Imatges de pągina

princes, were admitted into the confederacy. The kingdom of Westphalia, formed out of the provinces conquered from Prussia and other states, and assigned to Jerome Bonaparte, was likewise added to the confederation of the Rhine, by the constitution, confirmed by the emperor of France, Nov. 15, 1807. Finally, the duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Feb. 18, 1808), the duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (March 22, 1808), the duke of Oldenburg and prince of Lübeck (Oct. 14, 1808), were admitted as members; so that the confederacy extended over a space of 125,160 square miles, with 14,608,877 inhabitants; and the confederate forces were increased from the originally stipulated number of 63,000 to 119,180. But the protector of the confederacy of the Rhine, who had established the league, for the maintenance of internal and external peace, thought himself authorized to make inroads on the security and independence of his confederates, and, by a decree of Dec. 10, 1810, by which the rivers Scheldt, Meuse, Rhine, Ems, Weser and Elbe were added to France, deprived the following princes of the confederacy of their political existence, and of the independence secured to them by the act of confederacy-1. the duke of Oldenburg, on whose dukedom he seized, leaving him only the principality of Lübeck; 2. the duke of Ahremberg, of whose possessions a part were added to France, and the remainder to the grand-duchy of Berg; 3. the possessions of the prince of Salm-Salm and Salm-Kyrburg were likewise added to France. Of the grand-duchy of Berg, and the kingdom of Westphalia, considerable portions were likewise joined to France. The territories thus appropriated amounted to 11,278 square miles, with 1,133,057 inhabitants; so that 114,140 square miles, and 13,475,826 inhabitants, remained to the confederacy. The year 1813 put an end to its existence. The present grand-dukes of MecklenburgSchwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the last, who, compelled by their situation, had joined the confederacy of the Rhine, were the first that renounced it, immediately on the alliance of Prussia with Russia against Napoleon. They were soon followed by the kings of Bavaria and Würtemberg, besides several less powerful princes. Others hesitated longer, prevented partly by the situation of their countries, partly by other considerations, from making free declaration. Among these were the king of Saxony, as also the grand-duke of Frankfort, the president of

the confederacy. The former lost half of his country, the latter, all. The king of Westphalia and the grand-duke of Berg (son of the ex-king of Holland) shared the same fate. For the same reason, by the resolutions arbitrarily passed at the congress of Vienna, the dominions of the prince of Isenburg and of the prince Von der Leyen, who, as princes of the confederacy of the Rhine, were sovereigns, were mediatised. The other members of the confederacy of the Rhine, with the exception of the duke of Ahremburg and the prince of Salm, have joined the German confederacy as sovereigns.

CONFESSION. This term is sometimes applied to a profession of faith; for instance, the confession of Augsburg. (See Augsburg, and Reformation.) It sometimes also signifies a religious sect; as the three Christian confessions-the Roman Catholic, the Lutheran and the Calvinistic. Confiteor (I acknowledge) is the confession which the Catholic priests make before the altar, when beginning mass or public worship.

Confession, in law, is when a prisoner, after being arraigned, and hearing the indictment against him read, confesses the offence of which he is charged. Such confession is the most satisfactory ground of conviction.-In the German states, the confession of the prisoner, to be conclusive, must not only be made in open court, but must be accompanied by a disclosure, on his part, of the circumstances under which the crime was committed.-By the revised laws of New York, a prisoner, instead of being asked whether he is guilty or not guilty, is asked whether he will be tried by the jury.

Confession, Auricular, in the Roman church; the disclosure of sins to the priest at the confessional, with a view to obtain absolution from them. The father confessor inquires of the person confessing concerning the circumstances of the sins confessed, and proportions his admonition, and the severity of the penance, which he enjoins, to the degree of the transgression. The person confessing is allowed to conceal no sin of consequence which he remembers to have committed, and the father confessor is bound to perpetual secrecy. The absolution granted thereupon has, according to the doctrines of the Catholic and Greek churches, sacramental efficacy. But the holy Scripture does not contain an express decision on this point, and the custom of confession before taking the Lord's supper was not established in the oldest Christian congre

