Imatges de pÓgina

a provisional consular government, con- princes to send such persons as protectors sisting of Bonaparte, Sièyes and Roger of merchants from their own country into Ducos, established the fourth constitution, the domains of these princes, and their exwhich was proclaimed Dec. 15, by which ample was followed by other European France was declared a republic under a nations, for the protection of their comgovernment of consuls. Three elective merce in the Levant, and in Africa; and, consuls (Bonaparte, Cambacères, Lebrun, since the 15th and 16th centuries, the same each with 500,000 francs annually) had officers have also been established in Eualmost uncontrolled executive authority, ropean countries, to facilitate the interwhile the legislative power was in the course of the respective nations, so that hands of the tribunate and the legislative the commercial consuls, both in Europe assembly:

a conservative senate was also and other parts of the world, are now very elected. But as early as Aug. 2, 1802, numerous. The right of nominating conBonaparte was proclaimed first consul for suls is in the hands of the supreme power, life, and thus the constitution of France which, however, can send them only became again monarchical. He had the where treaties or ancient customs authorpower of naming his successor, proposing ize their appointment. The duty of this the two other consuls, appointing the sena- officer is to afford protection and assisttors, counsellors of state, and the presidents ance to navigators or merchants of his naof the council of the people, which he tion, and to watch over the fulfilment of could assemble, and determine the length commercial treaties. In point of authorof their sessions at his pleasure; he could ity, however, the consuls in the Levant also assemble and dissolve the legislative and Africa are different from those in Eubody at his will

. The courts of justice, rope and America, because the former civil and criminal, were subjected to his have also civil jurisdiction over their councontrol; the right of pardoning was put into trymen. They are invested with much his hands, and the number of the mem- more of a diplomatic character than the bers of the tribunate was limited to half latter. Consuls are regarded by some as of what it had been. He was to manage ministers: others, however, will not acthe revenues and the expenditure of the knowledge them as such. They certainly state, provide for the safety of the people do not stand on the same footing with at home, and for the defence of the coun- even the lowest degree of acknowledged try abroad, exercise supreme command diplomatic persons, because they have no over the forces, maintain political connex- letters of credence, but merely patents of ions with foreign countries, confirm all appointment, which must be confirmed by treaties, and, in critical times, might even the government to which they are sent. suspend the constitution. Thus the first They therefore do not enjoy the privileges consul united royal dignity with royal of ministers; for instance, exemption from authority, and, that he might the better the jurisdiction of the courts of the foreign retain both, the civil list was increased to country, and from taxes, the right of 6,000,000 francs; and, Aug. 15, 1802, the having divine service performed in their birth-day of the first consul, a consular residences, &c. Generally, they are subcourt was instituted at St. Cloud, and all ject to the civil authorities of the place the former court discipline reëstablished. where they reside.-Consul-general is a Nothing now remained for the complete consul appointed for several places, or restoration of monarchy, but to make Bo- over several consuls. Sometimes vicenaparte's dignity hereditary in his family consuls are given to consuls. Consulships by law, as it was already, in point of fact, almost always exempt from military serby his power of naming his successor. vice, for which reason the consulship is The first consuls were also the last ; the often sought for. Generally, consuls are one became emperor, the others princes. merchants, without remuneration, except On the first coins struck after Napoleon's that arising from fees, which sometimes elevation as emperor, he called himself amount to considerable sums. Very often empereur de la republique Française. consuls are not citizens of the countries

III. Since the time of the crusades, offi- for which they act. cers called consuls have existed in differ

CONSULTA (Ital.) was a branch of the ent states, for the purpose of giving decis- administration in the Italian republic, and ions, affording protection, or verifying facts the kingdom of Italy which succeeded. and occurrences, relating to maritime and It corresponded to a council of state. It commercial affairs. The Italian states, in consisted of eight persons, and had chiefly particular, took advantage of the crusades the direction of foreign affairs and diploto procure permission from the Asiatic macy.


