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opposing masses in Europe have become tials among the plenipotentiaries, which, continually fewer and more comprehen- in case the negotiating parties have refersive, and the nature of the contest more red to the arbitration of a mediator, are intellectual. Mr. Canning's remarks on given to him. The envoys of the conthis point, in his speech on the occasion tending powers then carry on their negoof sending troops to Lisbon to assist the tiations directly with each other, or by the liberal party, do him honor. Congresses intervention of a mediator, either in a began in the second period, and they common hall, or in their own residences bear the character of the times in which by turns, or, if there is a mediator, in his they have been held. Of late years, they residence. These negotiations are conhave become much increased in dignity tinued either by writing or by verbal comand importance, having been employed, munication, until the commissioners can since the commencement of the third pe- agree upon a treaty, or until one of the riod, which we may date from the congress powers dissolves the congress by recalling at Vienna or the congress at Aix-la-Cha- its minister.— The history of the congresses pelle (9. v.), to adjust political interests on is a history of European politics. It apa much larger scale than they were origin- pears that Henry IV and Sully, having ally. (See the last paragraph of this article.) conceived the project of forming a union A

congress is a simple means of deter- of the European states, the members of mining, in a diplomatíc way, the conflict- which, being equal in power, were to deing claims of belligerent powers, or of cide their quarrels by appeal to a senate, states whose interests interfere with each first thought this manner of negotiating other, and thus of preparing or concluding advisable. Before the thirty years' war, no peace, or preventing a rupture, and of me- formal congresses had been held in Éudiating between the different interests of rope. Those at Roschild in 1568, at Stetdifferent nations. At the same time, it is tin in 1570, and that convoked at the revery common for a congress to assume quest of the czar John IV, by the pope, at illegal power in respect to particular gov- Kiwerova-Horka, in 1581, and succeeding ernments or nations, because a congress years; that at Stolbova in 1617, at Viasaffords governments of the same way of ma in 1634, at Stumdorf in 1635, and at thinking so much opportunity of concen- Brömsebro in 1645, which were termitrating their forces. The plenipotentiaries nated by the treaties of peace, named from of the dissentient, or of the mediating the places at which they were held, repowers, assemble at an appointed place, garded merely the

political relations of the commonly on neutral ground, and, partly northern states. The history of the Euby notes, partly by verbal communication, ropean congresses for peace begins, therecarry on their negotiations. It is neces- fore, with those at Münster and Osnasary to distinguish the preliminary con- brück. The history of congresses may gress, in which the preliminaries are set- be conveniently divided into three periods: tled (such as the consent and the repre- 1. from the foundation of the new Eurosentation of the different powers, the place pean system by the double congress, which and time of the meeting, the extent of the was followed by the peace of Westphalia, neutral ground, the security of ambassa- until the peace of Utrecht (from 1648 to dors and public messengers, the ceremo- 1713); 2. from the establishment of the nial, and the method of transacting busi- influence of the naval and colonial power ness), from the principal congress, which of the British by the peace of Utrecht, to is to bring the affair in question to a de- the congress of Vienna (from 1713 to 1815); cision. These preliminaries are common- 3. from the (so called) restoration of the ly settled in the diplomatic way, by the balance of power in Europe, and the esmediating powers, and then the principal tablishing of the principles of legitimacy, congress assembles. The plenipotentia- and stability of the existing governments, ries, when they meet, after mutual greet- by the congress of Vienna and the holy ings, appoint, in a preliminary conference, alliance, to the present day. In every the day on which the congress is to be congress since 1648, some of the most opened, and determine the manner in powerful governments have taken the which business is to be transacted, the lead of the rest, and have determined, in a forms of negotiation, the order of prece- certain measure, the course of negotiation, dence among the different powers (in by laying down general principles. BigEurope, the alphabetical order has been non has weighed against each other the followed since 1815; see Ceremonial), and interests of the people and of the cabinets, the time of session. The congress opens in his work Les Cabinets et les Peuples by the exchange and perusal of creden- depuis 1815, jusqu'à la Fin de 1822. We will now speak of the more important the Netherlands, France and Denmark on congresses, according to the order of the the other, by the peace of Breda, July 31, three epochs which we have laid down. 1667, which principally related to their

A. From 1648 to 1713. 1. The congress colonies in the West Indies, and the at Münster and Osnabrück. It is remark- toll upon the Sound.

