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produced for her Suzanne, the spirituelle gested the idea of establishing a place of and fascinating soubrette, in which, by the deposit for useful machines, tools, &c., in author's confession,

she far surpassed his consequence of which the conservatory was own conceptions of that character. Her instituted. He afterwards introduced the versatility of talent was displayed in the manufacture of an excellent kind of crayons Coquette Corrigée, in Julie in the Dissipa- into France, and established a great manuteur, in Mme. de Volmar (Mariage Secret), factory, which still supplies all France with and in Mme. Evrard (Vieux Célibataire). them. He was appointed, in 1798, to acBeauty, grace, vivacity, archness and ease

company the French expedition to Egypt, were united with dignity, tenderness, deli- and his services were of the greatest cacy and judgment. She restored to the value. He constructed a furnace on the stage the masterpieces of Molière, which Pharos, near Alexandria, in the space of had long been neglected by the public. two days, for red-hot balls, with which After a theatrical career of 32 years, 24 of the English were repelled, and thus which were a continual series of triumphs, time was given for fortifying that place. she retired from the stage in 1808, and be The machines and instruments of the came the centre of a brilliant circle of army having fallen into the hands of the friends. Mme. de Parny was remarkable Arabs, Conté was obliged to furnish every for her powers of conversation. She thing, even the tools: he constructed was lively or severe, grave or gay, as the wind-mills, machines for the mint at Caioccasion required; and her remarks were ro, for an Oriental printing establishment, always characterized by sound and inge- for the fabrication of gunpowder, &c., and nious views, elegant taste, and varied in- cannon founderies ; manufactured steel, formation. A few weeks before her paper, swords for the soldiers, utensils for death, she threw into the fire a large col- the hospitals, instruments for the engilection of anecdotes and other writings, neers, telescopes for the astronomers, miin prose and verse, from her pen, because croscopes for the naturalists, drums, trumthey contained some strokes of personal pets, in short, every thing necessary for satire. She died, in 1813, after five such a military and scientific expedition months of severe suffering from a cancer in such a country as Egypt. On his in the breast, during which she manifested return to France, he was appointed to the greatest firmness, and even maintained superintend the execution of the great her usual cheerfulness and gayety of spirit. work on Egypt, and invented a graving M. Arnault, from whom this account is machine, which, by performing certain borrowed, owed his liberty and life, in parts of the labor, spared the artist much 1792, to her interference, at the risk of her time and trouble. The death of his wife, own life.

to whom he was tenderly attached, threw CONTÉ, Nicolas Jacques, a painter and him into a lingering disease, and he surchemist, but particularly distinguished for vived her but a short time.

Conté was a the ingenuity of his mechanical contri- member of the legion of honor. His vances, was born at St. Céneri, near Séez simplicity, integrity, courage, disinterest(department of Orne), in 1755, and died edness and warmth of affection rendered in 1805. His mechanical genius was dis- him no less amiable and estimable in priplayed, at the age of 12 years, by the con- vate life, than his science and ingenuity struction of a violin (which was used at made him valuable to the nation. several concerts), with no other instru- CONTEMPT. Legislative bodies and jument than a knife. At the age of 18, dicial tribunals are generally invested with without having received any instructions, power to protect themselves against interhe executed several paintings for the hos- ruption; and such a power is essential to pital of Séez. This success did not pre- enable them to conduct their business. vent him from the cultivation of the phys- They are usually empowered to commit ical and mathematical sciences. He went persons to prison, or punish them otherto Paris, and invented a hydraulic ma- wise, for disturbances and contempts. The chine, which was mentioned with appro- constitution of the U. States expressly bation by the academy of sciences. In gives to the senate and house of repre1793, he was appointed one of the com- sentatives authority to punish their own mittee for making experiments in regard members for contempts; and in the case to the decomposition of water by iron, of Anderson, in the 6th volume of Wheainstead of sulphuric acid; and his activity ton's reports, it is decided that the house and skill on this commission occasioned of representatives has power to imprison his appointment of director of the aero- other persons than its own members for static school at Meudon. Conté sug- breach of its privileges and contempt of