gations. Whoever was guilty of great sins, made a public acknowledgment of them, and a profession of repentance before the assembled congregation. This was usually committed to writing, and read by the penitents. Pope Leo the Great, in 450, altered this public confession into a secret one before the priest. The fourth Lateran council (can. 21) ordains, "that every one of the faithful, of both sexes, on coming to years of discretion, shall, in private, faithfully confess all their sins, at least once a year, to their own pastor, and fulfil, to the best of their power, the penance enjoined them, receiving, reverently, at least at Easter, the sacrament of the eucharist, unless, by the advice of their pastor, for some reasonable cause, they judge it proper to abstain from it for a time; otherwise, they are to be excluded from the church while living, and, when they die, to be deprived of Christian burial." While the Catholic church thus requires from the penitent the avowal of his single crimes, the Lutheran church requires only a general acknowledgment, leaving it, however, at the option of its members, to reveal their particular sins to the confessor, and to relieve the guilty conscience by such an avowal; for which reason, the Protestant priests are bound, as well as the Catholic, to keep under the seal of secrecy whatever has been intrusted to them in the confessional. (q. v.) The confession, in the Lutheran church, is sometimes special, when the penitents separately acknowledge their sins; sometimes general, when it is done by many, who are assembled for the purpose, and confess according to a certain formula. Where the priest is well acquainted with the different members of his congregation, the special confession seems to be most suitable, because it gives the confessor an opportunity of adapting his reproofs, exhortations and consolations to the wants of each individual, and thus of producing a stronger impression. The opportunity which the confession gives the priest of directing self-examination, of rousing, warning, exhorting and consoling the penitent, becomes a means of adding to the effect of the public religious services. But, at the same time, it affords a dangerous opportunity to the priest of abusing the confidence reposed in him, of which the history both of nations and individuals exhibits fearful examples. The practice of confession is grounded on the imperfection of human virtue. The Lutherans therefore retained this custom, although they knew that it was not ordained

by Christ, but was only a part of the ancient church discipline: they did not, however, maintain its absolute necessity. (See Penitence.) The title of confessors was anciently given to those who had endured torments in defence of the Christian religion. It was often used for martyrs, but was subsequently confined to those who, having been tortured, were set free. Saints are also called confessors. So are the priests, in the Roman Catholic church, who absolve sinners. (For an account of the intrigues of confessors in political affairs, see Grégoire, Histoire des Confesseurs des Empereurs, des Rois, &c.; Paris, 1824.)

CONFESSION OF AUGSBURG. (See Augsburg Confession.)

CONFESSIONAL (from confessionis, Lat.), in architecture; a cell in a Catholic church, wherein the confessor sits to hear confessions. The confessional, of which there are many in every Roman Catholic church and chapel, is a species of cell, built of joinery, with a boarded back next the wall, or against a pillar or a pier, divided into three niches or small cells. The centre, which is for the reception of the priest, is closed half way up by a dwarfdoor, and has a seat within it. There is a small grated aperture in each of the partitions between him and the side-cells, which are for those who come to confess, and have no doors. The sight of the numerous confessionals in St. Peter's church at Rome, each with an inscription, setting forth in what language penitents can confess within, is very impressive.

CONFESSIONS. (See Augustine, St., and Rousseau.)

CONFIRMATION; a ceremony intended for the completion of baptism, and considered by some churches as a sacrament. The council of Trent settled several points concerning it (sess. vii, De Sacram.). It is administered by bishops. The ceremony consists in the imposition of hands on the head of the person to be confirmed, accompanied with the holy unction. No other priest can confirm. The meaning of this sacrament may be best learned from the Acts of the Apostles, (viii, 14—21; xix, 1—6). Paul (in Heb. vi, 1—5) speaks of the imposition of hands as a custom to be perpetually observed among Christians. Confirmation, however, is considered by the Catholics a useful but not a necessary sacrament. Baptism can be administered even by a heretic, but not confirmation. In the Greek church, and other Oriental sects, the sacrament of confirmation follows immediately after baptism, and is administered as in the Roman church.

