« AnteriorContinua »
422 CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE-CONFESSION. princes, were admitted into the confedera- the confederacy. The former lost half of cy. The kingdom of Westphalia, formed his country, the latter, all. The king of out of the provinces conquered from Prus- Westphalia and the grand-duke of Berg sia and other states, and assigned to Je- (son of the ex-king of Holland) shared the rome Bonaparte, was likewise added to same fate. For the same reason, by the the confederation of the Rhine, by the resolutions arbitrarily passed at the conconstitution, confirmed by the emperor of gress of Vienna, the dominions of the France, Nov. 15, 1807. Finally, the duke prince of Isenburg and of the prince Von of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Feb. 18, 1808), der Leyen, who, as princes of the confedthe duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin eracy of the Rhine, were sovereigns, were (March 22, 1808), the duke of Oldenburg mediatised. The other members of the and prince of Lübeck (Oct. 14, 1808), confederacy of the Rhine, with the excepwere admitted as members; so that the tion of the duke of Ahremburg and the confederacy extended over a space of prince of Salm, have joined the German 125,160 square miles, with 14,608,877 in- confederacy as sovereigns. habitants; and the confederate forces were CONFESSION. This term is sometimes increased from the originally stipulated applied to a profession of faith; for innumber of 63,000 to 119,180. But the stance, the confession of Augsburg. (See protector of the confederacy of the Rhine, Augsburg, and Reformation. It somewho had established the league, for the times also signifies a religious sect; as the maintenance of internal and external three Christian confessions—the Roman peace, thought himself authorized to make Catholic, the Lutheran and the Calvinistic. inroads on the security and independence Confiteor (I acknowledge) is the confession of his confederates, and, by a decree of which the Catholic priests make before the Dec. 10, 1810, by which the rivers Scheldt, altar, when beginning mass or public worMeuse, Rhine, Ems, Weser and Elbe ship. were added to France, deprived the fol- Confession, in law, is when a prisoner, lowing princes of the confederacy of their after being arraigned, and hearing the political existence, and of the indepen- indictment against him read, confesses the dence secured to them by the act of con- offence of which he is charged. Such federacy :-1. the duke of Oldenburg, on confession is the most satisfactory ground whose dukedom he seized, leaving him of conviction. In the German states, the only the principality of Lübeck; 2. the duke confession of the prisoner, to be concluof Ahremberg, of whose possessions a part sive, must not only be made in open court, were added to France, and the remainder but must be accompanied by a disclosure, to the grand-duchy of Berg; 3. the pos- on his part, of the circumstances under sessions of the prince of Salm-Salm and which the crime was committed.-By the Salm-Kyrburg were likewise added to revised laws of New York, a prisoner, France. Of the grand-duchy of Berg, instead of being asked whether he is and the kingdom of Westphalia, consider- guilty or not guilty, is asked whether he able portions were likewise joined to will be tried by the jury. France. The territories thus appropriated Confession, Auricular, in the Roman amounted to 11,278 square miles, with church; the disclosure of sins to the priest 1,133,057 inhabitants ; so that 114,140 at the confessional, with a view to obtain square miles, and 13,475,826 inhabitants, absolution from them. The father conremained to the confederacy. The year fessor inquires of the person confessing 1813 put an end to its existence. The concerning the circumstances of the sins present grand-dukes of Mecklenburg- confessed, and proportions his admonition, Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the and the severity of the penance, which he last, who, compelled by their situation, enjoins, to the degree of the transgression. had joined the confederacy of the The person confessing is allowed to conRhine, were the first that renounced it, ceal no sin of consequence which he reimmediately on the alliance of Prussia members to have committed, and the with Russia against Napoleon. They father confessor is bound to perpetual were soon followed by the kings of Bava- secrecy. The absolution granted thereria and Würtemberg, besides several less upon has, according to the doctrines of the powerful princes. Others hesitated longer, Catholic and Greek churches, sacramental prevented partly by the situation of their efficacy. But the holy Scripture does countries, partly by other considerations, not contain an express decision on this from making a free declaration. Among point, and the custom of confession bethese were the king of Saxony, as also the fore taking the Lord's supper was not esgrand-duke of Frankfort, the president of tablished in the oldest Christian congre
