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cil was held, by the emperor Justinian, The science of the constellations is called in 533, to decide the dispute of the three astrognosy. The division of the stars into chapters. The three chapters were three groups was begun in ancient times. It is doctrines of the bishops Theodore of plain that the union of several stars into a Mopsuestia, Theodoret, and Ibas of Edes- constellation, to which the name of some sa, who were suspected of Nestorianism, animal, person or inanimate object is and declared heretics by the council. The given, must be entirely arbitrary, since the 165 bishops, nearly all from the East, who several points (the stars) may be united in were assembled at this meeting, excluded a hundred different ways, just as imaginafrom their communion the Roman bishop tion directs; for instance, the best known Virgilius, who would not unconditionally of all the constellations, the Great Bear, or condemn the three chapters, and with him the Wain, might just as well be made to many divines, even some that were dead; represent a great variety of other things. for example, Origen. They were only the It is enough that astronomers know what contemptible organs of the senseless zeal is meant by a certain constellation, so as of Justinian. The sixth council, held in to understand each other. The division 680, by the order of the emperor Constan- of the heavens into constellations is like tine, in the Trullan palace (so called on the division of a classic into pages and account of its vaulted roof ), İby 166 bish- paragraphs. Ludwig Ideler's Untersuchops, of whom the legate of the Roman ung über den Ursprung und die Bedeubishop Agatho had the greatest influence, tung der Sternnamen, Berlin, 1809 (Incondemned the doctrines of the Monothe- quiry into the Origin and Meaning of the lites, and declared their leaders heretics. Names of the Stars, by Louis Ideler), is a Rejecting the Bible and reason, they prov- work of great interest. The ancient divised, from the fathers, that Christ acted not ions of the constellations have been retainmerely with one will

, which the Monoth- ed by the moderns, with the addition of elites maintained, but with both a divine such as have been newly discovered. and a human will, in accordance with his When and where the first constellations two natures. Among the condemned were formed is not known. Monothelites was Honorius, the predeces- probable that some of the most remarksor of Agatho. As these two councils able collections of stars, such as Charles's made no new ecclesiastical laws, the em- Wain, the Pleiades, Orion, &c., were formperor Justinian II, in 692, again summon- ed into constellations, and had names ed a general council

, which, from the pur- given them, in very early ages. Some of pose of the meeting to supply the defects them, by their different appearances, serve of the fifth and sixth, was called the quini- to mark out the different seasons of the sexta, and, because it was held again in year, and, on that account, were not only the Trullan palace, the Trullan council ; considered as a kind of directory for the but it is not numbered among the coun- commencement of ploughing, sowing, and cils of Constantinople. It confirmed the other operations of husbandry, but were decrees of the previous sessions, and in- also regarded as having a great influence stituted rigid laws for the clergy, among on the temperature of the air, and the them were those fixing the rank of the fertility of the earth. Hence, from their patriarchs and the permission of marriage being signs, pointing out the times of the to priests, which were so offensive to year when heat or cold, dryness or moisthe Latin church, that she rejected all the ture, predominated, they were regarded as decrees of this council; but, in the Greek the causes of these states of the atmoschurch, they are still valid.The seventh phere. They were also imagined to have ecclesiastical council, which was held, in dominion over minerals, vegetables and 754, in Constantinople, by 338 bishops, was animals; over the complexions, constitunot attended nor acknowledged by the tions, and even the dispositions of manLatin clergy. This council condemned, kind. This opinion obtained credit the with the utmost severity, the worshippers more easily, as the sun, moon, planets and of images, many of whom were put to stars were believed to be of a divine nadeath in consequence. But the decrees ture, insomuch that some persons conof this council lost all their validity in con- ceived that they were inhabited by an insequence of the subsequent decrees of the ferior kind of deities, who governed their council of Nice in 787. (See Iconoclasts). motions, and directed their influences ;

CONSTELLATIONS are the groups into while others thought that they were aniwhich astronomers have divided the fixed mals, each of which had a living soul ; stars,and which have received names for the and others again supposed that they were convenience of description and reference. animated by a part of the substance of the

