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the obligation to you.” She was conduct. It is built on the gentle declivity of a chain ed to the scaffold in a red mantle, and of mountains, forms an oblong quadranpassed, with a smiling countenance, gle, and is surrounded with walls and through the crowd by whom she was lofty towers. A part of the town is of pursued with shouts of execration. She Roman, a part of Moorish origin ; many retained her presence of mind to the last of the buildings are in ruins, and a numA voice from the multitude exclaimed, ber of gardens occupy a great part of the "She is greater than Brutus!” It was inhabited space. The streets are narrow, Adam Lux, a deputy from the city crooked and dirty, the plaza mayor, the of Mentz, who, fired with admiration, principal market-place, however, is diswrote to the tribunal, requesting to die tinguished for its size, its regularity, and like Charlotte Corday. She was guillo- the beauty of the colonnade by which it tined July 17, 1793.—Modern history pre- is surrounded. The remains of the resisents many similar instances of individu- dence of the Moorish kings now form a als who have been driven, by a sense of part of the archbishop's palace. The caduty operating on an excited imagination, thedral is a splendid building, originally a to attempt the lives of important men. mosque, erected in the 7th century, by Sand, the murderer of Kotzebue, Louvel, king Abderahman, strikingly ornamented who killed the duke de Berri, Staps, who with rows of cupolas, partly octagonal attempted the life of Napoleon, and Löh- and partly round, which are supported by ning, a German student who attempted to 850 pillars of jasper and marble, forming destroy a political leader in Nassau, were 19 colonnades. The bridge over the river all actuated by this motive, which has been, rests on 16 arches. Cordova has always in late times, much oftener the occasion carried on considerable trade; and, even of such attempts than the desire of per- under the Moors, the leather exclusively sonal vengeance.

manufactured there (cordovan) was exCORDELIERS. This word originally sig- ported in all directions. At what period nified an order of Franciscan monks: the Romans laid the foundation of the secondly, a society of Jacobins, from 1792 town (Colonia Patricia, afterwards Corto 1794, were so called from their place duba) is not known. In 572, it was conof meeting. These were distinguished by quered by the Goths, and, in 692, by the the violence of their speeches and con- Moorish chief Abderahman, who afterduct. In this club of the Cordeliers, Ma- wards renounced his allegiance to the rat and André soon began to raise their caliph of Damascus, and made Cordova voices. The talents of Danton also pro- his royal residence. The province of cured it some reputation; and Camille- Cordova (3940 square miles, with 259,000 Desmoulins published a journal under the inhabitants) includes the fertile and beauname of The Old Cordeliers, in which he tiful valley of the Guadalquivir and the at last took the field against the ultra- mountains of Sierra Morena, a part of revolutionists, and endeavored to unmask which are constantly covered with snow. the notorious Hébert and his associates. CORDOVA; a province of Buenos Ayres, But when he was afterwards imprisoned about 100 leagues in length and 70 in and executed, with Danton, the society breadth, crossed by several chains of sunk, and, even before the abolition of the mountains, and watered by several rivers. Jacobin clubs, fell into total oblivion. The principal town is called by the same

CORDILLERAS. (See Andes and Mexico.) name, besides which there are some towns Cordon, in a military sense ; troops só and villages. The inhabitants feed a disposed as to preserve an uninterrupted great number of cattle and horses, which line of communication, to protect a coun- form their principal trade. Serpents are try either from hostile invasion or from numerous: some of them are of an amazcontagious diseases. In the first case, it ing size, and exceedingly dangerous; others answers its purpose badly, according to the are harmless. This province is but little new system of the military art, because a known. line which is far extended can be easily CORDOVA; a town of Buenos Ayres, broken through by an enemy, and is not and capital of the province of Tucuman, capable of an obstinate resistance. founded in 1550, by Nuñez Prado, and,

Cordova, on the Guadalquivir; an an- about 20 years after, erected into a bishcient and celebrated town in Lower Anda- opric; 450 miles, by the common road, lusia, capital of a province of the same N.N. W. Buenos Ayres; lon. 65° 10 W.; name, which was formerly a small Moor- lat. 31° 20 S.; population, according to ish kingdom. It contains about 35,000 Mr. Bland, about 10,000. It contains inhabitants, and lies in 37° 52' 13' N. lat. about 1500 Spanish inhabitants, with

