges, &c.; but the power of legisla- grand-duke. Prussia, on the other hand, tion, essential to sovereignty, the supreme to limit the increase of the power of jurisdiction, the right of declaring war and France, by the further extension of this peace, of forming alliances, of regulating confederacy, had formed the
project of a the police, and taxation, &c., devolved on similar union, under her protection, to be the princes of the confederation, to whom composed of the northern German princes. these mediatised princes became subject. But an end was put to this project by the The object of this confederation was to war of 1806—7; and, during this war, the
external and internal peace. elector of Saxony, after having separated France and the members of the confeder- from Prussia, and assumed the title of ation were to be closely allied, and, if one king, at the peace concluded between Saxof them was threatened with war, or at- ony and France, at Posen (Dec. 11, 1806) tacked, all the other confederates were to entered the confederacy. His example take up arms at the call of the protector, was followed (Dec. 15, 1806) by the five without further consultation, to assist the Saxon dukes; and, by the treaty signed at party threatened or attacked. Although, Warsaw, April 13, 1807, the two princes by the act of confederation, Napoleon was of Schwarzburg, the three dukes of the called protector of the confederation of the house of Anhalt, and many other smaller