Imatges de pÓgina

derstand his original, whether this be a pleasure as the originals, it were to be manuscript or a work of art, to avoid the wished that great sculptors would copy numerous blunders which he will other- their own works, as Thorwaldsen did his wise make in most cases in which copy- beautiful Triumph of Alexander. The ing is required. In ancient times, when copy is on a reduced scale, and in terra the art of writing was less improved than cotta. it is at present, and, at the same time, the COPYING Machines. The most conart of printing was not in existence in Eu- venient mode of multiplying copies of a rope, good copyists were much esteemed. writing is by lithography, and this mode With the Romans, they were slaves, and is much used by merchants and others in commanded very high prices. In the preparing circulars; also in the different iniddle ages, when learning had fled from departments of government. In Mr. the world into the convents, the monks Hawkins's polygraph, two or more pens were busily engaged in copying the man- are so connected as to execute, at once, two uscripts of the ancient classics, and others or more copies. Mr. Watt's copying maof a later date; but very often they did not chine is a press, in which moistened bibuunderstand what they wrote, or did their lous paper is forced into close contact with work carelessly, because copying was freshly written manuscript. The writing often imposed upon them as a penance; so is, of course, reversed, but, the paper being that great labor has been subsequently thin, the characters can be read on the opspent in correcting the errors of the manu- posite side. Doctor Franklin used to cover scripts of the middle ages. At the time writing, while moist, with fine powdered when copying was the only means of emery, and pass the sheet through a press multiplying books, their price was, of in contact with a plate of pewter or cop. course, very great; and this was the case per, which thus became sufficiently markeven with common books, as the breviary. ed to yield impressions, as in the common In the fine arts, much more talent is ne- modo of copperplate printing. cessary to produce an exact copy of a COPYRIGHT denotes the property which masterpiece than is at first supposed. an author has in his literary works, or Without a reproduction of the original, in which any other person has acquired by the mind of the copyist, his imitation can- purchase, and which consists of an exclunot be perfect. He must have the power sive right of publication. In some counto conceive, and transfer to his own can- tries, in Europe, this right is perpetual ; vass, the living spirit of the piece before in others, as in England, France and the him. What an immense difference there U. States, it is for a limited period. In is between the copy of an artist of genius England, the first legislative proceeding and the literal exactness of a Chinese ! on the subject was the licensing act of This consideration leads us a step fur- 1662, which prohibited the publication of ther, to the misconception of the character any book unless licensed by the lord of painting and sculpture, which would chamberlain, and entered in the register confine the artist to a strict imitation of of the stationers' company, in which was particular objects in nature. If this were entered the title of every new book, the the great aim of the arts, any view of a name of the proprietor, &c. This and market would be better than a Teniers, and some subsequent acts being repealed in any landscape superior to a painting of 1691, the owner of a copyright was left to Claude Lorraine. It is true that a cat so the protection of the common law, by painted as to be hardly distinguishable from which he could only recover to the extent the living animal, or a drop of water which of the damage proved, in case of its inwe try to wipe away, call forth our praise fringement. New applications were thereof the artist's skill; but they are only stud- fore made to parliament, and, in 1709, a ies. It is the life which breathes through- statute was passed (8 Anne, 19), by which out nature, and in the higher branches the owner of a copyright was required to of the fine arts) the ideals at which nature deliver a copy of his book to each of nine herself aims, which the artist must be public libraries, and severe penalties were able to conceive and to exhibit. It is provided for guarding the property of with the above arts as with the drama. copyright against intruders for 14 years, A drama would be an extremely dull, and no longer. The delivery of nine copies poor, and perhaps vulgar production, if all is often a heavy tax, and was, for some we could say of it were, that it is an exact time, evaded by publishers; but, in 1811, copy of certain particular occurrences. As the university of Cambridge brought an copies of the great works of art may con- action to enforce the delivery, and obtainvey, to a considerable degree, the same ed a verdict; and, in 1814, an act was


passed confirming this claim on the part foreign country, may be published in of the libraries. Notwithstanding the stat- France without the consent of the author. ute of Anne, it was, for some time, the There is a disposition in France to enprevailing opinion, in England, that au- large the term of copyright; and proposithors had a permanent, exclusive copy- tions have been made, within a few years, right, at common law; and, in fact, it was to extend it to the legal representatives of decided, in 1769, by the court of king's the author for 50 years after his death. bench, in the celebrated case of Millar vs. In Germany, the laws respecting copyTaylor (4 Burr. 2303), that an author had right vary in the different countries; but

