Imatges de pągina

The assembly at Erfurt immediately separated, Oct. 14, after Napoleon thought he had secured peace with Austria, and had had several private interviews with the emperor Alexander, the purport of which is not precisely known. (See Schöll's Traités de Paix, vol. 9, p. 194. Bignon's History of French Diplomacy, recently published, and which has not as yet reached us, probably contains much information on this, as well as many other points.) To this period belong, also, 15thly, the two fruitless congresses at Brunswick, in the course of the northern war. The first was dissolved in February, 1713, and the second in March, 1714. 16. The congress opened by the Holstein minister Görtz, baron Von Schlitz, in the name of Charles XII, with the plenipotentiaries of the czar, upon the island of Aland, in 1718. But the peace there negotiated, upon conditions tolerably favorable to Sweden, was rendered invalid by the death of Charles XII, and the party spirit of the Swedish nobility, to which Görtz fell a victim. The Swedish government broke off the negotiations with Russia upon the island of Aland, and, by the mediation of France, concluded, at the congress of Stockholm, separate treaties of peace with Hanover, Nov. 20, 1719, and, in 1720, with Prussia, Denmark, and, provisionally, with Poland. Finally, Sweden, by the mediation of France, was obliged to conclude peace, Sept. 10, 1721, at Nystadt (where the congress had assembled in May, 1721), upon terms, dictated by the czar, which established the preponderance of Russia in the North. This was followed by the conclusion of the definitive treaty of peace with Saxony and Poland, in 1729 and 1732. 17. The war which broke out in 1741, between Sweden and Russia, was ended by the definitive treaty of peace concluded at Abo, Aug. 17, 1743, at the congress held there by Russian and Swedish ministers, after Sweden had chosen, as the successor to the throne, the bishop of Lübeck, Adolphus Frederic, duke of Holstein-Gottorp, instead of the crownprince of Denmark. This was followed by the treaty of St. Petersburg, between Russia and Sweden, in 1745. While the mediation of foreign powers was refused by Russia, especially under the reign of Catharine II, in its treaties with Sweden, Poland and the Porte, it was employed in the disputes between Austria and the Porte. 18. The congress of Passarowitz, by the mediation of Great Britain and Holland, put an end to the war which had broken out in 1714 and 1716, between

the Porte and Austria and Venice, by the peace of Passarowitz, July 21, 1718, by which the Morea was left in possession of the Porte, as a conquered province, with out any mention of it being made in the treaty. 19. The Porte, in a war with Russia, in 1736, desired the mediation of Austria, Holland and Great Britain; but Russia refused the mediation of the naval powers, so that the congress at Niemiroff, in Poland, in June, 1737, consisted only of ministers from the Porte, Russia and Austria. But when Austria declared war against the Porte, France acted as mediator. The negotiations were broken off in October, but they were renewed and carried on, partly in Constantinople, partly in the camp of the grand vizier, by the French ambassador, M. De Villeneuve, who had received secret instructions, on this subject, from the emperor Charles VI, and the empress Anna, of which, however, their ministers, count Von Sinzendorf and count Ostermann, who, on their side, were negotiating for a private peace with the Porte, knew nothing. Finally the Austrian general count Neipperg concluded a preliminary treaty, Sept. 1, 1739, in a very hasty manner, with the guarantee of France, by which Belgrade, though in a good state of defence, was surrendered to the Turks. Villeneuve now concluded with Austria and with Russia, Sept. 18, 1739, the definitive treaty of Belgrade, which was extremely advantageous for the Porte, and signed it as plenipotentiary of the Russian empress, without the knowledge of field-marshal Münich, who had likewise received full power to make peace with the Porte. 20. In the war of Russia with the Porte, from 1768 to 1774, a congress was held by the Russian and Turkish ministers, in August, 1772, at Focsani, in Moldavia, where appeared, also, an Austrian and a Prussian minister; but Catharine would not recognise them as mediators, and they only learnt in secret, from the Turkish ambassador, the course of the negotiations. This congress, however, soon after separated. A second congress, also, assembled in October, 1772, at Bucharest, to which these two ministers were likewise refused admittance, was dissolved, without having effected any thing, in March, 1773, probably through the influence of the French in the divan. Finally, the grand vizier, cut off from Adrianople, saw himself obliged, without further negotiation, to accept peace upon the conditions of the Russian general, count Rumanzoff; and he signed it in the tent of the latter, at Kutschuk Kainardgi,