CONSUMPTION, in political economy, is the results of labor over the demands for the use and wearing out of the products immediate consumption; and this is, no of industry, or of all things having an ex- doubt, true; but the inference which is, changeable value. This destruction, by and too often, made, that the great object putting things to the uses for which they of a nation should be to save the fruits are designed, is very different in different of its labor, as the surest means of wealth things; nor are the wants of society limit- and prosperity, is by no means true in its ed to the use of things having an ex- fiul extent. ff, for instance, a community changeable value. The air and the water has saved the products of its labor to the are as necessary, in the economy of life, as amount of $1000, for which sum it imthe earth and its products; and yet neither ports from abroad, and introduces into the air nor water, ordinarily, bears a price. use, a inore perfect kind of plough, and The latter, however, is sometimes a sub- the art of making it, or the art of making ject of commerce, especially in large a better hat, or screw, or saw, with the cities; in the city of Madrid, for exam- same labor,—the amount saved being exple.

The earth, on the other hånd, is a pended for this purpose, the numerical possubject of monopoly in all countries where sessions, or the computed capital stock, of any progress has been made in civiliza- that community, is thereby diminished ; tion. But, unlike its products, it is not and yet the aggregate productive capacity always deteriorated by use : on the con- is increased. This lets us into a principle trary, if skilfully cultivated, its value is of national economy, which is too freincreased. In respect to the products, too, quently overlooked, namely, that the there is a difference; some are destroyed, means of prosperity—the national wealth or, in other words, reduced to their ele- --consists more in the capacity for proments, by use, as provisions. Others, as duction than in actual possessions. As the precious stones, are not necessarily far as the capital, or nominal wealth, condestroyed by time or use. The metals, sists in the implements of production, and ordinarily, pass through various forms, in the accommodations for the shelter of the a variety of manufactures, before they are inhabitants, they are both a part of the wasted and lost in rust; and some prod- individual wealth and national resources. ucts, being destroyed in one form, are But a vast proportion of the productive converted into materials for use in an- faculties of a people do not exist in the other. The remnants of linen and cotton form of property, and are not marketable fabrics, for instance, supply materials for articles. Of this description are the arts, paper; and so the wood and iron of a and those characteristics of a community, ship, on ceasing to be useful, in their com- which enable the people to maintain good bination, for the purposes of navigation, laws, and perpetuate their political institustill supply, the one, fuel, the other, mate- tions. All the consumption, directed to rials for the founderies of iron. The great- the promotion of these, is, in the strictest er the advancement of the arts, the more sense, economical, and all the saving of extensively will the remnants of consump- stock, which might be devoted to these obtion of one kind supply the materials for jects, by a consumption for that purpose, is the production of articles of another form. a wasteful and short-sighted economy The arts will even convert the destruction The great business of society, in an ecoof war into the materials for new produc- nomical view, is production and consumption. The bones left on the field of Wa- tion; and a great production without a terloo have been carefully collected, and corresponding consumption of products transported to England, to manure the cannot for a long time be continued. The lands. The increase of population, and notions about the destructive tendency of the progress of the arts, introduce a thou- luxury are, therefore, preposterous, as a sand ways of gleaning the relics of one general proposition, for it proposes thrift kind of consumption to supply the mate- and saving for no purpose. Suppose a rials of another. This is one of the abso- whole nation to act fully up to the notions lute gains of resources consequent upon inculcated by doctor Franklin, what would the advance of civilization. In regard to be the result but universal idleness? for, all consumption, the remarks and reasoning being intent on saving, that is, on not conof Adam Smith have led to some erro- suming, there would, of course, cease to neous prejudices, though his positions are, be any encouragement or demand for proin some respects, just. He assumes, for duction. This is the condition of savage instance, that all the stock of society, in- life, imposed by a necessity resulting from cluding the improvements on the lands, ignorance, improvidence and indolence. are the result of savings, or the excess of To keep the streams of production in ac



