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the obligation to you." She was conducted to the scaffold in a red mantle, and passed, with a smiling countenance, through the crowd by whom she was pursued with shouts of execration. She retained her presence of mind to the last. A voice from the multitude exclaimed, "She is greater than Brutus!" It was Adam Lux, a deputy from the city of Mentz, who, fired with admiration, wrote to the tribunal, requesting to die like Charlotte Corday. She was guillotined July 17, 1793.-Modern history presents many similar instances of individuals who have been driven, by a sense of duty operating on an excited imagination, to attempt the lives of important men. Sand, the murderer of Kotzebue, Louvel, who killed the duke de Berri, Staps, who attempted the life of Napoleon, and Löhning, a German student who attempted to destroy a political leader in Nassau, were all actuated by this motive, which has been, in late times, much oftener the occasion of such attempts than the desire of personal vengeance.
CORDELIERS. This word originally signified an order of Franciscan monks: secondly, a society of Jacobins, from 1792 to 1794, were so called from their place of meeting. These were distinguished by the violence of their speeches and conduct. In this club of the Cordeliers, Marat and André soon began to raise their voices. The talents of Danton also procured it some reputation; and CamilleDesmoulins published a journal under the name of The Old Cordeliers, in which he at last took the field against the ultrarevolutionists, and endeavored to unmask the notorious Hébert and his associates. But when he was afterwards imprisoned and executed, with Danton, the society sunk, and, even before the abolition of the Jacobin clubs, fell into total oblivion.
CORDILLERAS. (See Andes and Mexico.) CORDON, in a military sense; troops so disposed as to preserve an uninterrupted line of communication, to protect a country either from hostile invasion or from contagious diseases. In the first case, it answers its purpose badly, according to the new system of the military art, because a line which is far extended can be easily broken through by an enemy, and is not capable of an obstinate resistance.
CORDOVA, on the Guadalquivir; an ancient and celebrated town in Lower Andalusia, capital of a province of the same name, which was formerly a small Moorish kingdom. It contains about 35,000 inhabitants, and lies in 37° 52′ 13′′ N. lat.
It is built on the gentle declivity of a chain of mountains, forms an oblong quadrangle, and is surrounded with walls and lofty towers. A part of the town is of Roman, a part of Moorish origin; many of the buildings are in ruins, and a number of gardens occupy a great part of the inhabited space. The streets are narrow, crooked and dirty; the plaza mayor, the principal market-place, however, is distinguished for its size, its regularity, and the beauty of the colonnade by which it is surrounded. The remains of the residence of the Moorish kings now form a part of the archbishop's palace. The cathedral is a splendid building, originally a mosque, erected in the 7th century, by king Abderahman, strikingly ornamented with rows of cupolas, partly octagonal and partly round, which are supported by 850 pillars of jasper and marble, forming 19 colonnades. The bridge over the river rests on 16 arches. Cordova has always carried on considerable trade; and, even under the Moors, the leather exclusively manufactured there (cordovan) was exported in all directions. At what period the Romans laid the foundation of the town (Colonia Patricia, afterwards Corduba) is not known. In 572, it was conquered by the Goths, and, in 692, by the Moorish chief Abderahman, who afterwards renounced his allegiance to the caliph of Damascus, and made Cordova his royal residence. The province of Cordova (3940 square miles, with 259,000 inhabitants) includes the fertile and beautiful valley of the Guadalquivir and the mountains of Sierra Morena, a part of which are constantly covered with snow.
CORDOVA; a province of Buenos Ayres, about 100 leagues in length and 70 in breadth, crossed by several chains of mountains, and watered by several rivers. The principal town is called by the same name, besides which there are some towns and villages. The inhabitants feed a great number of cattle and horses, which form their principal trade. Serpents are
numerous: some of them are of an amazing size, and exceedingly dangerous; others are harmless. This province is but little known.
CORDOVA; a town of Buenos Ayres, and capital of the province of Tucuman, founded in 1550, by Nuñez Prado, and, about 20 years after, erected into a bishopric; 450 miles, by the common road, N. N. W. Buenos Ayres; lon. 65° 10′ W.; lat. 31° 20 S.; population, according to Mr. Bland, about 10,000. It contains about 1500 Spanish inhabitants, with
about 4000 Negroes. It has a handsome cathedral and a spacious market-place. The college formerly belonging to the Jesuits is a large edifice, now appropriated to public purposes. The adjacent country is fruitful, abounding in excellent pasture.