The Protestant Episcopal church, the Lutherans and Calvinists of Europe, have retained the practice of confirmation. It is, with individuals of these sects, an assumption of the obligations which others undertook for them at their baptism. In Germany, confirmation among Protestants is one of the most solemn acts, and takes place only after a certain course of instruction in the Christian faith. The Lord's supper is not taken by these three sects, until after confirmation.

CONFUCIUS (also KON-FU-TSE, and KUNG-FU-DSU), a teacher of religion and morals, who, like Moses and Zoroaster, exercised an extensive influence on his own and succeeding times, and now, after thousands of years, is still venerated by his countrymen, and respected by other nations, lived about 550 years B. C. He was of royal descent, and held the rank of a mandarin at court, in his native land, in the kingdom of Lu (at present ShangTong, a province of the Chinese empire, which was not till a later period formed into a single monarchy); but, as the king would not follow his advice, he resigned his dignity, went to the kingdom of Sum, and became a teacher of morals. He led a quiet and temperate life, and was distinguished for his wisdom. He neither attempted to overthrow existing establishments, nor to gain dominion by deceit over the minds of men; but only to disseminate precepts of virtue and wisdom. He taught in the cities and at royal courts. Many hearers assembled about him, and he became the founder of a numerous sect, which still exists in China, and has extended to Cochin-China. His religious opinions are very uncertain: it does not appear that he changed or purified the prevailing faith. It may be inferred, however, with great probability, that he taught the immortality of the soul, and favored and propagated the existing belief in fate and soothsaying, and in the worship of certain good spirits, who watch over the elements and the various parts of the earth. It is certain that he inculcated it as a duty on his disciples to revere their ancestors. We are better acquainted with that part of his doctrines which relates to common life, and contains general precepts of practical utility. In the most impressive manner, he enjoined universal benevolence, justice, virtue and honesty, and the observance of all usages and customs which had been once introduced; it being proper that they who live together should live in the same manner, and sympathize in each other's pains and pleas

ures. Sometimes he inculcates reverence of old age; sometimes he shows how the tendencies of children should be guided, and their rising passions corrected. Sometimes he speaks of the peaceful virtues of domestic life, and sometimes he exhorts monarchs to exercise justice and humanity. He praises the delights of friendship, and teaches the forgiveness of offences. As a lawgiver, he deserves less honor. It cannot be denied that he extended the limits of paternal authority too far; for he allowed parents even the right to sell their children. It was a sophism unworthy of his wisdom, to say, as children can sell themselves, no one should hesitate to give this right to the authors of their existence. Confucius erred especially in viewing legislation as nothing but a branch of morals, and was satisfied, therefore, with giving general precepts on this subject. Moreover, esteem for the early lawgivers of his people hindered him from making careful investigations for himself: he acquiesced rather in the decisions of those celebrated men of whom he called himself the disciple. His conduct is worthy of praise, inasmuch as he encouraged marriage, and recommended agriculture: trade he did not positively denounce, but he was less favorable to it. Of the works ascribed to him, the Shu-King, or Shan-Shu, is the most important; but it is doubtful whether all parts of it were written by him. In comparing Confucius, Mohammed and Zoroaster, Mohammed bears away the palm as the founder of a religion, Zoroaster as a lawgiver, and Confucius as a moralist. (See the Works of Confucius, original text, with an English translation, by J. Marshman, Serampore, 1809, 4to.) The first volume contains the Life of Confucius. Doctor Wilh. Schott has likewise translated the Works of the Chinese Sage and his Disciples, for the first time, from the original into German, with notes (1st vol., Halle, 1826).—Of the successors of Confucius, Meng-Tseu (Mencius) is to be chiefly noticed, who lived about 10 years after Socrates, and died B. C. 314, aged 84. He arranged the books of the She-King and Shu-King, and wrote a collection of conversations on moral philosophy. He resembled Socrates, in founding and building up a pure system of moral philosophy. In 1824, Stanislaus Julien published in Paris, in the Latin language, the system of MengTseu, with a commentary, translated from the Chinese.