Supreme Being. Each of these notions are still called the Ptolemæan. They are led mankind to pay them a sort of reli- the following:-1. The twelve signs of gious worship. The Egyptians divided the zodiac (see Ecliptic). 2. Twenty-one the heavens into several regions, which constellations found in the northern hemthey called the stations or mansions of isphere the Great Bear (Ursa Major, the their gods. They worshipped the heaven- Wain), the Little Bear (Ursa Minor), Perly bodies, and more especially the sun and seus, "the Dragon, Cepheus, Cassiopeia, moon, which they called their great gods, Andromeda, Pegasus, Equulus (Horse's denominating the sun Osiris, and the Head), the Triangle, the Wagoner (Aurimoon Isis. They also imagined that they ga), Boötés, the Northern Crown (Corona found in various animals some qualities Borealis), Ophiuchus, the Serpent (Sercorresponding to the motions, appearances pentarius), Hercules, the Arrow (Sagitta), or influences of the sun, moon, and some the Lyre, the Swan (Cygnus), the Dolof the stars; hence they were induced not phin, the Eagle (Aquila). 3. Fifteen cononly to use those animals in their hiero- stellations in the southern hemisphereglyphic representations of their deities, but Orion, the Whale (Cetus), Eridanus, the also to pay them divine honors, and de- Hare (Lepus), the Great Dog (Canis Manominate the constellations from them. jor), the Little Dog (Canis Minor), Hydra, The Greeks, who learned astronomy of the Cup (Crater), the Crow (Corvus), the the Egyptians, retained several of their Centaur, the Wolf (Lupus), the Altar (Ara), figures, as the ram, the bull, the dog, &c., the Southern Fish (Piscis Australis), the but accommodated almost all of them to Argo, the Southern Crown (Corona" Austhe fabulous history of their gods and he- tralis). The poets of antiquity very ingeroes, whom they placed among the stars. niously connected the most popular fables The Romans imitated them, and the poets of mythology with the different constellaof both nations have given us wild and tions. Some of the constellations, howromantic fables about the origin of the ever, have been changed; and even the constellations, probably derived from the ancients sometimes added new ones, hieroglyphics of the Egyptians, and trans- such as the Hair of Berenice (Coma Bereinitted, with some alterations, from them nices), and the Antinous. Much still reto the Greeks. Many of the figures that mained for modern astronomers to do. occur among our present constellations Hevelius introduced the twelve following were originally Egyptian. The names new constellations :—the Shield of Sobiwhich the Chinese and Japanese give to esky, the Squirrel, Camelopardalus, the the groups of stars forming our constella- Sextant, the Greyhounds, the Little Lion, tions are very different from those which the Lynx, the Fox and the Goose, the we have given them. Some Arabians, Lizard, the Little Triangle, Cerberus, and too, though they received their astronomy Mons Mænalus. When the Europeans from the Greeks, changed the names of began to navigate the southern hemithe constellations, from a superstitious no- sphere, many new stars of course appeared tion, that it was unlawful to draw any hu- to them, which they never had seen in man figure. The zeal of some Christian Europe. Thus twelve new constellations philosophers has induced them to endeav- were added in the 16th century—the Inor to drive the heathen deities and heroes dians, Crane, Phenix, Fly, Southern from the skies. The venerable Bede gave Triangle, Bird of Paradise, Peacock, the names of the twelve apostles to the American Goose, Hydrus or Water-Snake, twelve signs of the zodiac. "Judas Schil- Sword-Fish, Flying-Fish, Chamæleon. lerius, in 1627, completed the reformation, Halley, in 1675, during his stay at St. and gave Scripture names to all the con- Helena, added the Royal Oak (Robur stellations in the heavens. Weigelius, Carolinum); and Lacaille, in 1750, during professor of mathematics in the university his stay at the cape of Good Hope, added of Jena, made a new order of constella- the fourteen following :-Officina Sculptions, converting the firmament into a toria, Fornax Chemica, Horologium, Recælum heraldicum, and introducing the ticulus Rhomboidalis, Equuleus Pictorius, arms of all the princes of Europe among Cæla Praxitelis, Pyxis Nautica, Octans the constellations. The more intelligent Hadleianus, Machina Pneumatica, Circiastronomers, however, never approved of nus (the Compass), Quadra Euclidis, Telinnovation, because it tended to introduce escope, Microscope, and Table Mountain. confusion into the science. The old .con- To these have been added the Lapland stellations, therefore, are, for the most part, Reindeer, the Hermit, the Brandenburg still retained. Ptolemy enumerates, in his Sceptre, the Telescope of Herschel, the Almagest, forty-eight constellations, which Shield of Poniatowsky, or Taurus Ponia