4. The congress able that the pope (during the thirty years' at Aix-la-Chapelle, under the mediation war the only sovereign, among the princes of the pope, ended the war between of Europe, except the king of Spain, who France and Spain (occasioned by the refused to acknowledge the peace of

claim of Louis XIV to a part of the SpanWestphalia) made the first propositions ish Netherlands), by the peace of Aix-laof peace, in 1636, at Cologne, by his nun- Chapelle, May 2, 1668, according to the cio Ginetti. The emperor and Spain did terms of which France retained the places indeed send ambassadors to Cologne, who which it had conquered in the Spanish were prepared to negotiate with France Netherlands, but restored Franche-Comté and Sweden, under the mediation of the to Spain. 5. In the war between Louis pope; but, on account of this very media-. XIV and the Netherlands, from 1672 to tion, France refused to send commission- 1678, a congress was first opened at Coers to this congress, but, on the contrary, logne, in 1873, but was dissolved in the joined with Sweden in a common negoti- following year, because the imperial amation for peace, at Hamburg. The em- bassador had 'arbitrarily seized the elecperor, finally, in a preliminary treaty at tor of Cologne, and sent him from that Hamburg, in 1641, resolved to negotiate city to Vienna. The British ambassadors with both powers at Münster and Osna- (among whom was the famous sir William brück. _On account of the dispute be- Temple) and the papal envoy then carried tween France and Sweden on the subject on, as mediators, the negotiations for peace of rank, and to avoid collision between between France, Spain, the Netherlands, the Protestant envoys and the nuncio, the German emperor, Sweden, Denmark, those two cities were chosen, which Brandenburg, and some small states, at France had offered, being only six leagues the congress of Nimeguen, from 1676 to distant from each other, and it was de- the conclusion of the peace of Nimeguen, cided that the two meetings should form in 1678, which consisted of several sepabut one congress. This great European rate treaties of peace; between France council of peace was first opened in De- and the Netherlands ; between France cember, 1644. At Münster, every thing and Spain; between France, Sweden and was carried on by the mediators, the nuncio the German empire, in 1679, of which the of the pope, and the envoy of the republic peace with Brandenburg, at St. Germainof Venice; at Osnabrück, the negotiations en-Laye, and that with Denmark at Fonwere direct, and the Latin language was tainebleau and Lund, together with that used. (See Westphalia, Peace of.) 2. The at Nimeguen, between Sweden and Holcongress of the Pyrenees. France and land, were the immediate consequences. Spain continued, until 1659, the war which Thus French diplomacy, by dividing the the peace of Westphalia had ended in allies, obtained the victory at this congress, Germany. After a preliminary treaty and secured, for a long time, the political concluded at Paris, May 7, the isle of superiority of Louis XIV. 6. The taking Pheasants, in the Bidassoa, on the frontiers of Strasburg, which happened during the of the two states, was chosen for a place peace in 1681, and the re-union system of of meeting; and cardinal Mazarin and the Louis, caused the great alliance of the Spanish minister, don Luis de Haro, from Hague (of which William III was the Aug. 13 to Nov. 25, 1659, had 25 confer- souł) against the pretensions and usurpaences under a tent, in which the former tions of France. Sweden and Holland used the Italian and the latter the Spanish first united; then the emperor, Spain, and language. The peace of the Pyrenees, some German circles joined the league, to concluded Nov. 7, secured to France her support the peace of Westphalia and of political superiority ; Spain ratified the Nimeguen ; and as the emperor was alpeace of Münster, and yielded Roussillon, ready engaged in a war against the Turks, Conflans, and some places in the Nether- recourse was had to negotiation rather lands, to France, which restored the ban- than to arms. This was the object of the ished prince of Condé to his honors and famous congress of Frankfort, in 1681,

Lorraine was also restored to her which was broken off by the French, in duke. 3. The congress at Breda, by the December, 1682, but was afterwards conmediation of Sweden, ended the war be- tinued at Ratisbon, and ended by a truce tween Great Britain on the one side, and of 20 years with France, in 1684. But in