CONGESTION (from the Latin congestio, the act of heaping; carrying together).

The different parts of the human body do not always receive the same quantity of blood, but sometimes more, sometimes less. Thus, for instance, during digestion, it flows towards the stomach and the liver; during violent or long-continued speaking, singing or running, it collects in the lungs and the heart; during close thinking, in the brain. In general, the blood flows in greater quantities into any part in proportion to the action of that part; but, in a state of health, it flows off with as much rapidity as it collects. Sometimes, however, too much blood accumulates in an organ, and remains too long in it; and this injures the structure and the function of such an organ. This accumulation of blood arises from a diseased state of the system, and is called congestion. Congestion may be caused by whatever, in general, accelerates the circulation of the blood, and causes it to tend to a particular part; thus, for instance, among the causes of congestion are the different periods of developement of the human body, each of which renders some particular organ unusually active; the crisis of disease; and, lastly, the accidental exertions of certain organs. Under such circumstances, congestion is caused by an excited state of the arteries in general, and of some particular ones especially. Secondly, if the current of blood to one organ is checked, it accumulates in another. Hence colds caught through exposure of the feet, also the suppression of the secretions, &c., so often cause congestion. Thirdly, the vessels which bring back the blood-the veins --are sometimes in a condition unfit to answer their destination; as, for instance, if they are already too full, if their power to receive the blood and to propel it is lost or diminished, or if they are prevented from performing their function by external pressure, or by tumors. Hence congestions are divided into active and passive; those of the arteries, and those of the veins. Where the blood accumulates, the part becomes red and hot, the pulse beats more' violently, and the veins expand; the part swells, and a feeling of sickness, pain, pressure, &c., comes on. The functions of the part change; if the congestion is slight, they become more active. In higher degrees of congestion, and if it is continued for a long time, the functions are checked, weakened, and sometimes entirely destroyed. Now, as every organ has its peculiar function, it follows, that the symptoms of congestion, resting on these grounds, must be very different, according to the different organs in which it

takes place. During the congestion of blood in one organ, the other organs exhibit symptoms of want of blood, viz., coldness, paleness, diminution of size, and weakness. Congestion generally lasts but a short time; but, if not early cured, and its return, which would otherwise be frequent, prevented, it is only the beginning of other diseases. Sometimes it terminates in bleeding, which is a remedy for it; sometimes it increases into inflammation; sometimes it becomes a chronic disease; that is, the blood accumulates for a long time, and expands the veins; the expansion becomes permanent, and the original excitement is succeeded by a state of torpidity and weakness, which is called stagnatio, or infarctus.

CONGLOMERATE. (See Sandstone.) CONGO; a kingdom in Lower Guinea, under the sovereignty of the Portuguese ; between lat. 2° 40 and 8° 25′ S., and between lon. 12° 30′ and 19° 30′ E.; bounded on the N. by Anziko, W. by the Atlantic, S. by Angola, and E. by a country very little known, and inhabited by savages. The river Zaire (q. v.) forms the boundary of Congo in some parts, and empties into the Atlantic. From the mountains east of Congo a large number of rivers descend, which do not dry up in the hot season. In those mountains (lat. 730 S.) lies the lake Achelunda. The coast is unhealthy, on account of its low grounds and forests: the interior, however, has a temperate climate, and, according to the missionaries, is populous, well cultivated, and considered by the inhabitants as a terrestrial paradise. There are two seasons, the dry and the rainy; the latter, beginning in October and ending in April, is accompanied by rains, thunder and tempests. All travellers agree in describing the soil as covered with an exuberant vegetation. Several kinds of grain, unknown to Europe, are cultivated near the rivers; among them is the luco or luno, which furnishes a fine white bread. The soil produces three crops of maize annually. Among the trees, the baobab is mentioned: it is of enormous size, and its fruit is eaten by the natives. The soil produces an immense variety of plants. Iron and copper, porphyry, jasper, marble, salt, crystal, gold and silver are found in the mountains. Congo, like the rest of Guinea, abounds in wild animals: the elephant, leopard, lion, boar, porcupine, jackal, zebra, different kinds of antelopes, and a great variety of apes, are the principal. The rivers contain crocodiles, hippopotami and turtles. The coast swarms with fish.