tive flow, consumption is necessary; and such as gratify no immediate appetite or the consumption, which directly and taste. They look to the future. Their steadily promotes production is, in fact, greatest encouragement is the honor which promotive of public wealth. We do not is paid to them by the public opinion; for mean to deny, that the expenditures of a if a man gains more distinction by enman who exceeds his means of payment couraging a useful or ornamental art, will be injurious, not only to himself, but founding a school, or contributing to the also to the community; for he may

anni- construction of a public work, than by hilate the capital of those who give him riding in a coach, a generous motive is credit, and, since their industry may de- held out to him to turn a part of the genpend on their capital, which supplies them eral consumption, of which his resources with tools to work with, materials to give him the control, into those channels. work upon, and a stock of clothing, food The tastes and habits of thinking of a and accommodations, until they can ob- people determine the direction of a vast tain the returns of their industry by a sale proportion of the general consumption ; of its products, the loss of this capital, by and the direction and amount of this trusting it to one who never pays them, is consumption again determine, in a great a destruction of their industry. Hoarding, degree, those of production. When we on the other hand, though not so injurious, say that production should be encouraged, yet, if too generally prevalent, may have it is only inculcating, in other words, the the effect of paralyzing production, and maxim that consumption should be enstifling and enfeebling the economical en- couraged; for the one will, in every comergies of a people, by diminishing the munity, bear a pretty near proportion to the motives to industry. In a healthy state other; and the object of a liberal, enlightof the national industry, therefore, the ened policy is, to swell the amount of consumption of products should bear a both; and the object of a wise and philanjust proportion to production. As long as thropical policy is, to direct them to obenough is saved to supply all the increase jects promotive of the physical comfort of demand for a stock of implements and and moral and intellectual improvement materials, and make all the improvements, of a people. We are, however, to avoid of a permanent nature, of which the coun- the error of supposing, that all the causes try is susceptible, such as canals, roads, which go to swell the aggregate of producbridges, &c.,—which are, indeed, all of tion and consumption, are beneficial in their them, only different modes of present con- operation. If, for example, all the rents sumption of the fruits of labor of various of the lands, as under the feudal system, kinds to reproduce others,-it is much are assigned to a few, who, by a luxurious better, as a general rule, that the remain- and expensive style of living, consume the der of the products of industry should be greater part of the produce of the labor expended in luxuries, than that they should of the other members of the community, not be produced at all

. In regard to lux- leaving them no more than barely enough uries—including in this term all the ex- to sustain life, and defend them against penditures made for the gratification of the elements, though such a community appetite, taste or vanity—the dispositions may present a gorgeous exhibition of inof men, in general, will sufficiently incline dividual wealth, yet the condition of a them to these. There is no necessity of great part of its members is little better inculcating the utility of such expenditures than that of savages. This was the tenas encouragements to industry. Against dency of society under the feudal system, the importunity of the appetites and de- and all the ecclesiastical systems founded sires of men, and against improvidence under the auspices of the church of Rome. and thoughtlessness of the future, doctor In such communities, every tax, and every Franklin's lessons of economy are of great superfluous product, passes into a vortex utility. But, looking at the whole mass of remote from the interests, comforts and society as a great engine of production wants of the mass of the population. The and consumption, we should inculcate a consumption ought to be so distributed, as different set of maxims, based on more to give every one some just share, in procomprehensive principles. . The exam- portion to his labor and services. A preple of doctor Franklin himself would cisely equal and just apportionment of the be a practical lesson, in this respect; for fruits of labor, and the profits of the use he was not illiberal of his time, or labor, of the earth, cannot be made in any councr money, in promoting those expendi- try; for the rights of property must be tures which had the advancement of so- guarded, or industry will dwindle away. ciety for their object. These are often But the laws may do much, and the pre