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about 4000 Negroes. It has a handsome called kiun ; 33 of the first rank, called cathedral and a spacious market-place. fou ; 58tcheous, or cities of the second rank; The college formerly belonging to the and 70 of the third, called hien; besides a Jesuits is a large edifice, now appropri- great number of fortresses well garrisoned. ated to public purposes. The adjacent The north part of Corea is barren, woody country is fruitful, abounding in excellent and mountainous, infested with wild pasture.

beasts, and but thinly inhabited; but the CORDOVA, José M., accompanied the southern division is rich and fertile, breeds liberating army sent to Peru by Co- great numbers of large and small cattle, lombia, and commanded a division at besides fowl, wild and tame, and a great the battle of Ayacucho. (q. v.), He was variety of game; it likewise produces known as a meritorious officer during the silk, flax and cotton. The king of Corea whole period of the contest, after the pays an annual tribute to China, but in year 1819 until its conclusion, but was the interior administration is independent. particularly distinguished at Ayacucho, The prevailing religion is that of Fo or where his gallantry greatly contributed to Buddha. Population vaguely estimated the success of the patriots. Dismounting, at 6 or 8,000,000 ; square miles, about and standing in front of his division, gen- 88,000. Kingki-tao is the capital. eral Cordova ordered them to advance to CORELLI, Arcangelo, a celebrated perthe charge, with the emphatic exhorta- former on the violin, was born at Fusigtion, “ Adelante, paso de vencedores.Al- nano, in the territory of Bologna, in the though the Spaniards prepared to receive year 1653, and was instructed in church his attack with a show of confidence, they music by Matteo Simonelli, a singer at could not withstand the onset. General St. Peter's in Rome, and in profane music Cordova received much praise for his con- by Bassano of Bologna. duct on this occasion, and was promoted 1706, he travelled into Germany, and was on the field to the rank of general of di- in the service of the elector of Bavaria vision, at the age of 25 years. As general during five years, after which he returned in chief, he remained with the auxiliary into his own country. He performed on Colombian army in Bolivia. He contin- the violin with great judgment and an inued in Upper Peru until 1827, when he credible degree of accuracy. His execureturned to Colombia. In the changes tion was peculiarly characteristic, full of which took place in the government of spirit and expression, and his tone was Colombia, in 1828, general Cordova took firm and uniform. Cardinal Ottoboni the part of Bolivar, and, in Sept., was was his patron at Rome. Corelli formed made secretary of the department of war, and conducted, according to the original and

a member of the council of ministers. plan of Crescentini, the celebrated muIn Sept., 1829, after Bolivar had received sical academy which met at the palace of almost unlimited power (see Colombia), the cardinal every Monday. By his sonaCordova set up the standard of revolt in tas on the violin, and by his concerts, he Antioquia, but did not receive much sup- may be considered, as it were, the creator port. He was attacked, Nov. 17, by gen- of a new species of harmony, especially eral O'Leary, and slain, with almost all his for his own instrument. He died in adherents, 200 in number, after a des- 1713, and, besides a considerable fortune, perate defence.

left behind him a valuable collection of CORDOVAN; a fine leather, which paintings, which became the property of took its name from the city of Cordova, cardinal Ottoboni. He was buried in the where it was manufactured in large quan- Pantheon. tities. Much is now made in the Barbary Corfu (anciently Drepanum, then Sche

ria, and at last, Corcyra); an island in the COREA ; a kingdom of Asia, bounded Mediterranean, at the mouth of the AdriN. by Chinese Tartary, E. by the sea of atic, near the coast of Albania ; about 45 Japan, S. by a narrow sea, which parts it miles long, and from 15 to 20 wide; lon. from the Japanese islands, and W. by the 20° 20 E.; lat. 39o 40 N.; population, Yellow sea, which parts it from China; 60,000; square miles, 229. The climate about 500 miles from N. to S., and 150 is mild, but variable, the air healthy, the from E. to W.; between lat. 34° 16 and land fertile, and the fruit excellent. Or43° N., and lon. 124° 32 and 130° 30' E. anges, citrons, the most delicious grapes, It is a peninsula, being every where sur- honey, wax and oil are exceedingly abun rounded by the sea, except towards the dant.” Some parts are mountainous and north. This country consists of 8 prov- barren, and good water is scarce.