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vain did the European powers seek, by which the treaty of Oliva had already alliances with each other, and particularly shaken, received a second blow. The by the great league of Augsburg (associa- boundaries between Russia and Poland tion), in 1686, effected by the stadtholder remained, until 1772, such as they had of Holland, William III, to put limits to been fixed by this peace. 10. The conthe ambition of Louis, for, in September, gress at Altona, in 1687, where the Ger1688, the French armies invaded the man emperor and the electors of Saxony countries on the Rhine. This, and the and Brandenburg mediated in the disexpulsion of the house of Stuart from the putes between Denmark and the house of throne of England by William III, in Holstein-Gottorp, terminated, after Great November, 1688, was the cause of a war Britain and the states-general had also of nine years. 7. Designs on the Spanish been called in as mediators, in the peace succession induced Louis, though victori- of Altona, in 1689, by which the duke of ous, to attempt to divide the allies by sep- Holstein regained his territories with full arate treaties, and, not succeeding in this, sovereignty. 11. To this period belong, he sought the mediation of Sweden; by also, the conferences at Carlowitz in 1698, means of which a congress was convened where a Turkish sultan first learnt to emat Ryswick, a castle near the Hague, in ploy the forms of European diplomacy, May, 1697. The negotiations were car- accepting the mediation of Great Britain ried on (round a circular table, in the hall and Holland. In this congress, his first of conference, which prevented all dis- dragoman, Mavrocordato, exhibited a speputes about precedency) on the principles cimen of the diplomatic talents of the of the peace of Westphalia and that of Greek nation, settling all questions of Nimeguen. But the French, by separate rank by a round table. In 1699, he contreaties with the allies, obtained the direc- cluded with the German emperor, Poland, tion of the negotiation, and their skilful Venice and Russia, at Carlowitz, the treadiplomacy obliged the German empire to ties of peace, or truces, by which bounds accept the conditions determined upon by were first set to the power of the Porte. France with Spain, Great Britain, and the Venice was obliged to give up Candia and Netherlands. The peace of Ryswick was the islands of the Archipelago. It resigned by the naval powers Sept. 20, and tained, however, the Morea, the Ionian by the emperor Oct. 30, 1697. To this islands, and some places in Albania. period belong certain other congresses,

B. From 1713 to 1814. 1. The war of the in which the political relations of the Spanish succession was ended by the connorthern powers towards Poland and the gress at Utrecht, to which France, EngPorte were settled. 8. The most famous land, the states-general, Savoy, the emis that which took place at Oliva, a mon- peror, Portugal, Prussia, the pope, Venice, astery near Dantzic, in May, 1660, where Genoa, the electorates of Mentz, Cologne, France mediated a peace between Sweden Treves, the Palatinate, Saxony, and Bavaand Poland, and to which the German ria, together with Hanover and Lorraine, emperor, the elector of Brandenburg, the sent their plenipotentiaries in January, duke of Courland, and other inferior 1712, after France and Great Britain, in princes, sent ministers. The plenipoten- the preliminaries settled Oct. 8, 1711, had tiaries of the Dutch republic, of Denmark drawn the outlines of the peace, and had and of Spain were not admitted. The thus already decided, to a certain degree, peace of Oliva, May 3, 1660, confirmed the new relations which were to exist bethe political superiority of Sweden in the tween the states. At Utrecht, also, French North, secured to it the possession of Li- diplomacy succeeded in breaking the union vonia, and established the sovereignty of of the powers interested, by a regulation Prussia. At the same time, England, that each of the allies should give in his Holland and France mediated the peace demands separately. The dissensions beof Copenhagen, concluded May 27, 1660, tween them increased when they saw that between Sweden and Denmark. The ne- the negotiations of Great Britain were, for gotiations at Oliva were finally completed the most part, carried on in secret, and by the peace between Sweden and Russia, immediately with the court of Versailles. at Cardis, July 1, 1661. 9. Particular con- The result was eight separate treaties of gresses were convened to settle certain peace, which France, Spain, England, disputes between Poland and Russia ; at Holland, Savoy and Portugal made with Radzyn in 1670, at Moscow in 1678, at each other, between 1713 and 1715, leavRadzyn and Andrussov in 1684, which ing Austria and the empire to themselves. resulted in the definitive peace at Moscow, (See Utrecht, Peace of.) Since that time, in 1686, by which the power of Poland, the British, from their naval and commer