gations. Whoever was guilty of great by Christ, but was only a part of the ansins, made a public acknowledgment of cient church discipline: they did not, howthem, and a profession of repentance be- ever, maintain its absolute necessity. (See fore the assembled congregation. This Penitence.). The title of confessors was was usually committed to writing, and anciently given to those who had endured read by the penitents. Pope Leo the torments in defence of the Christian reGreat, in 450, altered this public confession ligion. It was often used for martyrs, but into a secret one before the priest. The was subsequently confined to those who, fourth Lateran council (can. 21) ordains, having been tortured, were set free. Saints “that every one of the faithful, of both are also called_confessors. So are the sexes, on coming to years of discretion, priests, in the Roman Catholic church, shall, in private, faithfully confess all their who absolve sinners. (For an account of sins, at least once a year, to their own pas- the intrigues of confessors in political aftor, and fulfil, to the best of their power, fairs, see Grégoire, Histoire des Confesseurs the penance enjoined_them, receiving, des Empereurs, des Rois, &c.; Paris, 1824.) reverently, at least at Easter, the sacra- CONFESSION OF AUGSBURG. (See Augsment of the eucharist, unless, by the ad- burg Confession.) vice of their pastor, for some reasonable CONFESSIONAL (from confessionis, Lat.), cause, they judge it proper to abstain from in architecture; a cell in a Catholic church, it for a time; otherwise, they are to be wherein the confessor sits to hear confesexcluded from the church while living, sions. The confessional, of which there and, when they die, to be deprived of are many in every Roman Catholic church Christian burial." While the Catholic and chapel, is a species of cell, built of church thus requires from the penitent the joinery, with a boarded back next the avowal of his single crimes, the Lutheran wall, or against a pillar or a pier, divided church requires only a general acknowl- into three niches or small cells. The edgment, leaving it, however, at the op- centre, which is for the reception of the tion of its members, to reveal their partic- priest, is closed half way up by a dwarfular sins to the confessor, and to relieve door, and has a seat within it
. There is a the guilty conscience by such an avowal; small grated aperture in each of the parfor which reason, the Protestant priests titions between him and the side-cells, are bound, as well as the Catholic, to keep which are for those who come to confess, under the seal of secrecy whatever has and have no doors. The sight of the nubeen intrusted to them in the confessional. merous confessionals in St. Peter's church (q. v.) The confession, in the Lutheran at Rome, each with an inscription, setting church, is sometimes special, when the forth in what language penitents can conpenitents separately acknowledge their fess within, is very impressive. sins; sometimes general, when it is done CONFESSIONS. (See Augustine, St., and by many, who are assembled for the pur- Rousseau.) pose, and confess according to a certain CONFIRMATION; a ceremony intended formula. Where the priest is well ac- for the completion of baptism, and conquainted with the different members of sidered by some churches as a sacrament. his congregation, the special confession The council of Trent settled several points seems to be most suitable, because it gives concerning it (sess. vii, De Sacram.). It is the confessor an opportunity of adapting administered by bishops. The ceremony his reproofs, exhortations and consolations consists in the imposition of hands on the to the wants of each individual, and thus head of the person to be confirmed, accomof producing a stronger impression. The panied with the holy unction. No other opportunity which the confession gives priest can confirm. The meaning of this sathe priest of directing self-examination, of crament may be best learned from the Acts rousing, warning, exhorting and consoling of the Apostles, (viii, 14—21; xix, 1–6). the penitent, becomes a means of adding Paul (in Heb. vi, 1–5) speaks of the impoto the effect of the public religious ser- sition of hands as a custom to be perpetuvices. But, at the same time, it affords a ally observed among Christians. Condangerous opportunity to the priest of firmation, however, is considered by the abusing the confidence reposed in him, of Catholics a useful but not a necessary which the history both of nations and sacrament. Baptism can be administered individuals exhibits fearful examples. The even by a heretic, but not confirmation. practice of confession is grounded on the In the Greek church, and other Oriental imperfection of human virtue. The Lu- sects, the sacrament of confirmation foltherans therefore retained this custom, al- lows immediately after baptism, and is though they knew that it was not ordained administered as in the Roman church.