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the house. Such a right, though not that no party shall be adjudged or conexpressly given in the constitution, was demned without a hearing, if practices considered as incidental to the establish- are permitted which tend to deprive him ment of a legislative body. So it has been of a fair hearing. The party may be considered and repeatedly decided in charged with contempt, either on the view England, particularly in 1771, when Cros- of the court, that is, without taking the hy, lord-mayor of London and a member testimony of witnesses, for misdemeanors of the house of commons, was committed committed in presence of the court, or on to the Tower for the breach of the privi- the testimony of witnesses; and he is alleges of the house, and sir Francis Burdett ways heard in his own defence, provided again in 1811. A legislative body may he observes decorum in making his depunish one of its own members for disor- fence. The process is necessarily sumderly behavior, as well as a bystander. mary, since the cases are generally such Judicial tribunals have the same power. as require immediate interposition, and The French penal code, article 222, &c., courts do not usually resort to it, except in provides, that, when any executive or ju- palpable and flagrant cases. The punishdicial officer shall

, during or on account ment, assigned by the statutes of the U. of his official duties, be insulted, the per- States, and those of the separate states, son guilty of the outrage shall be pun- for this offence, is generally fine or imished by an imprisonment of not less than prisonment. two months nor more than two years ; CONTENT and NONCONTENT are the unless the offence is committed in open words by which assent and dissent are court, in which case the imprisonment is expressed in the house of lords. AYE and not less than two nor more than five years. No are used in the house of commons. Blackstone says, in the 4th volume of his CONTESSA, the elder and the younger; Commentaries, that process for contempt two German authors. The former, Chrisis “an inseparable attendant on every supe- tian James Salice Contessa, was born at rior tribunal; and, accordingly, we find Hirschberg, in Silesia, in 1767, and died it actually exercised as far back as the in 1825: the latter, Charles William Saannals of our law extend.” This power lice Contessa, was born, Aug. 9, 1777, at has a much broader construction in Eng- Hirschberg, studied at Halle, and died land than in the U. States, being confined, at Berlin, June 2, 1825. He wrote tales in the latter country, mostly, at least, tó. and comedies. Von Houwald, likewise a cases of actual disturbance and flagrant German poet, published his works in 1826. disrespect to the court, or an attempt to Hoffmann has described Contessa's characinfluence a decision by popular appeals, ter in a masterly manner, under the name or direct and high-handed or outrageous of Sylvester, in his Serapionsbrüder. The resistance to, or obstruction of, its proceed- elder of the two brothers is unimportant ings or processes; whereas, in England, it as an author. extends to acts or omissions which do not CONTI, Antonio Schinella, abbate ; a directly disturb the judicial proceedings; Venetian patrician, born at Padua, in 1677, such, for instance, as not paying a bill of whose mathematical researches attracted costs awarded by the court; not obeying the attention of Newton. He had given the summons of a court of equity, and not up the clerical profession, because he answering a bill; refusing to be sworn as a disliked to hear confessions. He visited witness, which has also been held to be a Paris, and, in 1715, London, where he contempt in the U.States. Serving a process was elected a member of the royal society, on an attorney, while attending court, has on the proposition of Newton. Here he been held to be a contempt of the court became involved in the controversy bein England; likewise shouting, or giving tween Newton and Leibnitz, and, by atapplause, in court, on a return of a verdict tempting to avoid displeasing either of by a jury. It was held, in New York, to them, dissatisfied both. By chance, Conti be a contempt of the court to bring a suit came into possession of a manuscript, in the name of another, without his con- which contained Newton's system of chrosent. It is a contempt to endeavor, by nology. From his hands it passed into writings or publications, to prejudice the those of Freret, who published it, with sepublic mind, or that of a jury, or the court, vere notes. Newton was much displeased in a cause pending in court. This is not with Conti's share in the transaction. only an attack upon the public adminis- Feeble health obliged Conti to return, in tration of justice, but also upon the right 1726, to the milder sky of his own counof the individual parties in the suit, since try. He lived mostly in Venice, entirely it would be in vain to provide, by law, devoted to his literary occupations, which

