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exist; the country laborer can seldom live without parish aid; the mechanic begins to find himself in the same situation. Machinery, which multiplies the products, has diminished the demand for workmen, and, in consequence, their wages. The whole secret of the remedy lies in this, that the laborers do not work for themselves, but for the capitalists: if they could work for themselves, they would get the whole produce of their labor, of which they now get only an eighth, or, at most, a fourth. To do this, they must have capital, which must be obtained by union and saving. Societies may be formed, each member of which pays a small periodical subscription. Instead of putting this out in savings-banks, or investing it in different securities, which yield a small interest, because the capital is employed by others, who must have their profits from it, let the workmen employ themselves on this capital, and thus obtain the whole produce of it themselves. They may purchase goods by the wholesale, and sell them at the usual prices to the members. Thus the profits on the articles sold will go to increase their own capital, instead of going into others' hands. As the capital increases, the society will be able to find work for the members, the whole produce of which will become common property, instead of enriching other employers. After a while, all the members may be thus employed, and they will soon become able to purchase land, cultivate it, establish manufactories, provide for all their wants,—food, clothing, &c.; and thus receive all the produce of the labor of the whole." This reasoning is not mere speculation; it has actually been carried into practice. The Brighton society, above mentioned, is in a flourishing condition, and has been followed by numerous others in different parts of England. "There are now," says the Quarterly Review (Nov., 1829), "upwards of 70 cooperative societies in England, and they are spreading so rapidly, that, by the time this number of our Review is published, there will be nearly 100." But the increase was greater than was anticipated; since the Sunday Atlas of Dec. 6, 1829, gives the number at nearly 150. The benefits which the coöperators promise themselves, are, 1. relief from all fear of poverty, the sick, aged, widows and orphans being provided for by the society; 2. the supply of the comforts of life without that incessant labor which the low rate of wages now requires; 3. leisure and means for the improvement of their moral 44
and intellectual condition. It will be seen that these are not establishments of charity, being established by the poor themselves; that they encourage industry, since each individual must depend, as much as ever, on his own exertions, which are more suitably rewarded, and promote good morals by a strict inquiry into the moral character of such as are desirous of admission to their privileges.
COPAL is a somewhat resinous substance, obtained from a tree (rhus copallinum) which has winged and very entire leaves, the foot-stalks membranaceous and jointed, and is a native of several parts of America. Considerable quantities of copal are annually exported from the Spanish colonies in America, in irregular masses, some of which are transparent, of a yellowish or brown color; and others are whitish and semi-transparent. By solution in different ways, it is made into a most beautiful and perfect varnish, which has the name of copal varnish. One mode of making this is by melting the copal with an equal quantity of linseed oil; another by mixture with oil of turpentine; and a third, by mixture with alcohol, or spirit of wine. Copal is the varnish which is chiefly applied to snuff-boxes, tea-boards, and other similar articles.
COPARTNERSHIP. (See Partnership.) COPECK (kopeika); a Russian copper coin, so called from the impression of St. George bearing a lance. A hundred of them make one ruble. (See Coin.) The value of the copper coin, compared with the assignationruble, varies in the different governments.