The Protestant Episcopal church, the Lu-. ures. Sometimes he inculcates reverence therans and Calvinists of Europe, have re- of old age; sometimes he shows how the tained the practice of confirmation. It is, tendencies of children should be guided, with individuals of these sects, an assump- and their rising passions corrected. Sometion of the obligations which others under- times he speaks of the peaceful virtues of took for them at their baptism. In Ger- domestic life, and sometimes he exhorts many, confirmation among Protestants is monarchs to exercise justice and humanone of the most solemn acts, and takes ity. He praises the delights of friendship, place only after a certain course of instruc- and teaches the forgiveness of offences. tion in the Christian faith. The Lord's As a lawgiver, he deserves less honor. supper is not taken by these three sects, It cannot be denied that he extended the until after confirmation.
limits of paternal authority too far; for he CONFUCIUS (also Kon-Fu-Tse, and allowed parents even the right to sell their KUNG-FU-Dsu), a teacher of religion and children. It was a sophism unworthy of morals, who, like Moses and Zoroaster, his wisdom, to say, as children can sell exercised an extensive influence on his themselves, no one should hesitate to give own and succeeding times, and now, after this right to the authors of their existence. thousands of years, is still venerated by Confucius erred especially in viewing his countrymen, and respected by other legislation as nothing but a branch of mornations, lived about 550 years B. C. He als, and was satisfied, therefore, with giving was of royal descent, and held the rank general precepts on this subject. Moreof a mandarin at court
, in his native land, over, esteem for the early lawgivers of his in the kingdom of Lu (at present Shang- people hindered him from making careful Tong, a province of the Chinese em- investigations for himself: he acquiesced pire, which was not till a later period rather in the decisions of those celebrated formed into a single monarchy); but, as men of whom he called himself the discithe king would not follow his advice, he ple. His conduct is worthy of praise, resigned his dignity, went to the kingdom inasmuch as he encouraged marriage, and of Sum, and became a teacher of morals. recommended agriculture: trade he did He led a quiet and temperate life, and was not positively denounce, but he was less distinguished for his wisdom. He neither favorable to it. Of the works ascribed attempted to overthrow existing establish- to him, the Shu-King, or Shan-Shu, is ments, nor to gain dominion by deceit the most important; but it is doubtful over the minds of men; but only to dis- whether all parts of it were written by seminate precepts of virtue and wisdom. him. In comparing Confucius, MohamHe taught in the cities and at royal courts. med and Zoroaster, Mohammed bears Many hearers assembled about him, and away the palm as the founder of a relihe became the founder of a numerous gion, Zoroaster as a lawgiver, and Confusect, which still exists in China, and has cius as a moralist. (See the Works of Conextended to Cochin-China. His religious fucius, original text, with an English transopinions are very uncertain: it does not lation, by J. Marshman, Serampore, 1809, appear that he changed or purified the 4to.) The first volume contains the Life prevailing faith. It may be inferred, how- of Confucius. Doctor Wilh. Schott has ever, with great probability, that he taught likewise translated the Works of the Chithe immortality of the soul, and favored nese Sage and his Disciples, for the first and propagated the existing belief in fate time, from the original into German, with and soothsaying, and in the worship of notes (1st vol., Halle, 1826).—Of the succertain good spirits, who watch over the cessors of Confucius, Meng-Tseu (Menelements and the various parts of the cius) is to be chiefly noticed, who lived earth. It is certain that he inculcated it about 10 years after Socrates, and died as a duty on his disciples to revere their B. C. 314, aged 84. He arranged the ancestors. We are better acquainted with books of the She-King and Shu-King, and that part of his doctrines which relates to wrote a collection of conversations on common life, and contains general pre- moral philosophy. He resembled Socracepts of practical utility. In the most tes, in founding and building up a pure impressive manner, he enjoined universal system of moral philosophy. In 1824, benevolence, justice, virtue and honesty, Stanislaus Julien published in Paris, in and the observance of all usages and cus- the Latin language, the system of Mengtoms which had been once introduced; Tseu, with a commentary, translated from it being proper that they who live together the Chinese. should live in the same manner, and sym
CONGESTION (from the Latin congestio, pathize in each other's pains and pleas- the act of heaping; carrying together). The different parts of the human body do takes place. During the congestion of not always receive the same quantity of blood in one organ, the other organs exblood, but sometimes more, sometimes hibit symptoms of want of blood, viz., less. Thus, for instance, during digestion, coldness, paleness, diminution of size, and it flows towards the stomach and the liver; weakness. Congestion generally lasts but during violent or long-continued speaking, a short time; but, if not early cured, and singing or running, it collects in the lungs its return, which would otherwise be freand the heart; during close thinking, in the quent, prevented, it is only the beginning brain. In general, the blood flows in of other diseases. Sometimes it termigreater quantities into any part in propor- nates in bleeding, which is a remedy for tion to the action of that part; but, in a it; sometimes it increases into inflammastate of health, it flows off with as much tion; sometimes it becomes a chronic disrapidity as it collects. Sometimes, how- ease; that is, the blood accumulates for a ever, too much blood accumulates in an long time, and expands the veins ; the organ, and remains too long in it; and this expansion becomes permanent, and the injures the structure and the function of original excitement is succeeded by a state such an organ.