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included poetry. Of the six volumes of ciple that the flag protects the property his works, which he intended to publish, was denied by the most powerful marionly the two first appeared (Venice, 1734, time nation, and still less was neutral 4to.). The first contains a long poem property respected under a belligerent flag. (Il Globo di Venere), intended to illustrate The right of searching, not only neutral the Platonic ideas of the beautiful. After vessels sailing singly, but even fleets under Conti's death (Padua, 1749), four of his public convoys, was introduced in the tragedies were published at Florence, in case of a Swedish merchant fleet, and fol1751 (Giunio Bruto, Cesare, Marco Bruto, lowed up in respect to others, and the and Druso), which did not establish his searching vessels were not bound, by the poetical reputation beyond all question. rule adopted in the British admiralty, to In all his works, abstract thinking prevails take the word of the officers commanding over poetic imagination. His language is the convoy, that there were no contraband powerful, but is accused of being tinctured goods on board. A very wide latitude with foreign idioms.-There are several was also given to the term contraband. other Contis famous in the learned world. Not only arms and munitions of war Conti. (See Bourbon.)

were included as such, but also materials CONTINENTAL SYSTEM was a plan de- which might be used in their manufacvised by. Napoleon to exclude England ture, or such as were necessary naval from all intercourse with the continent of and military equipments, especially where Europe. All importation of English man- they were destined to a naval or military ufactures and produce, as well as all other station of the belligerent enemy. The intercourse with Great Britain, was pro- principle adopted was, that whatever hibited, for the purpose of compelling might afford the enemy any direct assistEngland to make peace upon the terms ance or facilities in his naval or military prescribed by the French emperor, and to enterprises, was contraband of war. The acknowledge the navigation law establish- principle of the right of confiscating artied at the peace of Utrecht. For a long cles of contraband, and, in some circumperiod, a violent conflict had been carried stances, the ship also, was carried to the on between the maritime powers, concern- extreme extent of the national law. On ing the rights of neutral flags, which in- the right and extent of blockades, new volved the following points :-í. Does the doctrines, likewise, became prevalent. The neutral flag protect enemies' property, or old doctrine, that a naval blockade, in ornot? 2. Is neutral property subject to der to be valid, in respect to neutrals, must confiscation under an enemy's flag, or not? be maintained by an adequate force, so as 3. How far does the right of belligerent to render ingress and egress imminently powers extend to search neutral vessels dangerous to neutral vessels, was never desailing with or without convoy? 4. What nied by the British admiralty; but then the is contraband of war at sea, and what are novel practice was introduced, of declaring the rights of the captors in respect to it? a whole coast in a state of blockade, and, by 5. How far does the right extend to de- a pretty liberal construction as to the force clare places in a state of blockade? and, requisite to maintain a valid blockade, and finally, 6. Have neutrals the right to carry the danger of capture to which a neutral on a trade, in time of war, from which must be exposed, by an attempt to enter they were prohibited, in time of peace, the places declared to be thus blockaded, with one belligerent, without disturbance the belligerent possessing the strongest from the other? or may neutrals carry on naval force was enabled to interrupt the trade between a belligerent power and its trade of a neutral with the enemy. These colonies, during a war, either directly or doctrines of blockade were finally carried circuitously, from which they were ex- to such a length, that England declared cluded in time of peace ? On all these the whole coast of France and Holland to questions, the interest and policy of Great be in a state of blockade, while Napoleon, Britain were at variance with those of neu- in retaliation, declared the whole of Great tral nations, and induced her to urge bel- Britain to be in a state of blockade, though ligerent pretensions, to which they were he had not a vessel to enforce the blocknot willing to submit

. This opposition to ade. This subject of contraband of war the previously acknowledged rights of was violently contested, as long ago as neutrals was not, however, confined to 1780; and it was maintained, by the EuroGreat Britain; France, likewise, adopted pean powers who joined the armed neuit, and other maritime powers did the trality of that time, that the flag should same, whenever they were strong enough cover the property, and that the neutral to maintain their pretensions. The prin.. had the right, during war, to carry on a