July 21, 1774. 21. In the war between Russia and Austria and the Porte, in 1787 and the following years, Catharine likewise refused all mediation; but Austria was obliged to accept it, and a congress met in June, 1790, at Reichenbach, where count Herzberg, in the name of Prussia, negotiated with Austria, and in which Poland, Great Britain and the states-general took part. To avoid a war with Prussia, Austria resolved to accept the ultimatum of the Prussian cabinet. Thus the convention of Reichenbach was made, July 27, according to which Austria concluded the peace of Sistova with the Porte, August 4, 1791, in which place a congress had assembled in January of the same year, consisting of Austrian and Turkish ministers, together with those of the mediating powers-Great Britain, Prussia and Holland. Negotiations were afterwards carried on at St. Petersburg, by the mediating powers, for a peace between Russia and the Porte. The preliminaries, however, were settled immediately by the grand vizier and prince Repnin, at Galacz, Aug. 11, 1791, and the peace of Jassy was concluded Jan. 9, 1792. 22. In the war of Russia with the Porte, from 1806 to 1812, after Alexander's return from Erfurt, a congress was held at Jassy, in August, 1809, by Russian and Turkish ministers; but the demands of Russia induced the Porte to break off all negotiations. The Porte, at last, however, determined to ask for peace; and a congress assembled at Bucharest, in December, 1811, where, by the mediation of Great Britain and Sweden, although the French emperor, in his treaties with Austria and Prussia, in March, 1812, had stipulated for the integrity of the possessions of the Porte, peace was made, May 28, 1812, at the very moment when the armies of Napoleon were preparing to invade Russia. We ought also to mention in this period the only congress held by a European and an American power-the congress at Ghent. After the war between England and the U. States, commencing in 1812, both powers sent ministers to Ghent. The English commissioners arrived in that city, in August, 1814; the American commissioners were already assembled there. This congress lasted until December, 1814, on the 24th of which month peace was concluded (see Ghent, Peace of), after the mediation, proposed by Russia, early in 1813, and accepted by the U. States, who had sent ministers to St. Petersburg for the purpose of treating with Great Britain, had been declined by the cabinet of St. 37


James. (See Lyman's Diplomacy of the U. States, 2d ed. vol. ii. p. 50 et seq.)

C. Congresses from the year 1814. Since this year, as we have stated at the beginning of this article, congresses have been held by governments to take measures in opposition to the wishes of the nations, and the demands of the spirit of the age. Never, therefore, have monarchs agreed so well, and acted so much in concert, as in this period, because they have felt it necessary to make common cause against liberty; and never were so many congresses held in the same space of time, because constant instances of insubordination have required continual consultation, and the uneasy state of the monarchs at home has made them fond of assembling in congresses. In this period, a most pernicious and unprecedented principle has been established, that every monarch has a right to interfere in the internal affairs of foreign nations; so that Alexander of Russia treated the concerns of Spain as if they were his own, feeling that every despot was interested in preventing the progress of liberal principles. This principle naturally gave rise to the droit d'intervention armée. (See Intervention, armed.) This obnoxious principle was promulgated at the congress of Laybach.* During the war of the allies against Napoleon, congresses were held at Prague, in 1813, and at Chatillon (q. v.), in February and March, 1814. In the subsequent peace, it was agreed that a general congress at Vienna should complete the different stipulations then entered into. 1. Congress at Vienna (see Vienna, Congress at). 2. Congress at Paris. The principles and stipulations of the congress at Vienna were con firmed in the conferences of the Austrian, British, Prussian and Russian ministers with the French minister, the duke De Richelieu, at Paris, the consequence of which was the conclusion of the treaty of Nov. 20, 1815, after the protocol of Nov. 3,

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issued by the same plenipotentiaries, had settled the territories of several German princes, with reference to the cessions made by France, and to the system of defence of the German confederation, and after the way in which the resolutions of the congress of Vienna were to be ratified, and the accession of other powers to it was to take place, had been agreed upon. Besides this chief treaty, several other measures were determined upon at this congress; for instance, the convention of Aug. 2, 1815, relating to the guard to be kept over Napoleon; the definitive treaty of Nov. 5, 1815, which placed the Ionian islands, as a confederacy, under the exclusive protection of Great Britain; the treaty of neutrality of Switzerland, Nov. 20, 1815, which was also signed by France; the treaty of alliance between the four powers of the same date, by which they pledged themselves to assist each other in maintaining the new political system, for which reason they were to occupy France, for some years, with an army of 150,000 men. After the conclusion of the congress at Paris, 12 more particular treaties between different powers were concluded in 1816, 1817 and 1818, concerning partly the new settlement of the territorial relations, partly the payments which France was obliged to make, the restoration of Parma to the Spanish infanta, duchess of Lucca, and the abolition of the slave-trade. 3. For the completion of the work of the monarchs, it was still necessary to provide for a full reconciliation with France, by the withdrawal of the army, composed of English, Austrian, Russian, Prussian, and other German troops. It was determined upon at the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (q. v.), in October and November, 1818, chiefly by the mediation of Wellington, after France had completed the payment of certain sums, to which she had obliged herself. The most important consequence of this congress was the accession of the French sovereign to the alliance of the four great powers. The five powers then published, at Aix-la-Chapelle, the famous declaration of Nov. 15, 1820, which, in the spirit of the holy alliance (q. v.), pronounced the principles that were to regulate, in future, the politics of Europe, the aim of which was to be a lasting peace. The work of Stourdra (a Russian civil officer; see Stourdza), Mémoire sur l'État actuel de l'Allemagne, published during the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, excited the suspicions of the monarchs against the liberal spirit in Germany, which they had themselves inflamed by different kinds