This accumulation of of torpidity and weakness, which is called blood arises from a diseased state of the stagnatio, or infarctus. system, and is called congestion. Conges- CONGLOMERATE. (See Sandstone.) tion may be caused by whatever, in gen- Congo; a kingdom in Lower Guinea, eral, accelerates the circulation of the blood, under the sovereignty of the Portuguese; and causes it to tend to a particular part; between lat. 2° 40 and 8° 25' S., and bethus, for instance, among the causes of tween lon. 12° 30 and 19° 30' E.; boundcongestion are the different periods of de- ed on the N. by Anziko, W. by the Atlanvelopement of the human body, each of tic, S. by Angola, and E. by a country which renders some particular organ un- very little known, and inhabited by savusually active; the crisis of disease; and, ages. The river Zaire (q. v.) forms the lastly, the accidental exertions of certain boundary of Congo in some parts, and organs. Under such circumstances, con- empties into the Atlantic. From the gestion is caused by an excited state of mountains east of Congo a large number the arteries in general, and of some par- of rivers descend, which do not dry up in ticular ones especially. Secondly, if the the hot season. In those mountains (lat. current of blood to one organ is checked, 7° 30' S.) lies the lake Achelunda. The it accumulates in another. Hence colds coast is unhealthy, on account of its low caught through exposure of the feet, also grounds and forests: the interior, however, the suppression of the secretions, &c., so has a temperate climate, and, according to often cause congestion. Thirdly, the ves- the missionaries, is populous, well cultisels which bring back the blood—the veins vated, and considered by the inhabit-are sometimes in a condition unfit to ants as a terrestrial paradise. There are answer their destination; as, for instance, two seasons, the dry and the rainy; the if they are already too full, if their power latter, beginning in October and ending in to receive the blood and to propel it is April
, is accompanied by rains, thunder lost or diminished, or if they are prevented and tempests. All travellers agree in defrom performing their function by external scribing the soil as covered with an exupressure, or by tumors. Hence conges- berant vegetation. Several kinds of grain, tions are divided into active and passive; unknown to Europe, are cultivated near those of the arteries, and those of the veins. the rivers; among them is the luco or luno, Where the blood accumulates, the part which furnishes a fine white bread. The becomes red and hot, the pulse beats more soil produces three crops of maize anviolently, and the veins expand; the part nually. Among the trees, the baobab is swells, and a feeling of sickness, pain, mentioned: it is of enormous size, and pressure, &c., comes on. The functions its fruit is eaten by the natives. The soil of the part change; if the congestion is produces an immense variety of plants. slight, they become more active. In higher Iron and copper, porphyry, jasper, marble, degrees of congestion, and if it is contin- salt, crystal, gold and silver are found in ued for a long time, the functions are the mountains. Congo, like the rest of checked, weakened, and sometimes en- Guinea, abounds in wild animals: the eletirely destroyed. Now, as every organ phant, leopard, lion, boar, porcupine, jackhas its peculiar function, it follows, that al, zebra, different kinds of antelopes, and the symptoms of congestion, resting on a great variety of apes, are the principal. these grounds, must be very different, ac- The rivers contain crocodiles, hippopotami cording to the different organs in which it and turtles. The coast swarms with fish.