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towsky, the Honor of Frederic, and a collection of ecclesiastical laws and reothers, which cannot well be enumerated gulations ascribed erroneously to Clement here, as their names have not been sanc- I. Their contents betray a later origin. tioned by all nations. Thus the professors No father of the church, before the 4th of Leipsic made of a part of Orion the century, mentions them. Epiphanius is constellation of Napoleon, but it did not the first who speaks of them as a genuine come into use. The different stars of a work of the apostles, though he does not constellation are marked by Greek letters. pretend to deny the doubts which many Several have also particular names. They persons entertained respecting their genuare also divided according to their appa- ineness. The Trullan council (692) considrent magnitude; thus we speak of stars of ered only part of them genuine, and rejectthe first, second and third, up to the sixth 'ed the collection on account of the intermagnitude. The last are the smallest visible polations which it had experienced. Most to the naked eye. One of the best works probably this collection was made in the on astrognosy, in the present state of this third century, and compounded of reguscience, is Bode's Anleitung zur Kenntnisslations already existing, and others inventdes gestirnten Himmels, 9th ed. Berlin, ed by the compiler, who was an adversary 1823, with plates (Guide to the Knowledge of the Gnostics. (q. v.) But it is still very of the Starry Heavens). On the subject of dubious whether the collection, which we the constellations, and astrognosy of the ha at present under the above name, ancients, the same author has written, in is the same mentioned by the fathers of his Ptolemæus, Beobachtung und Beschrei- the church. The Catholics themselves bung der Gestirne, Berlin, 1795 (Ptolemy, are suspicious of them. The Dictionnaire Observation and Description of the Stars), de Théologie says of them, Ces Constitu(For information respecting celestial tions prétendues apostoliques sentent, dans globes, see Globe.)

plusieurs endroits, l'Arianisme, renferment CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY ; the first con- des anachronismes et des opinions singuvention of the delegates of the French lières sur plusieurs points de la religion. nation, (June 17, 1789), consisting of 600 CONSTITUTION; the fundamental law deputies of the third estate, 300 of the of a state, whether it be a written instrunobility, and 300 of the clergy. The fa- ment of a certain date, as that of the U. mous oath taken in the tennis court, June States, or an aggregate of laws and usages 20, 1789, not to dissolve until they had which have been formed in the course of completed a constitution for their country, ages, like the English, constitution. Conis one of the noblest displays of the spirit stitutions, according to their origin or their of a nation bent on recovering and secur- fundamental principle, may be divided ing its liberty. (See France.)

into 3 classes : -1. those established by the CONSTITUTION, in medicine; the general sovereign power; 2. those formed by condition of the body, as evinced by the contracts between nations and certain inpeculiarities in the performance of its dividuals, whom they accept as sovereigns, functions : such are the peculiar predis- on condition of their complying with the position to certain diseases, or liability of terms of the contract; 3. those formed by particular organs to disease, the varieties a compact between different sovereign in digestion, in muscular power and mo- powers. 1. The first class may be again tion, in sleep, in the appetite, &c. Some divided into, a. constitutions established by marked peculiarities of constitution are a free sovereign people for their own reg. observed to be accompanied with certain ulation—the only ones which rest on a just external characters, such as a particular and philosophical basis (although such as color and texture of the skin, and of the are embraced in the other descriptions hair, and also with a peculiarity of form may be the best which circumstances will and disposition of mind; all of which allow in given cases); of this sort are the have been observed from the earliest time, constitutions of the Ú. States ; and, b. such and divided into classes, and which re- as have been, in some instances, granted ceived names, during the prevalence of the by the plenary power of absolute monhumoral pathology, that they still retain. archs to their subjects, and which, in the(See Temperament.)