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trade between either belligerent and its assistance in the war; and yet, if their flag colonies, by permission of such belligerent, were to protect all property, it would be without any interference on the part of impossible to prevent neutrals from renthe other belligerent, although such trade dering such assistance, and, in fact, taking was not allowed in time of peace. The a disguised part in the war. The history principles of blockade and contraband of the continental system begins with the gave Great Britain a great preponderance, famous decree of Berlin of Nov. 21, 1806, on account of its maritime superiority; by which the British islands were declared and the question naturally occurs, wheth- to be in a state of blockade; all commerce, er this preponderance is so dangerous as intercourse and correspondence were proto call for the united efforts of nations to hibited ; every Englishman found in modify the principles of national law on France, or a country occupied by French these subjects, or, at least, to resist the con- troops, was declared a prisoner of war; struction put upon them by Great Britain. all property belonging to Englishmen, fair On examination, it will appear that the prize, and all trade in English goods enpretensions of Great Britain, whether well tirely prohibited. No vessel coming direct or ill founded, do not immediately threaten ly from England or English colonies, or the independence of other nations, but which had been there since the publicaonly injure their commerce in time of tion of the edict, was to be admitted into

It increased the price of some arti- any harbor, and all vessels attempting to cles of luxury, in Europe, during the late avoid this edict by false declarations were wars from 1802 to 1812, but could not to be confiscated, with all their goods, as endanger the political independence of English. The reasons assigned for this nations; could not, like the preponderance decree were, that England did not acof a continental power, extinguish states, knowledge the international law, accepted and enslave Europe. The continental by civilized nations, but treated every innations suffered these evils only in time dividual belonging to the country of the of war; for, in time of peace, England enemy as if found in arms; made even never has used oppressive measures the crews of merchantmen prisoners of against the commerce of other countries; war; extended the right of conquest over and even in time of war, this reproach merchantmen and private property, and was most strongly made against her by the right of blockade over places and harthose who judged of a maritime war sole- bors not fortified; over the mouths of rivly by the rules established by the laws of ers; nay, over whole coasts and countries. nations to regulate wars on shore. But But many of these measures had always the rules adapted to the one cannot prop- been taken, in maritime wars, even by erly be extended to the other. Thus it is France herself, as long as she had the a general rule, acknowledged, at least, if means. One great reason for this and all not always acted upon, that the private the subsequent decrees of Napoleon was, property of the enemy shall be spared. If that he considered England his inveterate these rules were extended to maritime enemy, and the enemy of the political war, as France maintained they should be, doctrines which took their rise from the the war would, in most instances, be en- revolution. He often used to say, “ Je ne tirely illusory. How, for example, could fais pas ce que je veux, mais ce que je peur. England, in a maritime war against Ces Anglais me forcent à vivre au jour le France, after having taken her few colo- jour.” England immediately directed renies, and destroyed her fleets, do her any prisals against the Berlin decree, first by further injury, if private property were, in an order in council of Jan. 7, 1807, by all instances, to be respected ? if, in such which all neutral vessels were prohibited a case, the seizure of private, as well as to sail from one port to another belonging national property, be not permitted, the to France, or one of her allies, or to a nawar would be at an end. For the same tion so much under her control that Engreasons, the neutral flag, during a mari- lish vessels could not freely have intertime war, cannot be unconditionally re- course with it. Every neutral vessel spected, as in time of peace. Were this which should violate this order was to be the case, the flag of the weaker belligerent confiscated, with her cargo. A second power would disappear from the seas, decree of Nov. 11, 1807, was much more whilst neutrals would carry on its trade oppressive to commerce. By this, all harundisturbedly, un er their flags; and how bors and places of France and her allies, could deceptions ever be detected ? The in Europe and the colonies, as likewise neutrals, themselves, allow that they have every country with which England was no right to render either belligerent direct at war, and from which the English flag