COPENHAGEN (in Danish, Kioebenhavn); the capital of the kingdom of Denmark, and the residence of the king; 55° 41' 4" N. lat.; 12° 35′ 6′′ E. lon.; on the island of Zealand, in the Sound, and on a narrow branch of the sea, which separates it from the island of Amack. Copenhagen is fortified, contains a citadel called Fredericshaven, and is well built, with regular, well-lighted streets, and fine houses, principally of brick. It contains 230 streets and 13 public places, the largest of which, but irregularly built, is the new king'smarket, with the statue of Christian V, and the octangular Frederic's-place, in which four streets meet, and in the centre of which is the fine statue of king Frederic V on horseback. Copenhagen contains 22 churches, 22 hospitals, 30 almshouses, 3 convents, and 105,000 inhab itants, among whom are 2400 Jews. The town is composed of three principal divisions, which are enclosed by the fortifications, viz. the old town, which has been
much improved since the fire; the new town, of which the eastern (the finest, but least lively part) is called Fredericstadt; and Christianshaven, which is situated on the island of Amack, and is separated from the island of Zealand by an arm of the sea. This channel forms a safe harbor, capable of admitting 400 vessels, where the naval arsenal, the dock, and other buildings requisite for the navy, are situated. This is, likewise, the station of the fleet. Outside of the fortifications are three suburbs, partly composed of fine country-seats. Formerly, there were four royal palaces at Copenhagen; but, in 1794, the most splendid of these (one of the largest palaces of Europe, called Christiansburg) became a prey to the flames, so that only the ruins and the splendid stables remained. The other three palaces are Charlottenburg, now the repository of the academy of arts, and furnished with a gallery of paintings; the old royal palace Rosenburg, where many antiques and precious articles are kept, adjoining to which is the king's-garden, a public promenade; and the Amalienburg, consist ing, properly speaking, of four palaces, which were purchased for the residence of the king after the fire had consumed the palace. Among the other buildings worthy of being mentioned are, the arsenal, in which is the royal library, containing 250,000 volumes and 3000 manuscripts (according to a late number of the Foreign Review, it contains 400,000 volumes); the theatre; the exchange, with the bank; the Trinity church, and the beautiful Frederic's church; the large, beautiful, and admirably arranged Frederic's hospital; the foundling, lying-in, and marine hospitals. Among the scientific establishments are the university, founded in 1475, with 4 faculties, 20 ordinary and 16 extraordinary professors, a library of 100,000 volumes, with valuable Northern and Oriental manuscripts; a botanical garden and an observatory; the royal surgical academy, which has about 200 students; the academy for military cadets and midshipmen; the royal and university library; the public library of Classen, with 30,000 volumes, founded, in 1776, by two brothers, named Classen; several public and private museums; the royal academy of sciences and arts; the society for the study of the Northern languages and history; the Iceland and Scandinavian societies; the surgical academy; 114 schools, among which is 1 for the deaf and dumb, and 1 for the blind; the veterinary school; the gymnastic establishment, &c. Many of the admired
works of Thorwaldsen (q. v.) adorn the churches and palaces of Copenhagen. Besides numerous sorts of mechanics and artists, Copenhagen contains manufactories, which employ 14,000 hands. Among these are the royal manufactory of porcelain, the manufactories of cloth, calico, silk, cotton, oil-cloth and paper-hangings, the iron-founderies, and 18 sugar-refineries, with 520 workmen. Copenhagen is the centre of the domestic and foreign commerce of Denmark, which is promoted by the royal bank (founded, in 1736, by Christian VI), the marine insurance company, the East and West India companies, and by the beautiful harbor, into which about 5000 vessels enter annually. From the 2d to the 5th of Sept., 1807, the town was bombarded by the English, and 305 houses and other edifices, among which was a beautiful church, were entirely burnt, and 2000 houses injured so as to be rendered uninhabitable: 2000 persons, partly of the garrison and partly citizens, lost their lives. The environs of Copenhagen are, some of them, very fine. In the neighborhood are the summer palaces of the king-Fredericsberg, the usual summer residence of the court, Hirschholm, Friedensburg and Jägerpreis. In 1168, Copenhagen was a fisher's hamlet, which was given by the king to bishop Axel (see Absalom), who fortified it against the pirates, then numerous on the islands. Gradually it rose to great importance, but, of late, its commerce has sunk very much.