The reptiles are numerous, and many of The government is despotic. This kingthem venomous: among them are the gi- dom has been important to the Portuguese, gantic boa, the chameleon and the flying on account of the slaves which it afforded. lizard or palm rat, which is worshipped by Among slave-dealers, the Congo men are the natives. Ostriches, peacocks, parrots, generally not considered so strong and &c., inhabit the deserts and forests. A powerful as slaves from some other parts great number of noxious insects live of Africa. likewise in this rich country, e. g., mos- Congo-BATTA; a city of Congo (q. v.}, quitoes, the banzo (of which the sting is 30 leagues N. E. of S. Salvador. It is celsaid to be mortal), formidable ants, the ebrated for its slave-market. insoudi (which enter the trunks of ele- CONGREGATIONS, in the papal goverphants, and cause them to die with mad- ment; meetings or committees, consisting ness), &c. Bees are numerous. Almost of cardinals, and officers of the pope, to adall domestic animals, introduced by the minister the various departments, secular Portuguese, thrive pretty well. Though and spiritual, of the papal dominion. To this country abounds in all the produc- these belong the inquisition (congregatio! tions of the tropics, there appears to be no of the holy office), the congregation for commerce carried on, except that in slaves, the explanation and execution of the deof whom,vast numbersare annually carried crees of the council of Trent (del concilio), to Brazil
. The population is uncertain, the congregation de propaganda fide. (See because the missionaries seem to have ex- Propaganda.) Thus there is also a miliaggerated it, and other travellers have only tary congregation, the president of which visited a small part of the country. The is likewise a prelate.-Congregation also natives of Congo are of a middle size; signifies a society of several convents of their color and features are less strongly the same rule, which, together, form an marked than those of the other Negroes. organized corporation, hold chapters, and They kill a number of slaves over the elect superiors. The province of an ecgrave of their sovereigns, who are in- clesiastical order is also called a congregatended to serve him in heaven, and to tion.-Congregation is likewise used to give testimony of his life. They seem signify an assembly met for the worship less intelligent than the other Negro tribes. of God, and for religious instruction. This circumstance, together with their CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES; such as great indolence, is a great obstacle to their maintain the independence of each concivilization. Polygamy exists among them, gregation or society of Christians, as to and, though adultery is rigorously punish- the right of electing a pastor, and of goved, they will often sell their wives for a erning the church. glass of brandy to a European. They CONGREGATIONALIST; a member of a worship fetiches, with which they cover Congregational church. (See the preceding themselves, and adore images, in which a article.) similarity with the Egyptian physiognomy CONGRESS, in international politics ; a is said to have been discovered. Murder meeting of the rulers or representatives of is punished by death ; almost all other several states, with a view of adjusting crimes by slavery. The kingdom is di- disputes between different governments. vided into several provinces, of which The history of Europe may, in a certain there seem to be six principal ones— respect, be divided into three periods. In Bamba, Batta, Pango, S. Salvador, Sandi the first, it was split up into a great numand Sonho. Chiefs, who have the titles ber of small divisions, which were in a of dukes, counts and marquises, rule under state of perpetual contest. In the second, the Portuguese. In each province is a these were consolidated into larger masses, capital or banza. Banza Congo, which, which continued the former conflicts on a by the Portuguese, is called S. Salvador, is larger scale. The third period is the the capital of the whole kingdom. Congo present, in which nations have begun to was discovered by the Portuguese, in 1487, understand their interest more clearly, and under the command of Diego Cam, who seem to hold the difference of language ascended the river Zaire. Soon after, the and the natural divisions of mountains Portuguese sent troops there, and obtained and rivers trifles, in comparison with die possession of the country, partly by force, great interests of liberty and humanity. and partly by cunning. Their missiona- Europe is now divided into two great ries met with much success, and there are parties, who carry on a war of principles : still many Catholics in the country, but the one may be called the party of legitimany have returned to idolatry, which is macy, feucalism, despotism, &c.; the other more conformable to their savage state. that of liberty and equal laws. Thus the