, a common law right in perpetuity, inde- in general, there is no fixed time. The pendent of the statute, to the exclusive copyright is almost always given for the printing and publishing of his original lifetime of the author. But the diet of compositions. The court were not unan- the Germanic confederation has not, as imous in this case. Lord Mansfield and yet, succeeded in agreeing upon a general two other judges were in favor of the law, and an author's works may be printed permanency of copyright, in which they in any of the states in which he has not were confirmed by judge Blackstone: the taken out a copyright. Austria is famous fourth judge, Yates, maintained that the for piratical, incorrect, cheap editions; the words of the statute were a limitation. A government seeming to calculate accordsubsequent decision of the house of lords ing to the old maxim of political econ (1774) settled the question against the omy-if the book is pirated there, the cost king's bench, by establishing that the of it does not go out of the country. There common law right of action, if any exist- is one check, however, against pirated ed, could not be exercised beyond the time editions, viz., the Leipsic book-fair (q. v.). limited by the statute of Anne; and that where the German booksellers meet to the exclusive right should last only 14 settle their mutual accounts, and where years, with a contingent renewal for an no member of the community would like equal term, if the author happened to be to appear in the character of a piratical alive at the end of the first period. The publisher. A copyright may exist in a law continued on this footing till 1814, translation, or in part of a work (as in when the right was extended to 28 years, notes or additional matter), with an excluby rendering the last 14 years certain, in- sive right to the whole; but a bona fide stead of leaving them contingent; and, if abridgment of a book is not considered, the author were living at the end of that in England and the U. States, a violation period, to the residue of his life. In the of the original copyright. So a person U. States, the jurisdiction of this subject is may use fair quotation, if, by its application, vested in the federal government, by the he makes it a part of his own work; but constitution (art. 1, sec. 8), which declares cannot take the whole, or a large part of a that congress shall have power “to pro- work, under the pretence of quotation. mote the progress of science and useful If an encyclopædia or review copies so arts, by securing, for limited times, to au- much of a book as to serve as a substitute thors and inventors, the exclusive right to for it, it becomes liable to an action for a their respective writings and discoveries." violation of property. An encyclopædia By the acts of congress of May 31,1790 (ch. must not be allowed, by its transcripts, to 15), and April 29, 1802 (ch. 36), the authors sweep up all modern works. In Germaof maps, charts, books, engravings, etch- ny, abridgments are not protected as they ings, &c., being citizens of the U. States, or are by the laws of England and the U. resident therein, are entitled to the exclu- States, which tend greatly to the prejudice sive right of publishing for 14 years, and, of the authors of original works, who are if the author be living at the end of that liable to have the most valuable fruits of period, for an additional term of 14 years. their toils given to the public in the shape The English law does not distinguish be- best fitted to command a rapid sale, for tween resident and non-resident aliens, the benefit of others, while the original like the American law. In France, the works are comparatively excluded from law of copyright is founded on the law of the market. Washington Irving, it is well 1793, which gave to authors a right in known, was compelled to prepare an their works for life, and to their heirs

for 10 abridgment himself of his Life of Columyears after their deaths. The decree of bus, for his own protection. The time for 1810 gave the right to the author for life, which a copyright is allowed, in the U. and to his wife, if she should survive him, States, is very short. It would seem but for her life, and to their children for 20 just to allow a man the exclusive property years. A work, already published in a in his own book during his life, and even