COPERNICUS, Nicholas; born at Thorn, on the Vistula, Feb. 19, 1473, where his father had become a citizen 10 years before. It is supposed that his family came originally from Westphalia. His mother was sister to the bishop of Ermeland. From a school at Thorn, Copernicus went to Cracow, where he studied medicine, and received the degree of doctor. At the same time, he studied mathematics and astronomy. The fame of Peurbach and Regiomontanus, the restorers of astronomy in Europe, excited his emulation. At the age of 23, he went to Italy, where the arts and sciences were beginning to flourish, after the fall of the Byzantine empire. At Bologna, he was instructed in astronomy by Dominicus Maria, whose intimate friend he became. In 1500, he taught mathematics at Rome with great success, and was already placed by the side of Regiomontanus. From Rome he returned to his own country, where his uncle made him a canon in the cathedral of Frauenburg. In 1521, he was sent, by the chapter, to the diet of Graudentz, one of the principal
objects of which was to put an end to the difficulties which had arisen from the irregular coining of money. Here he proposed a plan for establishing a general mint at the public expense; but the cities of Elbing, Dantzic and Thorn would not give up their right of coining, and the plan of Copernicus was not carried into effect. He now applied his whole strength to the contemplation of the sublime objects of nature. Among the many hypotheses, with regard to our planetary system, which had been advanced during the previous 2000 years, one had at last prevailed, the most ingenious, and artificial, and the most wonderful mixture of sagacity and error which the human mind has ever conceived. Pythagoras, Aristotle, Plato, Hipparchus, Archimedes, and others, had all adopted it. It was called the system of Ptolemy. (See System of the Universe, and Ptolemy.) Copernicus doubted whether the motions of the heavenly bodies could be so confused and so complicated as this hypothesis would make them; for nature follows, he thought, more simple laws; and, as soon as these are found, they must explain, with simplicity, the most complicated appearances. He found, in the writings of the ancients, that Nicetas, Heraclides and Ecphontus had thought of the possibility of a motion of the earth. This induced him to examine the subject more fully. The hypothesis of Aristarchus of Samos-that the earth revolves in an oblique circle around the sun, and also revolves daily on its own axis-Copernicus could not yet have seen; for it is found in no work previous to his time, except the Arenario of Archimedes, which was first printed at Venice, at a later period. Copernicus now assumed that the sun was the centre of the system; that the earth was a planet, like Mars and Venus; and that all the planets revolve round the sun in the following order :-Mercury, in 87 days; Venus, in 224; the Earth, in 365; Mars, in 1 year and 321 days; Jupiter, in 11 years; and Saturn, in 29 years. When he afterwards described their paths, he found that these circles, notwithstanding their simplicity, fully explained all the motions of the heavenly bodies, and that the apparent stations and retrogradations of the planets necessarily resulted from the motion of the earth. Thus was discovered the true system of the universe. Thus Copernicus stands, as it were, upon the boundary line of a new era. (See Earth, and Astronomy.) He died June 11, 1543, in the 71st year of his age. His great countryman, Kepler, has described
his character in the following words :Copernicus, vir maximo ingenio, et quod in hoc exercitio magni momenti est, animo liber. The great and excellent character of this philosopher best appears in the letter with which he addresses his work to the pope. Excommunication, however, was issued from the Vatican against Copernicus, and it was not till 278 years after the publication of the work, in 1821, that the papal court annulled the sentence.-Let us review the progress of Copernicus' discovery. He commences his labors at a time when the belief in the immobility of the earth is universal. He conceives the idea of its motion, and pursues it with unwearied diligence, not for a few years, but through the greater part of his life, constantly comparing it with the appearances in the heavens. He at last confirms his idea, and thus becomes the founder of a new system of astronomy. All this he did, a hundred years before the invention of telescopes, with miserable wooden instruments, on which the lines were often only marked with ink. In his immortal work, dedicated to the pope, Paul III, De Orbium cœlestium Revolutionibus, libri vi (first published at Nüremburg, 1543, folio ; later editions appeared at Basle, 1566, and Amsterdam, 1617), his system is developed. Besides this principal work, we have, by the same author, Astronomia Instaurata, in 6 books, and a work, De Lateribus et Angulis Triangulorum. His principal work was completed in 1530; but he determined to publish it only at the repeated solicitations of his friends. As the first impression appeared May 24, 1543, Copernicus enjoyed but for a few days the pleasure of seeing his work in the hands of the world. (See Rhæticus, Narratio de Libris Revol. cælest. Copernici, Dantzic, 1546, 4to.) He there advances his system merely as a hypothesis, which explains, in a more simple and natural manner than the previous ones, the phenomena of the heavens. This was a precaution which the prejudices of the times obliged him to take; but an inspection of the book shows with what full and thorough conviction he was persuaded that his system was the only possible one. Gassendi, as well as Lichtenberg, has written a Life of Copernicus (Vita Nic. Copernici. Accessit Gassendi Vita Tycho-Brahei, Hague, 1652, 4to.). See, also, Adam's Vita Philosophorum Germanorum, page 26. Doctor Westphal has given a good narrative of the life of Nicholas Copernicus (Constance, 1822). Count Sierakowski has erected a monument to his memory, in
St. Anne's church at Cracow, with this inscription, taken from the Bible:-Sta, sol, ne moveare. Thorwaldsen, the greatest sculptor of the age, has executed a colossal statue of Copernicus, for the city of Cracow, which is one of the most noble specimens of modern art.