The reptiles are numerous, and many of them venomous: among them are the gigantic boa, the chameleon and the flying lizard or palm rat, which is worshipped by the natives. Ostriches, peacocks, parrots, &c., inhabit the deserts and forests. great number of noxious insects live likewise in this rich country, e. g., mosquitoes, the banzo (of which the sting is said to be mortal), formidable ants, the insoudi (which enter the trunks of elephants, and cause them to die with madness), &c. Bees are numerous. Almost all domestic animals, introduced by the Portuguese, thrive pretty well. Though this country abounds in all the productions of the tropics, there appears to be no commerce carried on, except that in slaves, of whom,vast numbers are annually carried to Brazil. The population is uncertain, because the missionaries seem to have exaggerated it, and other travellers have only visited a small part of the country. The natives of Congo are of a middle size; their color and features are less strongly marked than those of the other Negroes. They kill a number of slaves over the grave of their sovereigns, who are intended to serve him in heaven, and to give testimony of his life. They seem less intelligent than the other Negro tribes. This circumstance, together with their great indolence, is a great obstacle to their civilization. Polygamy exists among them, and, though adultery is rigorously punished, they will often sell their wives for a glass of brandy to a European. They worship fetiches, with which they cover themselves, and adore images, in which a similarity with the Egyptian physiognomy is said to have been discovered. Murder is punished by death; almost all other crimes by slavery. The kingdom is divided into several provinces, of which there seem to be six principal onesBamba, Batta, Pango, S. Salvador, Sandi and Sonho. Chiefs, who have the titles of dukes, counts and marquises, rule under the Portuguese. In each province is a capital or banza. Banza Congo, which, by the Portuguese, is called S. Salvador, is the capital of the whole kingdom. Congo was discovered by the Portuguese, in 1487, under the command of Diego Cam, who ascended the river Zaire. Soon after, the Portuguese sent troops there, and obtained possession of the country, partly by force, and partly by cunning. Their missionaries met with much success, and there are still many Catholics in the country, but many have returned to idolatry, which is more conformable to their savage state.

The government is despotic. This kingdom has been important to the Portuguese, on account of the slaves which it afforded. Among slave-dealers, the Congo men are generally not considered so strong and powerful as slaves from some other parts of Africa.

CONGO-BATTA; a city of Congo (q. v.), 30 leagues N. E. of S. Salvador. It is celebrated for its slave-market.

CONGREGATIONS, in the papal government; meetings or committees, consisting of cardinals, and officers of the pope, to administer the various departments, secular and spiritual, of the papal dominion. To these belong the inquisition (congregation of the holy office), the congregation for the explanation and execution of the decrees of the council of Trent (del concilio), the congregation de propaganda fide. (See Propaganda.) Thus there is also a military congregation, the president of which is likewise a prelate.-Congregation also signifies a society of several convents of the same rule, which, together, form an organized corporation, hold chapters, and elect superiors. The province of an ecclesiastical order is also called a congregation.-Congregation is likewise used to signify an assembly met for the worship of God, and for religious instruction.

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES; such as maintain the independence of each congregation or society of Christians, as to the right of electing a pastor, and of governing the church.

CONGREGATIONALIST; a member of a Congregational church. (See the preceding article.)

CONGRESS, in international politics; a meeting of the rulers or representatives of several states, with a view of adjusting disputes between different governments. The history of Europe may, in a certain respect, be divided into three periods. In the first, it was split up into a great number of small divisions, which were in a state of perpetual contest. In the second, these were consolidated into larger masses, which continued the former conflicts on a larger scale. The third period is the present, in which nations have begun to understand their interest more clearly, and seem to hold the difference of language and the natural divisions of mountains and rivers trifles, in comparison with dhe great interests of liberty and humanity. Europe is now divided into two great parties, who carry on a war of principles: the one may be called the party of legitimacy, feudalism, despotism, &c.; the other that of liberty and equal laws. Thus the

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