cial power, have taken the lead among minated the war of the Austrian succesthe principal states, and the interest of sion by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, Oct. England has determined the fate of the 18, 1748. 7. The seven years' war beEuropean system of a balance of power, as tween England and France was ended it is called. 2. The congress at Baden, in without a congress; but Austria, Saxony June, 1714, was a mere act of form to and Prussia concluded a peace at the conchange the peace concluded at Rastadt bygress of Hubertsburg, Feb. 15, 1763, the Eugene and Villars, in the name of the session having lasted from Dec. 1762. 8. emperor and of France, and which rested The congress at Teschen, in March, 1779, upon

the

peace of Utrecht, into a peace decided the dispute with regard to the of the empire (drawn up in Latin). 3. The Bavarian succession, by the mediation of congress at Antwerp was also a conse- France and Russia between the contendquence of the peace of Utrecht. England ing powers, Austria and Prussia. The there mediated between the emperor of elector palatine, the elector of Saxony, and Germany and the states-general, and con- the duke of Deux-Ponts, sent their miniscluded the barrier treaty of Nov. 15, 1715. ters, but not the elector of Bavaria, whose 4. The congress at Cambray, in 1722, was hereditary succession was the subject of held to settle the disputes between the negotiation. (See Teschen, Peace of.) 9. emperor, Spain, Savoy and Parma, with Russia and Austria offered their mediation regard to the execution of the peace of to France and England in the war of the Utrecht and the conditions of the quadru- American revolution. Vienna was prople alliance, England and France being posed for the place of meeting; but France mediators. But Philip V of Spain, of refused the mediation; and when the fended by the rejection of his daughter, Russian and Austrian ministers wished to who had been betrothed to Louis XV (in take part, as mediators, in the congress April, 1725), recalled his minister from opened at Paris, in October, 1782, by the Cambray, and concluded a peace with ministers of France, Spain, England, HolAustria at Vienna, April 20, 1725, in which land and the U. States, the preliminaries he became guarantee for the pragmatic of peace were settled without their knowlsanction. The defensive alliance, soon edge, Nov. 30, 1782, and Jan. 20, 1783, after concluded between Austria and also the definitive treaty of Versailles and Spain, was followed by a counter-alliance of Paris, Sept. 3, 1783, and

that with Holbetween England, France, the United land, May 20, 1784. 10. The disputes of Provinces, Denmark, Sweden, Hesse- Joseph II with the republic of Holland, Cassel and Wolfenbüttel, formed at Herrn- relating to the opening of the Scheldt, and hausen. On the other hand, Russia, Prus- other subjects, in 1784, induced France to sia, and some German states, joined the offer its mediation; and a congress was alliance of Vienna. A general war ap- opened at Versailles, Dec. 8 of the same peared to be approaching, when Austria, year, by the French minister count Verby the temporary suspension of the com- gennes, and the imperial and Dutch minpany of Ostend, and Spain, by the treaty isters. It ended with the treaty of Fonwith England at the Pardo, opened the way tainebleau, Nov. 8, 1785, by which the for a reconciliation. 5. The congress at barrier treaty of 1715, and the treaty of Soissons, in June, 1728, was convened to Vienna, in 1731, were annulled, the bouneffect a similar settlement between Aus- daries of Flanders restored as they were tria, France, England and Spain ; but the in 1664, several strips of land yielded up French minister, cardinal Fleury, suc- to the emperor, and, as a compensation ceeded in dividing Spain and Austria, and for his claims, a sum of 10,000,000 florins, France, Spain and England formed a of which France contributed 4,500,000, to treaty of amity and mutual defence, at prevent the congress from being dissolved. Seville, in 1729 (to which Holland ac- On the other hand, the Scheldt remained ceded), in order to give law to Austria. closed, and the emperor gave up the rest The congress at Soissons was thus dis- of his claims. 11. When Leopold II was solved, and injured Austria took up arms. on the point of suppressing, by force of But the guarantee of the pragmatic sanc- arms, the insurrection of the Netherlands, tion, which England and Holland under- in consequence of the convention of took, induced the emperor Charles VI, in Reichenbach, a congress was opened, in 1731, to accept the conditions of the treaty September, 1790, at the Hague, by the amof Seville. 6. The congress at Aix-la- bassadors of Austria, Prussia, Holland Chapelle, in April, 1748, in which France, and England, to which the deputies of Austria, England, Spain, Sardinia, Hol- the Belgian provinces were also admitted. land, Modena and Genoa took part, ter- These powers concluded, Dec. 1 of this