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to extend the same, for a given period, to crushed by a merciless censorship, that his heirs, in certain cases; for the most an author must publish his books, in that valuable books are, in many cases, those country, on his own account. For a long which have the slowest sale. For a novel, time after the art of printing was invented, which is forgotten within six months from no remuneration was paid to authors. its appearance, the term of copyright may COQUETRY; an undue manifestation, on he sufficiently long; but for a standard the part of a woman, of a desire to attract work in history or science, it is often admirers. The wish of woman to please much too short. While on the subject of gives rise to much that is amiable in the the protection afforded to literary produc- female character, and delightful in the intions originating in the U. States, we may tercourse of good society, and is blambe permitted to remark on the expediency able only when it is carried so far as to of removing all obstacles in the way of overstep delicacy. Its degrees are very the introduction of the literature of other different, and, in a French woman particcountries. With the exception of Amer- ularly, it is often united

with much that is ican books printed abroad, there seems to graceful and amiable. That which is nurbe no good reason for subjecting imported tured by the system of the English boardbooks to the payment of duties. In a ing-schools has fewer redeeming qualities. government, the foundation of which is It received its name in France. We learn the intelligence of the people, it does not from madame Scudery's Histoire de Co seem advisable to throw this obstacle in quetterie, which is to be found in the 2d the way of intellectual improvement, for volume of her Nouvelles Conversations, that the sake of the very small accession of this word was first introduced into the revenue thereby gained. The sums which French language in the time of Catharine have been paid for copyrights have varied de Medici. with the nature of the work, the reputa- COQUIMBO, or SERENA; a jurisdiction tion of the author, and the liberality of the in Chile. The fertility and beauty of the publisher. An original work, the author country have induced many families to of which is unknown, and the success of reside here. The country produces corn which must depend on the taste and tal- enough to supply annually 4 or 5 vessels, ents of the writer, and the taste and wants of 400 tons each, for Lima. There are of the age, will stand little chance; while many mines of gold and silver. a book, suited to the market, for which COQUIMBO; capital of a jurisdiction in the publisher can calculate the demand, Chile, the second town founded by Valmay command a liberal price. A compi- divia, about a quarter of a league from the Jation or a dictionary may succeed, where sea, on a river of the same name; 10 the poems of a Milton, the philosophy of miles S. W. of Rioja; lon. 71° 19 W.; a Hume, or the histories of a Robertson lat. 29o 55 S. The population consists of could find no encouragement. Château- Spaniards and people of color, with some briand received for his complete works, Indians. The harbor is accounted one of from the bookseller L'Avocat, half a mil- the best on the west coast of South Amerlion of francs. Moore has a life annuity ica, and is much frequented. The streets of £500 for his Irish Melodies. Sir Walter are built in a line from north to south, and Scott received, in 1815, for his 3 last east to west; well watered, and shaded poems, 3000 guineas apiece. Campbell with fig-trees, palms, oranges, olives, &c., received for his Pleasures of Hope, after always green. The number of houses is it had been published 15 years, 1000 guin- between 3 and 400. eas; for his Gertrude, after having been CORAL (coralium, Lat.; kopárdcov, Gr.), published 6 years, 1500 guineas. Byron in gem sculpture; a marine zoophyte that received for the fourth canto of Childe becomes, after removal from the water, as Harold, £2100. Cowper's poems, in 1815, hard as a stone, of a fine red color, and though the copyright had only 2 years to will take a good polish. Coral is much run, were sold for 8000 guineas." Cotta, used by gem sculptors for small ornaa German bookseller, is said to have given ments, but is not so susceptible of receivGöthe, for his complete works, 30,000 ing the finer execution of a gem as the

In England, large sums are hard and precious stones. Caylus has paid for books which promise a rapid published an antique head of Medusa, sale: the same is true, in a less degree, of sculptured in coral, of which the eyes are France and the U. States. Germany and composed of a white substance resembling Italy remunerate authors very poorly, only shells, incrusted or let in. He supposes it a few instances, such as Göthe, excepted. to have been an amulet, because the anIn Spain, the book-trade has been so cients, who were partial to a mystical anal