vailing habits of thinking, and principles drogen, united with sulphur, phosphorus, and motives of action, of a people, still carbon and azote, in unknown proportions more, towards assigning to every kind of and unknown states of combination. The industry, and every species of talent and proper neutralizers or destroyers of these skill, its fair proportion of the general con- gasiform poisons are, nitric acid vapor, sumption, and in such a way as not to muriatic acid gas and chlorine. The two check, but to augment, the general mass last are the most efficacious, but require of things produced and consumed. The to be used in situations from which the benefits of commerce do not consist so patients can be removed at the time of the much in the mass of wealth, which it may application. Nitric acid vapor may, howbe the means of accumulating, or in its ever, be diffused in the apartments of the directly employing a great many persons, sick without much inconvenience. Bedas in the facilities it gives for augmenting clothes, particularly blankets, can retain the general mass of production and con- the contagious fomes, in an active state, sumption; and, in this respect, internal for almost any length of time. Hence commerce, in a country of considerable they ought to be fumigated with peculiar extent and variety of products, is far more care. The vapor of burning sulphur or important than foreign, since the mutual sulphurous acid is used in the East against exchanges of the products of labor made the plague. It is much inferior in power to among the inhabitants of such a country the other antiloimic reagents. There does are much greater, in amount, than those not appear to be any distinction commonly made between the whole country and made between contagious and infectious other nations.

diseases. The infection communicated by CONSUMPTION, in medicine. (See Atro- diseased persons is usually so communicatphy.)

ed by the product of the disease itself; for CONTAGION (contagio; from contango, instance, by the matter of the small-pox; to meet or touch each other). This word and therefore many of these diseases are properly imports the application of any infectious only when they have already poisonous matter to the body through the produced such matter, but not in their medium of touch. It is applied to the earlier periods. In many of them, conaction of those very subtile particles tact with the diseased person is necessary arising from putrid substances, or from for infection, as is the case with the itch, persons laboring under certain diseases, syphilis, canine madness; in other conwhich communicate the diseases to oth- tagious diseases, even the air may convey ers; as the contagion of putrid fever, the the infection, as in the scarlet fever, the effluvia of dead animal or vegetable sub- measles, the contagious typhus, &c. In stances, the miasmata of bogs and fens, the this consists the whole difference between virus of small-pox, lues venerea, &c., &c. the fixed and volatile contagions. A real The principal diseases excited by poison- infection requires always a certain suscepous miasmata are, intermittent, remittent tibility of the healthy individual; and many and yellow fevers, dysentery and typhus. infectious maladies destroy, forever, this The last is generated in the human body susceptibility of the same contagion in the itself

, and is sometimes called the typhoid individual, and, accordingly, attack a perfomes. Some miasmata are produced son only once, as the small-pox, measles, from moist vegetable matter, in some un- &c. Other contagious diseases do not known state of decomposition. The produce this effect, and may, therefore, recontagious virus of the plague, small- peatedly attack the same person, as typhus, pox, measles, chincough, cynanche ma- itch, syphilis, and others. Sometimes one ligna, and scarlet fever, as well as of ty- contagious disease destroys the susceptiphus and the jail fever, operates to a bility for another, as the kine-pock for the much more limited distance through the small-pox. In general

, those parts of the medium of the atmosphere than the body which are covered with the most delimarsh miasmata. Contact of a diseased cate skin, are most susceptible of contaperson is said to be necessary for the gion; and still more so are wounded parts, communication of plague; and approach deprived of the epidermis. Against those within two or three yards of him for that contagious diseases which are infectious of typhus. The Walcheren miasmata ex- through the medium of the air, precautended their pestilential influence to vessels tions may be taken by keeping at the riding at anchor, fully a quarter of a mile greatest possible distance from the sick, from the shore. The chemical nature of all by cleanliness and fearlessness; but most these poisonous effluvia is little understood. . completely by the vigilance of the healthThey undoubtedly consist, however, of hy- officers, by fumigations according to the


prescriptions of Guyton-Morveau, &c. We ambassador to Rome; then to Ferrara, in can more easily secure ourselves against order to obtain the liberty of pope Clement such contagious diseases as are infec- VII, whom Charles V kept imprisoned in tious only in case of contact, by means fort St. Angelo; succeeded in his mission, of cleanliness, caution in the use of vessels and became ambassador at the court of the for eating and drinking, of tobacco-pipes, pope. After his return, he was made senof wind-instruments, beds and clothes. ator of Venice. Pope Paul III conferred No general preservative against contagious on him the cardinal's hat in 1535. In diseases is known, though many are of- 1541, he was papal delegate at the Gerfered for sale by quacks. The examina- man diet, at Ratisbon, where he distintion of the persons intended for nurses guished himself by his moderation. When and tenders of infants is very necessary, the bishops rejected the 22 articles of the ils thousands of children may be infected Protestants, he exhorted the former not to by contact with them, and the cause of the offend the people any longer by their avadisorder remain unknown. (See Epi- rice, luxury and ambition, but to visit their demic.)