COPIAPO; a jurisdiction in Chile, rich in gold-mines, situated in the north part of Chile. There are likewise mines of iron, copper, sulphur, lead, mercury, silver and lapis lazuli. Arsenic also is found. Saltpetre is common.
COPIAPO; a seaport of Chile, which gives its name to the jurisdiction; 140 miles N. N. W. Rioja; lon. 71° 18′ W.; lat. 27° 10 S.; population, 1700. It is situated on a river of the same name, 12 leagues from the sea. The houses are irregularly built. COPLEY, John Singleton, a self-taught and distinguished painter, was born in 1738, in Boston, Massachusetts, and died in London, in 1815. Copley began to paint at a very early age; and pieces, executed by him in Boston, before (to use his own words) he had seen any tolerable picture, and certainly before he could have received any instruction, in the art of painting, from the lips of a master, show his natural talent, and, in fact, were unsurpassed by his later productions. He did not visit Italy till 1774. In 1776, he went to England, where he met his wife and children, whom he had left in Boston. As the struggle between England and America had begun in 1775, there was neither a good opportunity for Mr. Copley to return to his native land, which he always seems to have had in view, nor was there much hope of success for an artist in the convulsed state of the country. He therefore devoted himself to portrait painting in London, and was chosen a member of the royal academy. His first picture which may be called historical, was the Youth rescued from a Shark; but the picture styled Death of Lord Chatham, which represents the great orator fainting in the house of lords, after the memorable speech in favor of America, and contains, at the same time, the portraits of all the leading men of that house, at once established his fame. In 1790, Copley was sent, by the city of London, to Hanover, to take the portraits of the four Hanoverian officers, commanders of regiments associated with the British troops under general Eliot (afterwards lord Heathfield), at the defence of Gibraltar, in order to introduce them in the large picture, which he was about making for the city, of the siege and relief of Gibraltar, which was afterwards placed in
the council-chamber of Guildhall. Mr. Copley pursued his profession with unabated ardor, until his sudden death, in 1815. Besides the pictures already mentioned, and a number of portraits, including those of several members of the royal family, the most distinguished of his productions are Major Pierson's Death on the Island of Jersey; Charles I, in the House of Commons, demanding of the Speaker Lenthall the five impeached Members, containing the portraits of the most distinguished members of that house; the Surrender of Admiral de Winter to Lord Duncan, on board the Venerable, off Camperdown; Samuel and Eli, &c.; of all of which engravings exist, though of some (for instance, of the last-mentioned piece), they are extremely rare. His eldest and only surviving son,
COPLEY, John Singleton, lord Lyndhurst, high chancellor of England, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, May 21, 1772; went, with his mother and sisters, in 1775, to England (see the preceding article); was sent, at the age of seven years, to a boarding-school at Clapham, near London, and, after the lapse of a few years, was placed under the reverend doctor Horne of Chiswick, with whom he remained until he entered Trinity college, Cambridge. He distinguished himself here by assiduous application, won many prizes, and received the high degree of second wrangler. He afterwards obtained a lay fellowship, and, in 1795, visited the U. States under a travelling fellowship of the college, made arrangements with regard to some family property at Boston, and travelled, in company with Mr. Bollmann (q. v.), to Niagara, into Canada, &c., on horseback, which was very different from the mode of performing similar tours at present. In 1798, he returned to England, commenced the study of the law at Lincoln's Inn, and was, for two years, with Mr. Tidd, a distinguished special pleader. In 1816, Mr. Copley was elected member of parliament for Yarmouth. In 1819, he took the degree of sergeant-atlaw, and was M. P. for Ashburton, having been made chief-justice of Chester in 1818. In 1819, he first became known to the public at large by his able assistance of sir Charles Wetherel, in his defence of the elder Watson, and afterwards by an equally able defence of Thistlewood, both accused of high treason. Wetherel and Copley were then the idols of the populace, and their names were placarded on every corner. After these displays of talent, the government felt the importance
of securing his services. He was, therefore, sent to attend the special commission at Derby, for the trial of Brandreth and his companions. In 1819, he was made solicitor-general, in time to involve him officially in the proceedings against the queen, Caroline (q. v.), in which he assisted the attorney-general. In 1824, he was made attorney-general. He became the friend of Canning, and so remained until the death of this minister. In 1826, Mr. Copley was chosen M. P. for the university of Cambridge, after an arduous struggle. In a few months, on the death of lord Gifford, he was made master of the rolls. April 30, 1827, he was made lord high chancellor of England, after Canning had been appointed prime minister, April 12, 1827, and lord Eldon (q. v.) had resigned, and after he had declared himself against Catholic emancipation. April 25, 1827, he was created lord Lyndhurst. His armorial motto-ultra pergere -may well apply to his former career; but he has now reached the highest point of judicial honor. When Wellington's administration was formed, lord Lyndhurst remained in office.