Salt inces, in which are found 40 grand cities, forms a great part of its riches. The cap

states.

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ital has always borne the name of the Corinna to the heroine of one of the most island. Towards the end of the 14th beautiful novels of our age; a work which century, it came into the power of the exhibits, perhaps, more than any of her Venetians. It was afterwards taken by the other productions, the extraordinary talents French, and ceded to them by the treaty of this distinguished woman. of Campo-Formio, in 1797. In March, CORINTH, a celebrated city upon the 1799, it was taken from them by the Rus- isthmus of the same name, which unites sians and Turks, and united with Cepha- the Morea with Livadia, lat. 37° 53' 37" N., lonia, Zante, &c., to form a republic, under lon. 22° 24' 5' E., the inhabitants of the denomination of the Seven Íslands. which, some years ago, amounted to (See Ionian Islands.) Homer, in the Odys- about 2000; but it has been taken and sey, describes the beauty of this island retaken several times during the late of the Phæacians, celebrating the climate revolution, and the editor found it, in and the gardens of Alcinoüs.

1821, with hardly any occupants except Corfu (anciently Corcyra); capital of soldiers. The houses were mostly torn the island of the same name; lon. 20° 17' down; and of the 13 columns of the E.; lat. 39° 40' N.; population, 15,000; the temple, mentioned by Dodwell and sevsee of an archbishop. It is the seat of eral travellers before him, he found but 8. government of the Ionian Islands, is Only a few ruins remain to attest the magfortified, and defended by 2 fortresses ; nificence of the ancient city; but much and has a good harbor and considerable might, undoubtedly, be obtained by excatrade. In 1818, a university was estab- vation. Capitals and bass-reliefs are found, lished here, under the auspices of the in great numbers, in the houses of the British government, by the earl of Guil- bey and other Turks formerly residing ford, who was appointed chancellor, and here; the latter, however, are put to the nominated Greeks of the first abilities to use of ordinary pieces of marble, having the different chairs. The number of stu- the figured side turned inwards. The dents soon amounted to 150.

northern harbor, Lochæon, on the gulf of CORIANDER (coriandrum sativum, Linn.); Corinth, is choked with sand, as is likean annual plant, native of Italy, and cul- wise the eastern harbor, Cenchrea, on the tivated in other parts of Europe. The Saronic gulf. Of the shallow harbor seed has, when fresh, a very unpleasant Schenos, on the north of the city, where smell, like that of bed-bugs. It is, on the was a quay in ancient times, there hardly contrary, very agreeable and aromatic remains a trace. All these harbors are when dry. It acts in the same manner as now morasses, and corrupt the air of the aniseed, &c., and enters into several offici- city. The mosques and churches, and the nal compounds. Its infusion is occasion- palaces formerly belonging to Turks of ally employed as a sudorific. It is used, high rank, are built partly out of the ruins likewise, as a corrective of certain purga- of the ancient city. The Turks did nothing tives.

for the city or the harbors; they only paid CORILLA. (See Improvisation.)

a little attention to the Acrocorinthus. CORINNA ; called the lyric muse; a po- (q. v.) Corinth derived, in ancient times, etess of Tanagra, in Bæotia, contemporary great advantages from its situation on the with Pindar, whom she is said to have isthmus, between two bays, belonging to conquered five times in musical contests, what may be called two different seas, if and therefore her image, crowned with we consider the poor state of navigation the chaplet of victory, was placed in the in ancient times; and a great exchange gymnasium of Tanagra. According to of Asiatic and Italian goods took place Pausanias, who relates this fact, she was there. The duty paid on these goods so beautiful that her charms may have afforded a great revenue to the state ; and influenced, in some degree, the opinion of the citizens accumulated such wealth, that the judges. It is probably owing to the ten- Corinth became one of the most magnifiderness and softness of her songs, that she cent, but, at the same time, most voluptureceived the surname of the fly. Sappho ous cities of Greece. Venus was the and Erinna were each called the bee. Of goddess of the city, and courtesans were the numerous poems which the ancients her priestesses, to whom recourse was ascribed to her, only a few fragments have often had, that they might implore the come down to us. In Creuzer's Meletem. protection of the goddess in times of pube Disc. antiquit., vol. 2, p. 10 et seq., Wel- lic danger; and a certain number of new ker has collected the accounts relating to priestesses were consecrated to her at the her, and critically commented on them.- commencement of important enterprises Madame de Staël has given the name of Laïs (q. v.) and several other females of the same profession were distinguished rinthiarii, who were keepers of the ornaby their great accomplishments and beau- ments and furniture of the palace.—A ty, and the high price which they set on certain mixture of various metals was their charms: hence the old proverb, called Corinthian brass, and was very dear. Non cuivis homini licet adire Corinthum. The story that it had its origin in the acThe virtuous women celebrated a feast to cidental melting together of different metVenus apart from the others. The