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was excluded, were subjected to the same liberal institutions by the exercise of the restrictions as if they were closely block- droit d'intervention armée (see Congress, toaded; all commerce in the manufactures wards the end), a policy very different and productions of such countries was from that of the English, when Canning prohibited, and vessels engaged in such was at the head of foreign affairs, this concommerce were to be confiscated, as also tinental policy has sometimes been called all those vessels whose certificates showed the continental system. that they were built in the enemy's coun- CONTINGENT; the name often given to try. Another order in council declared the quota of troops which is to be furnishthe sale of vessels, by the enemy, to neu- ed by each member of a number of states trals, unlawful, and the intended transfer composing a confederation. By the terms of property void. Hardly were these or- of the confederation of the Rhine, each of ders promulgated, when France made the states of which it consisted was to counter reprisals. By a decree of Milan furnish 1 man for every 150 inhabitants. of Dec. 17, 1807, aggravated by a decree The proportion has been increased in the of the Tuileries, Jan. 11, 1808, every ves

German confederation, and amounts, at sel, of whatsoever flag, which had been the lowest rate (the simplum), to 1 man for searched by an English vessel, and con- every 100 souls. The whole confederasented to be sent to England, or had paid tion amounting to 30,095,054, the army any duty whatever to England, was to be of the confederates, at the lowest ratio, declared denationalized, and to have be- called simplum, contains over 300,000 come British property; and in every case, troops, divided into 10 corps d'armée, of such denationalized vessel, as also those which Prussia and Austria furnish each which had broken the blockade declared 3, Bavaria 1, and the remaining states 3. against the Ionian islands, or had sailed The quotas of men and money were asfroin an English harbor or English colo- signed for a term of 5 years, according to ny, or those of a country occupied by the the population of the different states at the English, or which were destined to any time when the union was formed, and resuch ports, were declared good prize. In main unaltered to the present time. Such order the more effectually to annihilate an army has never yet been called togeththe English commerce, the tariff of Tria- er, and, should it ever be, the German non, respecting colonial goods, was pro- confederation, in this case, would show claimed Aug. 3, 1810. This was extended how impotent and fragile is its whole conby another decree of Sept. 12 of the same stitution. year, and both were followed by the de- CONTORNIATI; ancient medals which cree of Fontainebleau, Oct. 18 of the have occupied the attention of antiquarians same year, directing the burning of all for a long time, and, on account of their rarEnglish goods. These decrees were to ity, are highly esteemed in cabinets. They be executed, with more or fewer modifi- are formed of a thin plate of metal (not of cations, in all countries connected with two different sorts, as is often supposed). France. The consequence was, that the with a flat impression. They differ from price of colonial goods rose enormously; a other ancient coins, by having a furrow regular smuggling trade was carried on at upon both their sides, where the others different points; forinstance, at Heligoland, have a wreath of pearls. These hollowed which was sometimes so crowded with lines (in Italian, contorno) may have occapersons concerned in this business, that a sioned their name. Another characterisducat was paid for a barrel to sleep in; tic of genuine contorniati is a cipher comthousands of substitutes for colonial goods, posed of the letters EP or PE, of which particularly for coffee and sugar, were in- no satisfactory explanation has, as yet, vented (which presented the remarkable been discovered, together with numerous psychological fact

, that people would drink impressed characters, and a great number the decoction of any stuff, which resem- of palm branches, the cavities of which bled coffee in color, if it had not the are often filled with silver. They are also slightest resemblance in taste; so powerful added by a second hand, and thereby are is imagination), and a variety of manufac- essentially distinguished from the monotures grew up on the continent; which grams, so called in the language of the were the germs of very extensive and mint. They resemble the signa incusa flourishing branches of industry.-As the (contremarques) on the Roman medals. holy alliance (a league as obnoxious as All the contorniati are of bronze, and its name is arrogant) is composed of Eu- equal in size to the large_bronze coins ropean continental powers, and as a chief called medaglioncini by the Italian collectobject of this coalition is the destruction of ors. Their form is various, their work

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