COPPER is of a red color, with a tinge of yellow, having considerable lustre, but liable to tarnish and rust from exposure to the air. It is moderately hard, and has considerable ductility and malleability. Its specific gravity is 8.78. It has a sensible odor, especially when heated or rubbed, a styptic, unpleasant taste, and is peculiarly poisonous to animals. In treating of this metal, we shall defer our account of its ores, which are numerous, until we have concluded its chemical history.-Copper melts at a full white heat, and, by slow cooling, may be crystallized. It suffers oxidation at a lower temperature from the action of the air, thin scales of oxide forming on its surface when it is heated to redness. At a higher heat, it burns with a green flame. Exposure to air and humidity, at the natural temperatures, converts it into a green rust, which is the oxide combined with a portion of carbonic acid. -There are two oxides of copper. The protoxide is of a red color, and occurs native, in the form of octoedral crystals, in the mines of Cornwall. It is also prepared artificially, by mixing 64 parts of metallic copper, in a state of fine division, with 80 parts of the peroxide, and heating the mixture to redness in a close vessel; or by boiling a solution of the acetate of copper with sugar, when the peroxide is gradually deoxidized, and subsides as a red powder. It consists of one atom, or
proportional, of copper, 64, and one of oxygen, 8, 72. The sulphuric, muriatic, and probably several other acids, form with it salts, which, for the most part, are colorless. On exposure to the air, they attract oxygen, and are rapidly converted into per-salts. The peroxide of copper is also found native, and may be prepared artificially by calcining metallic copper, by precipitation from the per-salts of copper, by means of pure potash, or by heating the nitrate of copper to redness. It is composed of one atom of copper, 64, and two of oxygen, 16, =80. It varies in color from a dark-brown to a bluish-black, is insoluble in water, and does not affect the vegetable blue colors. It undergoes no change by heat alone, but is readily reduced to the metallic state by heat and combustible matter. It combines with nearly all the acids, and most of its salts have a green or blue tint. It is soluble, likewise, in ammonia, forming with it a deep blue solution-a property by which the peroxide of copper is distinguishable from all other substances.-Metallic copper is oxidated and dissolved by the greater number of the acids, and forms with them, in general, soluble and crystallizable salts.-Sulphuric acid, either concentrated or diluted, oxidates it, and combines with the peroxide, especially when assisted by heat. The solution is of a blue color, and, when evaporated, affords crystals in the form of rhomboidal prisms. This salt is the blue vitriol of commerce, and is usually obtained, either by evaporation of the solution of it, formed by the infiltration of water through copper mines, or by exposure of sulphuret of copper to the action of air and humidity, until the sulphur is converted into sulphuric acid, and the metal is oxidated and combined with it. Nitric acid acts on copper with great energy, the metal attracting a portion of its oxygen, nitric oxide gas being disengaged, and the oxide combining with the remaining acid. The solution, when evaporated, affords prismatic crystals, of a deep-green color, deliquescent, and, easily soluble in water. From the facility with which it parts with oxygen, it acts with energy on several substances. Thus it detonates when struck with phosphorus, and it burns several of the metals. If wrapped in tinfoil, the tin is oxidated with such rapidity as to be attended with inflammation.—Muriatic acid dissolves copper slowly, when the air is admitted: if it is excluded, the action is very inconsiderable, unless heat is applied. The solution is of a fine green color, and, by evaporation, slender pris