of promises and excitements of the national feeling, when they wished to avail themselves of its aid for the purpose of subduing Napoleon, but which they now dreaded in the same degree, as they were unwilling to fulfil their promises, and the just demands of the nations and the age. Unfortunately, the rash acts of two German youths (one of them, the celebrated Sand, killed Kotzebue; the other, Löhning, attempted to kill a president of the government of Nassau) afforded the German governments the occasion which they desired for the enforcement of illiberal measures. These were determined upon at the congress of Carlsbad (q. v.), which was assembled, partly for this purpose, partly for supplying some deficiences in the acts of the congress of Vienna, relative to the internal organization of Germany. 5. Soon after this congress, another, composed of ministers, assembled at Vienna, Nov. 25, 1819, where Metternich presided. The doings of this congress had reference entirely to the organization of the German confederation, and the suppression of the liberal spirit in Germany. Their final act was signed May 15, 1820. The three following congresses, at Troppau, Laybach and Verona, concerned the affairs of Europe in general. 6. The congress at Troppau (q. v.) lasted from October to December, 1820. The congress was held on account of the revolutions in Spain and Portugal, and was transferred to Laybach, when the revolution of Naples broke out. 7. The right of interfering in the internal affairs of other nations, agreed upon at Troppau, was, in 1821, diplomatically admitted into the international code of the European continental powers at the congress of Laybach. The consequences of the congress at Laybach, from whence the allied powers issued a proclamation against Naples, were the occupation of Naples, Sicily and Piedmont, by Austrian armies; the abolition of the Spanish constitution in these countries, and the restoration of the old order of things. (See Naples, Sicily and Piedmont, Revolutions of.) Austria had not succeeded, a Russian army of 80,000 men, which had already begun to march towards Hungary, would have entered Italy. After the Austrians had acquired their object in Naples and Piedmont, the two emperors concluded the congress of Laybach by a proclamation, signed by the ministers of Austria, Prussia and Russia, May 12, 1821, in which they declared that the justice and disinterestedness, which had guided the councils of the monarchs, would always


be the rule of their politics. This congress is also famous for a speech of the emperor of Austria to the professors of a public seminary at Laybach, in which he directed them to be careful not to teach their pupils too much; he did not want learned or scientific men, but obedient subjects. 8. The two emperors had determined, at Laybach, to hold a new congress, in 1822, at Florence. Verona was afterwards substituted for Florence, and a congress held there from Oct. to Dec., 1822, on account of Spain and Portugal, and the political state of Italy and Greece. The war of France against Spain, in 1823, was a consequence of this congress, which was remarkable for the spirit displayed by the duke of Wellington-the same which prevailed in the English ministry from the appointment of Canning to the secretariship of foreign affairs (Sept. 16, 1822). The duke, the English minister at Verona, opposed the undertaking any measure against the Spaniards, as long as they left their king unmolested, and did not labor to extend their constitution beyond their borders. As respected Turkey and Greece also, England wished for no interference of the other powers, but to leave them to themselves. In America, only one international congress has been held, and that of little importance. It was called the congress of Panama. The project of a general union of the new Spanish American republics was early conceived by different leaders of the revolution. The first attempt to carry this plan into execution was made by Bolivar, in 1823. As president of the republic of Colombia, he invited the governments of Mexico, Peru, Chile and Buenos Ayres, to send delegates to the isthmus of Panama, or wherever they should think proper, to constitute a congress with full powers to treat of matters of general interest to the republics. Mexico and Peru immediately acceded to the proposal, but Buenos Ayres and Chile showed no inclination to take part in the congress. In Dec., 1824, Bolivar sent a circular to each of the governments, recapitulating what had already been done, and proposing that the meeting should take place. Accordingly, in June, 1826, the delegates from Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Guatemala assembled at Panama; Chile and Buenos Ayres still holding back, it is said, in consequence of suspicions of an ambitious scheme of Bolivar to incorporate the four S. American republics into an empire, of which he was to occupy the throne. The declaration of the U. States of N. America, in 1825,