ory, are the voluntary gift of the benefiCONSTITUTION, in the Roman church; cence of the ruler. These are called, by a decree of the pope in matters of doc- the French, constitutions octroyées, from trine. In France, however, this name octroyer, to grant. Such an instrument is has been applied, by way of eminence, to the French Charte, which commences with the famous bull Unigenitus. (q. v.)- the words Nous avons volontairement et Apostolic constitutions is the name given to per libre exercice de notre autorité royale



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accordé et accordons, fait concession et octroi Provinces of Holland, and such is also the à nos sujets, &c. 2. The second great class Swiss confederation. The constitution of of constitutions mentioned above includes the U. States of America, although the such as have been formed by a contract different states call themselves sovereign, between the future ruler and the people. proceeded, in point of fact, from the peoThese are mutually binding on each party, ple of the U. Štates collectively, as is apas long as the other fulfils his duty. Such, parent from the very beginning of the inin a great degree, is the English constitu- strument, which is in these words—“We, tion. And a constitution octroyée partakes the people of the U. States," and not “We, much of the nature of a compact, as soon the states.” Moreover, it can escape no as the people have sufficient spirit and one's observation, that the congress, estabsense of justice to prevent it from being lished by this constitution, has rights and infringed or abolished, and, asserting the powers far exceeding those which other natural rights of men, whose rulers exist confederate, but entirely distinct governonly for their benefit, avow that they will ments, are wont to allow each other, and submit to the government only as long as that the constitution, in short, unites all the government observes the constitution. the states into one nation, the government In fact, a constitution octroyée, in any case, being called, by all parties, the national can hardly be regarded otherwise than as government. Governments entirely and a compact, proceeding, as it does, from virtually distinct from each other never the wants of the times and the demands would, however closely confederated, alof the people, and expressing the intention low a government, particularly a nationof the ruler to observe certain rules, which al government, to be established over these wants and demands prescribe. themselves. It seems, therefore, that the Where would be its value, how could it constitution of the U. States is more than be regarded as a fundamental law, con- a mere compact between independent trolling the operations of the government, powers, yet less than the simple constituif it were liable to be abolished at any tion of an undivided nation: it ought rathmoment, at the pleasure of the sovereign? er to be considered as forming one whole That the monarch acted from compulsion with the different constitutions of the in granting the constitution, only proves states, which have given up to the genthat the character of the times made it eral government most of the rights of indispensable. The French ultras are sovereignty, as that of making war and grievously mistaken, when they pretend peace, coining, &c.* II. In regard to pothat the king may abolish the Charte be- litical principles, constitutions are, 1. democause he granted it. It is not the words cratic, when the fundamental law guarwith which it is prefaced, but the circum- anties to every citizen equal rights, prostances under which it was given, that are tection, and participation, direct or indito determine its character. It was granted rect, in the government, such as the to satisfy the demands of the French peo- constitutions of the U. States, and of some ple, and as a pledge for the security of cantons of Switzerland. 2. Aristocratic, their liberties; and as long as they hold to when the constitution establishes privilegthe grant, it is impossible for the ruler to ed classes, as the nobility and clergy, and recall it. Such a constitution, therefore, intrusts the government entirely to them, may be considered as resting virtually on or allows them a very disproportionate a compact.* 3. Some constitutions are share in it. Such a constitution was that compacts between several sovereign pow. of Venice, and such still are those of some Such was the constitution of the

* For more particular information respecting the German empire, and that of the United constitution of the U. States, we would refer the

reader to the Federalist, the contemporaneous ex* If we consider strictly the origin of the two position of this instrument, by some of the ablest great divisions of constitutions, we shall find that men concerned in its preparation. The View of they all recognise the sovereignty of the people. the Constitution of the U. Sutes of America, by They are, as we have said, established either by William Rawle, Philadelphia, 1829, contains a the people themselves, or by a contract between lucid explanation of its principles, and has been, the people and their future ruler, or are granted by as well as the Federalist, introduced, as a textthe 'ruler. In the first case, the constitution is a book, into some of the American colleges. he direct emanation from their sovereign power. In Elementary Catechism of the Constitution of the the second case, it is no less so; for they confer the U. States, for the Use of Schools, by J. A. Stansrights of sovereignty, which they could not do un- bury, Boston, 1828, exhibits the principles of the less they possessed them. In the third case, the constitution in a way to make them easily inconstitution, as we have said, is virtually a com- telligible, and would prove a useful guide to a forpact, and, as such, recognises the independence of eigner desirous of obtaining a general insight into the contracting parties, and admits that the people, the constitution, without the trouble of much collectively, have no superior.