ogy between the substance and the subject ed, in his preface to a translation of Hiprepresented (see Allegory), supposed, as pocrates upon Climate, Water and LocalOvid relates in his Metamorphoses, that ity, an apology for his nation. This, toPerseus, after having cut off the head of gether with his preface to Ælian's HistorMedusa, concealed it under some plants ical Memorabilia, in the Hellenic Library, of coral, which instantly became petrified, in which he gives a history of the modern and tinged with the color of the blood Greek language, belongs to the pieces callwhich flowed from it, and from a green ed forth by the exaggerated praise and turned to a red color. Pliny and other censure which his views have received. ancient authors attribute many supersti- The improvement which Coray has given tious qualities to the coral; therefore it is to the modern Greek language has by no no wonder that it was often taken for an means been universally acknowledged. amulet. Pliny also relates that the Gauls, He has chosen a style borrowed from eveand the people inhabiting the maritime ry century, and deviating much from the parts of Italy, as well as other nations on style of the people, and the language of the sea-coast, used it to form ornaments for the patriarchs and Byzantines of latter their armor and household furniture. times. H. Codrika, professor of Greek CORAN. (See Koran.)

grammar and modern literature at a lyCoray, Adamantios; a learned physi- ceum in Paris, has attacked him violently cian and scholar, born at Scio, or Chios, in several publications, asserting that his in 1748. After having studied the ancient style is artificial, and has but little effect and modern languages, and translated, upon his nation. The imitators of his while a boy, a German catechism intó style are called Coraists. The critical Greek, he went, in 1782, to Montpellier, to editions which Coray has published of the finish his education, where he studied ancient authors cannot be entirely trusted, medicine and natural history, and received for he often makes very bold alterations. the degree of doctor. In 1788, he settled They are, however, very useful for his in Paris. Since he has been naturalized own countrymen. They have been pubin France, he has greatly contributed, by lished in Paris since 1806, under the genhis learned works, to give a favorable opin- eral title of Hellenic Library, embracing ion of the progress of improvement among chiefly_Ælian's various histories, Polyæthe modern Greeks. He has always re

nus, Æsop, Isocrates, Plutarch's Lives, tained a great attachment to his native Strabo, Aristotle's Politics, &c. This vencountry; and we owe to him several excel- erable old man lives in Paris, devoted to lent accounts of the intellectual progress literary labors, and has never answered of his countrymen. During the youth of the writings directed against him, satisfied Coray, a fondness for learning was revived with the respect that is continually paid among the modern Greeks by some ec- him by many of his countrymen. A marclesiastics, who translated valuable books ble statue of him, executed by Canova, of instruction, principally from the Ger- stands in the lecture-room at Chios. His man, and made them their text-books in old age has prevented him from joining in their schools upon mount Athos. The the struggle of his nation against their opwealth of several Greek commercial houses pressors. The warmth and sincerity of made them feel the want of skilful book- his good wishes in heir cause may be keepers and clerks, and they were desir- seen from his excellent introduction to ous of taking them from among their own Aristotle, which has been translated into countrymen. Moreover, the Russian ar- German. mies had destroyed the illusion of the in- CORBAN (from the Hebrew karab, to vincible power of the sublime Porte, and approach). In the Scriptures, this word the Greeks, being protected in their prop- signifies an offering to the Lord. Jesus erty by the influence of the Russian con- is represented as using this word in Mark suls, became active and industrious, and vii. 11. the knowledge which they gained by com- CORBIÈRE, James Joseph William Pemerce with other nations helped to eradi- ter, one of the most active and obnoxious cate the superstitions and prejudices which members of the Villèle ministry, born in had grown up in the long darkness of the department Ille-et-Vilaine, was, in Turkish despotism. Coray has referred 1815 member of the chambre introuvable