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year, the convention of the Hague, by Rastadt, were, without a convocation of which, however, the emperor was willing the empire, afterwards presented as artionly to confirm to the Belgic provinces cles of peace, in the peace of Luneville in the old constitution, as it was at the time 1801. 13. The congress at Amiens, where of the death of Maria Theresa. New dis- Joseph Bonaparte and the marquis of putes and commotions thence arose. Fi- Cornwallis negotiated for a definitive peace nally, Francis II, in March, 1793, restored between France and England, from Dethe old constitution, as it had been under cember, 1801, to March 27, 1802, Malta Charles VI, and swore, at Brussels, in being the most difficult matter of dispute, April, 1794, to the joyeuse entrée; but it and the Spanish and Dutch ministers takwas too late, for Belgia was soon after ing part in the negotiations only where conquered by the French. 12. In the the interests of their respective powers history of the wårs of the French revolu- came in question, was terminated by the tion, the fruitless congress at Rastadt de- treaty of Amiens, concluded by the four serves mention. It was opened by the plenipotentiaries, March 27, 1802, to which deputation of the empire, under the presi- the Porte acceded, May 13, 1802, but dency of the directorial subdelegates of which was dissolved by a declaration of Mentz, baron Von Albini, in presence of war, on the part of England, March 18, the imperial plenipotentiary count Metter- 1803. 14. Napoleon commonly negotiated nich, Dec. 9, 1797, and dissolved by him, his treaties with arms in his hands; he April 7, 1799, by an imperial decree. therefore needed no mediator. But when The ancient dignity of the German em- he was preparing to conquer Spain, and pire was manifested on this occasion wished to secure his rear towards Germamerely by a vain formality, with which ny and Poland, and therefore to form a the insulting haughtiness of the French closer alliance with Russia, and make again ministers formed a striking contrast. The an attempt to induce England to join in deputation gave their notes in German, the general peace, the first European conthe French ambassadors in French. With gress of monarchs was called together at regard to the object of the meeting, the Erfurt

, in October, 1808. Napoleon ardeputation resembled a person blindfolded, rived there September 27, and, a few and crippled, hand and foot; for the se- hours afterwards, the emperor Alexander. cret articles of the peace of Campo-For- They found there, already assembled, the mio, and the conditions of the secret con- kings of Saxony, Bavaria and Würtemvention of Rastadt, Dec. 1, 1797, remained berg, Jerome, then king of Westphalia, unknown to it. Thence arose disputes the grand-duke Constantine, prince Wiland mistrust, especially between Austria liam of Prussia, the dukes of Saxe-Weiand Prussia; and while the deputation mar, Saxe-Gotha and Holstein-Oldenburg, was groping in the dark, it stumbled over with several other princes, together with every obstacle, and laid itself open con- the ministers of state of these courts, and tinually to its adversaries, so that the sub- the ministers from Prussia, Denmark, delegate of Baden, among other reasons Würtzburg, the prince primate, Baden, by which he attempted to exculpate him- and several others. The baron Von Vinself for having given up the whole left cent appeared in the name of the emperor bank of the Rhine, mentioned the anger of Austria, with a letter, in which he deof the French ministers when they heard clared his friendly dispositions towards that only a part of it was to be given to France. The negotiations related to a them. The French diplomatists at Ras- diminution of the contributions imposed tadt neglected the ancient forms of cour- by France on Prussia, and the admission tesy; the German frequently acted with of the duke of Oldenburg into the confedpusillanimity and timidity. The whole eration of the Rhine; but the principal terminated by a bloody crime, April 28, subject of discussion was the peace with 1799, probably occasioned by the arbitrary England, the relations between France measures of a man of a violent character, and Austria, and the affairs of Turkey. who wished for personal vengeance, and The British government, by a circular the blind rage of the subordinate officer letter of Oct. 12, declared its readiness to whom he had charged to execute it. (See take into consideration the offers of peace Rastadt.) The conditions of the cession made by the emperors of France and of the left bank of the Rhine, and the Austria, if Sweden and Spain were reprecompensation made to the princes who sented in the congress by their plenipowere thus injured, by secularizing the ec- tentiaries; but, as Napoleon would not clesiastical possessions, having been al- grant this right to the Spanish nation, the ready accepted by the deputation at negotiations

were broken off in December.

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