Swiss cantons, for instance, Berne. 3. Of that governments are instituted for the a mixed character. To this latter division welfare of the people, and that the true wel belong some monarchical constitutions, fare of nations is founded on liberty and which recognise the existence of a king justice; that liberty and justice imply rewhose power is modified by other branches straints on rulers, and the security of his of government, of a more or less popular rights to every citizen; and that constitucast. The English constitution belongs to tions, therefore, are essential, as assignthis division. It has often been called a ing to every branch of government its mixture of democracy, aristocracy and powers and limits, protecting against agmonarchy; but, in fact, even the represen- gression, and ascertaining the purposes tation of the commons of that country is, in for which the government exists, and the a great measure, under the control of the rights which are guarantied to every citiprivileged orders, so that the government zen. It would be, perhaps, interesting, if falls, almost entirely, into the hands of the we had room enough, to give a sketch of aristocracy, and little of the democratic the most celebrated arguments against element is visible. III. The forms of constitutions; but the substance of them government, established by the various amounts to this, that states and nations constitutions, afford a ground of division resemble families, the monarchs being in important in some respects; and, lastly, the place of the fathers; that the father of IV. The principle on which a constitution a family has a divine right to govern his establishes the representation, or the way in family, and provide for his children, acwhich the people participate in the gov- cording to his discretion, and that a family ernment, furnishes an important means of would be in a most unfortunate condition, classification. 1. Some allow the people in which, to prevent quarrels and disconto partake in the government, without tent, the father should be obliged to refer representation. This is the case in sey- to a written instrument, in which the dueral of the small Swiss cantons, in which ties of every member of the household the whole people assemble and legislate. were laid down. The comparison of a It is obvious that such a constitution can state to a family has come to our times, operate only where the number of citizens from ages when the principles of governis very small

, and, even then, it will be, ment were little understood, when manalmost always, objectionable. 2. Some kind was gaining political experience at are of a representative character; that is, a dear rate, and when the whole subject all the citizens do not take an immediate of government was very ill defined, bepart in the government, but act by their cause the general principles of the subject, representatives. Constitutions of this sort, and the limitations of the different branches a. either establish a general and equal of the administration, were not, and, perrepresentation, as those of the U. States; haps, could not be clearly understood. or, b. connect the right of representation in regard to those times, the comparison with particular estates (q. v.) and corpora- of the head of a government to a father tions. The term representative constitution may be excused. But, in times like the is frequently applied exclusively to the present, after so much experience, so many former by way of eminence. A great examples, so much investigation into the desideratum, in these times of political nature of governments, nothing but naragitation, is a digest of all constitutions, row-minded prejudice, wilful perversion existing and abolished, a codex constitutio- of reason, or degraded servility towards num, exhibiting all the different trials, the powers that be, can lay down such a which men have made, to provide for their principle. No comparison, probably, has permanent security and welfare. The done more mischief, than the one alluded only attempt to execute such a work, as to, because it perverts the very principles far as our knowledge extends, has been and elements of the subject to be elucimade in the German language-Die Eu- dated. No two things can be more differropäischen Constitutionen, Leipsic, 1817, ent than a state and a family. The ruling Though a great part of Europe is engaged principle of the latter is love, forbearance in a controversy on the subject of consti- and kindness; that of the former, stern tutions,—the people desiring them, the gov- justice, strict adherence to strict law, A ernments resisting their wishes, and mer- family is composed of parents and chilcenary writers attacking and vilifying their dren, bound together by the ties of natural advocates,—it would be ridiculous for us to affection, and the claim of infancy on enter into an argument in defence of the manhood for protection. A state is comadvantage and necessity of constitutions, posed of men comparatively unconnected since every one of our readers is convinced and independent. Families are united by


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