that they would permit no ulterior colonization in any part of the continent by European powers; that they should consider any attempt on the part of those powers to extend the system of national interference to any portion of this hemisphere dangerous to their peace and safety; and that any interposition, by any European powe" for the purpose of controlling, in any manner, the governments of America which had established their independence, would be considered as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition towards the U. States, led the South American states to invite this republic to join in the general confederation. Ministers to the congress were, in fact, appointed; but, before their arrival, the congress had adjourned (after concluding a treaty of friendship and perpetual confederation) to the succeeding February. The place appointed for the new session, which has never taken place, was the village of Tacubaya, near Mexico. The three great points held out by the originators of this plan were, the independence, peace and security of the Spanish American republics. The congress was intended to form a permanent council, to serve as a bond of union against common dangers, to interpret the treaties between the states, and mediate in all disputes; it was further an object, particularly with the U. States, to settle, through this body, disputed principles of international law, to abolish usages of war inconsistent with the spirit of the age, and to imbody the principles of American republicanism in an imposing form, in opposition to the doctrines of the European alliance of kings.

CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The national legislature of the U. States of America is designated, in the constitution of the general government, by this title. It consists of a senate and a house of representatives, each constituting a distinct and independent branch. The house of representatives is composed of members chosen every second year, by the people of the several states; and the voters or electors are required to have the same qualifications as are requisite for choosing the members of the most numerous branchi of the state legislature of the state in which they vote. The representatives are apportioned among the several states according to their respective population; and, in estimating the population, three-fifths of the slaves are added to the whole number of free persons. A census of the population is taken once in every ten years, and an apportionment is then made of the representatives for each state. The representa


tives are then elected in each state, either in districts, or by a general ticket, as the state legislature directs. There cannot be more than 1 representative for every 30,000 persons. The present apportionment is 1 representative for every 40,000 persons. Each state, however small may be its population, is entitled to at least 1 representative. No person can be a representative who shall not have attained the age of 25 years, and have been 7 years a citizen of the U. States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen. No other qualifications are required. When vacancies happen in the representation of any state, by death, resignation, or otherwise, new writs of election are issued by the executive thereof to fill the vacancy. The house of representatives chooses its own speaker and other officers, and possesses the sole power of impeachment. Each representative has a single vote.The senate of the United States is composed of 2 senators from each state; and, there being 24 states, the senate now consists of 48 members. The senators of each state are chosen by the legislature of the state for six years, and each senator has one vote. They are divided into three classes, so that one third thereof is, or may be, changed by a new election every second year. When vacancies happen, they are supplied by the state legislature, if in session; if not, the state executive makes a temporary appointment until the legislature meets. No person can be a senator who is not 30 years of age, and has not been 9 years a citizen of the U. States, and is not, when elected, an inhabitant of the state for which he is chosen. The vicepresident is, ex officio, president of the senate; but he has no vote unless they be equally divided. The senate chooses all its other officers, and a president, pro tempore, in the absence of the vice-president, or when he exercises the office of president of the U. States. The senate has the sole power of trying all impeachments; and, when sitting for this purpose, the senators take an oath or affirmation. If the president of the U. States should be impeached, the chief-justice is to preside. A conviction on impeachment cannot be without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present. The judgment extends only to a removal from office and future disqualification for office. But the party is, nevertheless, liable to punishment on indictment, by the common trial and course of law. The times, places and manner of holding elections

for senators and representatives, are appointed by the state legislatures; but the congress may, by law, fix and alter the time and manner of holding such elections. Each of the two houses, viz., the senate and representatives, is the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members. Each house determines the rules of its own proceedings, and has power to punish its members for disorderly conduct, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, to expel a member. A majority of each house constitutes a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and has power to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner as it may provide. Each house is required to keep a journal of its proceedings, and, from time to time, to publish the same, excepting such parts as, in its judgment, may require secrecy. In point of fact, they are published every day or two, during the session, and collected in volumes at the end thereof. The yeas and nays of the members of each house, on any question, are required, at the desire of one fifth of those present, to be entered on the journal. The congress is required to assemble at least once every year; and such meeting is on the first Monday of December annually, unless a different day is provided by law. The president of the U. States has authority to convene extra sessions. Neither house, during the session of congress, can, without the consent of the other, adjourn more than 3 days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. In case of disagreement between the two houses, as to the time of adjournment, the president of the U. States may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper. The senators and representatives are entitled to receive a compensation, provided by law, for their services, from the treasury of the U. States. They are also privileged from arrests, except in cases of treason, felony, or breaches of the peace, during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same. This does not mean merely their daily attendance; but, also, in going from or returning to their respective homes, in the several states. They have liberty of speech, and are not liable to be questioned, in any other place, for any speech or debate in either house. No senator or representative can be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the U. States, which is created, or its emoluments increased, during the

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