. to these favorable circumstances which (q. v.) He was the reporter of the law of attended the time of his education, in his amnesty (so called) of Jan. 12, 1816, and Mémoire sur l'État actuel de la Civilisation of the law of divorce. He was much dans la Grèce lu à la Société des Observa- opposed to the ministry of Decaze, and teurs de l'Homme, in 1803; and has offer- has at times assumed some liberality of

follows: "Citizen, I have just now come from Caen. Your love for your country no doubt makes you desirous of being informed of the unhappy transactions in that part of the republic. Grant me an interview for a moment. I have important discoveries to make to you.” The following day came, and, with a dagger in her bosom, she proceeded to the house of Marat, who, just on the point of coming out of his bath, immediately gave orders that she should be admitted. The assemblies at Calvados were the first subjects of conversation, and Marat heard with eagerness the names of those who were present at them. “All these,” he exclaimed, "shall be guillotined.” At these words, Charlotte plunged her dagger into his bosom, and he immediately expired, with the words, “To me, my friend ?” Meanwhile the maid remained calm and tranquil as the priestess before the altar, in the midst of the tumult and confusion. She was afterwards conducted as a prisoner to the Abbaye. A young man, who begged to die in her place, was also condemned to death. Her first care was to implore the forgiveness of her father for disposing of her life without his knowledge. She then wrote to Barbaroux as follows: “Tomorrow, at 5 o'clock, my trial begins, and on the same day I hope to meet with Brutus and the other patriots in elysium.” She appeared before the revolutionary tribunal with a dignified air, and her replies were firm and noble. She spoke of her deed as a duty which she owed her country. Her defender (Chaveau-Lagarde), full of astonishment at such courage, cried out, "You hear the accused herself! She confesses her crime; she admits that she has coolly reflected upon it; she conceals no circumstance of it; and she wishes for no defence. This unshaken calmness, this total abandonment of herself, these appearances of the utmost internal tranquillity, are not natural! Such appearances are to be explained only by political fanaticism, which armed her hand with the dagger. To you then, gentlemen of the jury, it belongs to judge of what weight this moral view may be in the scale of justice!" His words could make no impression on the minds of the judges. After her condemnation, she thanked her defender with these words: "I would will

tone, with a view of resisting the ministers; but, substantially, he has ever been a violent royalist. In 1820, Corbière was appointed chef de l'instruction publique, and, Dec. 14, 120, minister of the interior, was afterwards made a count, and loaded with orders, &c. As soon as he was installed, he put in execution the great system of purification (système d'épuration), mercilessly discharging every officer, from the maire to the lowest clerk, who did not entirely coincide with him in political sentiment, or ventured to show character and independence. Teachers were dismissed from the colleges on the ground of not being sufficiently religious. M. Corbiere declared that all schools ought to receive a more religious character: the écoles Chretiennes were augmented, and those of mutual instruction were attacked by the ministerial papers. Corbière, who always had defended the liberty of the press before he became a minister, now subjected it to the most revolting censorship. He, who had once supported the law of Feb. 5, pour rétablir les électeurs dans tous leurs droits, et de leur éviter les supercheries ministérielles, now actively aided his colleagues, Villele and Peyronnet, in rendering the elections subservient to ministerial influence. To complete his glory, after the dismission of so many eminent men, Corbière countersigned the ordinance dissolving the national guards. He fell with the Villele ministry in 1829.

CORDAY D'ARMANS, Marie Anne Charlotte, the murderer of Marat, was born at Saint Saturnin, near Seez, in Normandy, in the year 1768. With the charms of her sex she united a rare courage. Her lover, an officer in the garrison at Caen, was accused by Marat as a conspirator against the republic, and assassinated by villains hired for that purpose. This excited Charlotte Corday to revenge. His tory had inspired her with a deep-rooted hatred against all oppressors, and she determined to free her country from Marat, whom she considered as the head of those monsters called bureurs de sang (the drinkers of blood). Another motive confirmed her purpose. Many deputies, such as Barbaroux, Louvet, Gaudet, and others, who were persecuted by Marat, and afterwards proscribed, May 31, 1793, to whose opinions she had attached herself, invoked the assistance of Frenchmen in behalf of lib-ingly give you some token of the esteem erty, now expiring beneath the horrors of with which you have inspired me. These the times. Charlotte then left home, en- gentlemen, however, have just informed tered Paris July 12, 1793, and went twice me that my property is forfeited; but to Marat's house, but was not admitted. I have incurred some small debts during On the same evening, she wrote to him as my imprisonment, and I hereby transfer

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