famous als at the time of the conflagration of CorSisyphus was the founder of Corinth. inth, when taken by Mummius, is a fable, His family was succeeded by the Hera- the brass having been in use long before. clides (who were dethroned after several (For further information on the political centuries), and the government intrusted history of Corinth, see Timoleon.) to 200 citizens, called Bacchiades. Heeren CORINTHIAN, with some of the earlier thinks that they were, at least several of English writers, was used to signify a them, merchants. To this oligarchy fol- person of a loose, licentious character, in lowed a monarchical form of government, allusion to the voluptuous and corrupt state which was succeeded by a constitution of society in ancient Corinth. (q. v.) " It has approaching nearer to oligarchy than to very recently been applied to express a democracy In the sequel, Corinth be- person in high life, and of fashionable came the head of the Achæan league, manners. This usage is drawn from the and was conquered and destroyed by the Corinthian capital in architecture, which consul Mummius, 146 B.C. Julius Cæ- is distinguished for its elegance and ornasar, 24 years later, rebuilt it; but its com- ment. The latter usage, particularly when merce could not be restored : the produc- it is applied to a lady, is rather offensive tions of the East now took the road to to the ear of one familiar with the older Rome. St. Paul lived here a year and a application. half. The Venetians received the place CORINTHIAN ORDER. (See Architecture, from a Greek emperor; Mohammed II and Order.) took it from them in 1458; the Venetians CORIOLANUS; the name given to an recovered it in 1687, and fortified the Acro- ancient Roman, Caius Marcius, because corinthus again; but the Turks took it the city of Corioli, the capital of the kinganew in 1715, and retained it until the dom of the Volsci, was taken almost solely late revolution of the Greeks, during which by his exertions. His valor in the victory it was the seat of the soi-disant Greek over the Antiates was rewarded by the government. Against any enemy invad- consul Cominius with a golden chain. ing the Morea from the north, Corinth is Coriolanus, however, lost his popularity of the highest military importance. It is when, during the famine which prevailed described at some length in the editor's in Rome 491 B. C., he placed himself at Journal of his stay in Greece, in 1822 the head of the patricians, in order to de(Leipsic, 1823). The situation of Corinth prive the plebeians of their hard-earned is one of the most charming that can be privileges, and even made the proposition imagined, surrounded as it is by the beau- to distribute the provisions obtained from ties of nature and the charms of poetic Sicily among them only on condition that and historical associations. The Acro- they would agree that the tribuneship corinthus, on its picturesque and beautiful should be abolished. Enraged at this, the cone, seems like an observatory for sur- tribunes commanded him to be brought veying the whole field of Grecian glory. before them; and, when he did not appear, The waters of two bays wash the olive they endeavored to seize his person, and, groves, which border the city; and from failing in this attempt, condemned him to every hill in it, you can survey the noble be thrown from the Tarpeian rock. But Helicon and Parnassus, or let your eye the patricians rescued him; and it was wander over the isthmus, where, in hap- finally determined that his cause should be pier ages, the Isthmian games were cele- brought before the tribunal of the whole brated, even to the mountains and shores people. Coriolanus appeared, and made of Megara and Attica. Nero began to answer to the complaints alleged against dig a canal through the isthmus, but his him by the tribunes (who accused him of successors were ashamed to complete a tyranny, and of endeavoring to introduce work which had been undertaken by such a regal government), by the simple narraa monster, though it happened to be a good tion of his exploits, and his services to