dioceses, support the poor and the schools, CONTARINI ; a noble family of Venice. and distribute the benefices according to Domenico Contarini was doge of Venice merit. After his return, he was sent as from 1043 to 1071. He rebuilt Grado, and legate to Bologna, where he died in 1542. reduced the city of Zara, which had re- Giovanni Contarini, born at Venice, in volted. Jacopo Contarini was doge from 1549, died in 1605, was one of the most 1075 to 1080. Under his reign, the Vene- distinguished painters of his age, worked tians forced the city of Ancona to ac- in the style of Titian, and was particularly knowledge their sovereignty over the skilful in painting ceilings, e. g., his ResurAdriatic sea.—Andrea Contarini was doge rection, in the church of St. Francesco di from 1367 to 1382. The Genoese, under Paolo, in Venice.- Vincenzo Contarini, Pietro Doria, had conquered Chiozza, in born at Venice in 1577, died in 1617; a 1379, and threatened even Venice. An- scholar, whose reputation was, in early drea Contarini reconquered Chiozza, and life, so great, that the magistrates of Padua delivered the republic from its enemies.- established a new chair of Latin and Greek Francesco Contarini was doge from 1623 eloquence, only to retain the learned to 1625. Under him, Venice, in alliance youth of 26 years of age in their city. He with Louis XIII of France, the duke of lectured there until 1614.-Simone ConSavoy, and the Protestant cantons of tarini, born at Venice in 1563, died in Switzerland, reconquered the Pays de 1633, was Venetian ambassador at the Vaud, in 1624, which the Austrians had court of the duke of Savoy, Philip II taken possession of.—Carlo Contarini was of Spain, Mohammed III, in Constantidoge from 1655 to 1656. Under his reign nople, pope Paul V, and the emperor Lazaro Mocenigo, admiral of the republic, Ferdinand II; and became, afterwards, in June, 1655, gained a brilliant victory advocate of San Marco. As such, he made over the Turks, in the Dardanelles.-Do- another journey to Constantinople. When, menico Contarini was doge from 1659 to in 1630, the plague raged at Venice, he 1674. During his government, Venice could not be induced to leave the city, resisted, for five years, the attacks of the but remained to make the arrangements Turks on the island of Candia ; but, on which the evil required. Sept. 26, 1667, after a siege and defence of Contat, Louise (madame de Parny, unexampled obstinacy, Francesco Moro- known on the French stage as mademoisini surrendered the island. Peace was selle), was born at Paris in 1760, made her then concluded.–Francesco Contarini, in début as Atalide, in Bajazet, at the théâtre 1460, taught philosophy in Padua, was Français (1776), but afterwards devoted ambassador at the court of Pius II, com- her brilliant talents entirely to comedy, manded the Venetian troops against the She was the pupil of Mme. Préville, and Florentines, who had attacked Siena, and her earlier manner was formed on that of wrote the history of this campaign.-Am- her instructress. She was discriminating, brosio Contarini, from 1477 to 1483, was but cold in her action; dignified, but stiff anbassador of the republic at the court in her movements; forcible, but monotoof the king of Persia, Usun Kassan. The nous in her delivery. It was only when interesting description of his residence

at she appeared in a new class of characters, this court first appeared in Venice, 1481, that she ceased to be an imitator. She in Italian.—Gasparo Contarini negotiated had already appeared with great applause a permanent peace between the republic in the parts which the French call the and Charles V. In 1527, he went as grandes coquettes, when Beaumarchais

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