The luxury of ancient Corinth was wards his country. He showed the scars greater than that of any other place in on his breast, and the whole multitude Greece. At the court of the Byzantine were affected even to tears. But, notwithemperors, there were officers called Co- standing all this, he was unable to repel the accusations against him, particularly and Waterford, S. S. E. and S. W. by the that of distributing the spoils of war among sea, and W. by the county of Kerry; 99 the soldiers, instead of delivering them to English miles in length and 71 in breadth. the questors, as the laws of Rome re- The land is generally good. The princiquired; and the tribunes were enabled to pal towns are Cork, Kinsale, Youghal, procure his banishment. Coriolanus now Mallow, Donneraile and Bandon-bridge. resolved to revenge himself upon his Population stated, in 1813, at 523,936; by country, and immediately went to the census, in 1821, 702,000. It is now above Volsci, the bitterest enemies of Rome, 730,000. and prevailed upon them to go to war CORK; a city of Ireland, capital of the with her before the expiration of the county of Cork, 162 miles S. W. Dublin ; truce. He himself was joined with Attius lon. 8° 28' 15' W.; lat. 51° 53 54" N.; in the command of their army, which population, 100,658. It was originally immediately made itself master of the built on an island formed by the river cities of Latium. The Volscian camp was Lee, but is now greatly extended on the pitched in sight of Rome before troops opposite banks of both branches of the could be raised for the defence of the city. river. It is 15 miles from the sea, and its The envoys sent by the senate returned harbor, or cove, 9 miles below the town, with the answer, that Rome could pur- is celebrated for its safety and capaciouschase peace only by the surrender of the ness. Its entrance, deep and narrow, is territory taken from the Volsci. A second defended by a strong fort on each side. embassy was of no more avail ; and at Cork is the second city in Ireland, and length, the priests and augurs having re- exports great quantities of salt provisturned equally unsuccessful, the terror of ions; and during the slaughtering season, the inhabitants was extreme. Valeria, the 100,000 head of cattle are prepared. The sister of Valerius Publicola, exhorted the other exports are butter, candles, soap, women to try the effect of their tears on whiskey, hides, pork, rabbit-skins, linen, the resolution of Coriolanus. She imme- woollens, yarn, &c. Its manufactures are diately went to the house of Veturia, his sail-cloth, sheeting, paper, leather, glue, mother, whom he highly honored, where glass, coarse cloth, &c. The approaches she also found Volumnia, his wife, and to the town were formerly two large stone besought both to go with the other women bridges, to which three others have been to make a last experiment upon the heart added. The public buildings are generof the conqueror. The senate approved ally of plain exterior. The principal of this resolution, and the Roman matrons, ones are a stately cathedral, exchange, Veturia and Volumnia with her children market-house, custom-house, town-house, taking the lead, went towards the camp 2 theatres, several hospitals and churches, of Coriolanus, who, recognising his moth- large barracks, &c. The Cork institution er, his wife and his children, ordered the is an incorporated scientific establishment, lictors to lower their fasces, and received in which lectures are delivered on chemthem with tender embraces. He then istry, agriculture and botany. The houses urged them to leave the treacherous city, of the city are generally old and not eleand to come to him. During this time, gant. It sends two members to parliahis mother never ceased entreating him to grant his country an honorable peace, and Cork is the external bark of a species assured him that he never should enter of oak (quercus suber) which grows in the gates of Rome without passing over Spain, Portugal, and other southern parts her dead body. At length, yielding to her of Europe, and is distinguished by the entreaties, he raised her from the ground, fungous texture of its bark, and the leaves and confessed that she had prevailed. He being evergreen, oblong, somewhat oval, then withdrew his army from before downy underneath, and waved. The Rome, and, as he was attempting to principal supply of cork is obtained from justify himself in an assembly of the Vol- Catalonia in Spain. In the collecting of sci, was assassinated in a tumult excited cork, it is customary to slit it with a knite by Attius. The Roman senate caused a at certain distances, in a perpendicular temple to be built to female fortune upon directie

one.

top of the trees to the the place where Veturia had softened the bottom; and to make two incisions across, anger of her son, and made her the first one near the top, and the other near the priestess.

bottom, of the trunk.

For the purpose of CORK ; a county of Ireland, formerly a stripping off the bark, a curved knife, kingdom, hounded N. by the county of with a handle at each end, is used. Limerick, E. by the counties of Tipperary Sometimes it is stripped in pieces the

ment.

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