CORDOVA, José M., accompanied the liberating army sent to Peru by Colombia, and commanded a division at the battle of Ayacucho. (q. v.) He was known as a meritorious officer during the whole period of the contest, after the year 1819 until its conclusion, but was particularly distinguished at Ayacucho, where his gallantry greatly contributed to the success of the patriots. Dismounting, and standing in front of his division, general Cordova ordered them to advance to the charge, with the emphatic exhortation, "Adelante, paso de vencedores." Although the Spaniards prepared to receive his attack with a show of confidence, they could not withstand the onset. General Cordova received much praise for his conduct on this occasion, and was promoted on the field to the rank of general of division, at the age of 25 years. As general in chief, he remained with the auxiliary Colombian army in Bolivia. He continued in Upper Peru until 1827, when he returned to Colombia. In the changes which took place in the government of Colombia, in 1828, general Cordova took the part of Bolivar, and, in Sept., was made secretary of the department of war, and a member of the council of ministers. In Sept., 1829, after Bolivar had received almost unlimited power (see Colombia), Cordova set up the standard of revolt in Antioquia, but did not receive much support. He was attacked, Nov. 17, by general O'Leary, and slain, with almost all his adherents, 200 in number, after a desperate defence.
CORDOVAN; a fine leather, which took its name from the city of Cordova, where it was manufactured in large quantities. Much is now made in the Barbary
COREA; a kingdom of Asia, bounded N. by Chinese Tartary, E. by the sea of Japan, S. by a narrow sea, which parts it from the Japanese islands, and W. by the Yellow sea, which parts it from China; about 500 miles from N. to S., and 150 from E. to W.; between lat. 34° 16′ and 43° N., and lon. 124° 32′ and 130° 30′ E. It is a peninsula, being every where surrounded by the sea, except towards the north. This country consists of 8 provinces, in which are found 40 grand cities,
called kiun; 33 of the first rank, called fou; 58tcheous, or cities of the second rank; and 70 of the third, called hien; besides a great number of fortresses well garrisoned. The north part of Corea is barren, woody and mountainous, infested with wild beasts, and but thinly inhabited; but the southern division is rich and fertile, breeds great numbers of large and small cattle, besides fowl, wild and tame, and a great variety of game; it likewise produces silk, flax and cotton. The king of Corea pays an annual tribute to China, but in the interior administration is independent. The prevailing religion is that of Fo or Buddha. Population vaguely estimated at 6 or 8,000,000; square miles, about 88,000. Kingki-tao is the capital.
CORELLI, Arcangelo, a celebrated performer on the violin, was born at Fusignano, in the territory of Bologna, in the year 1653, and was instructed in church music by Matteo Simonelli, a singer at St. Peter's in Rome, and in profane music by Bassano of Bologna. In the year 1706, he travelled into Germany, and was in the service of the elector of Bavaria during five years, after which he returned into his own country. He performed on the violin with great judgment and an incredible degree of accuracy. His execution was peculiarly characteristic, full of spirit and expression, and his tone was firm and uniform. Cardinal Ottoboni was his patron at Rome. Corelli formed and conducted, according to the original plan of Crescentini, the celebrated musical academy which met at the palace of the cardinal every Monday. By his sonatas on the violin, and by his concerts, he may be considered, as it were, the creator of a new species of harmony, especially for his own instrument. He died in 1713, and, besides a considerable fortune, left behind him a valuable collection of paintings, which became the property of cardinal Ottoboni. He was buried in the Pantheon.
CORFU (anciently Drepanum, then Scheria, and at last, Corcyra); an island in the Mediterranean, at the mouth of the Adriatic, near the coast of Albania; about 45 miles long, and from 15 to 20 wide; lon. 20° 20′ E.; lat. 39° 40′ N.; population, 60,000; square miles, 229. The climate is mild, but variable, the air healthy, the land fertile, and the fruit excellent. Oranges, citrons, the most delicious grapes, honey, wax and oil are exceedingly abundant. Some parts are mountainous and barren, and good water is scarce. Salt forms a great part of its riches. The cap→
ital has always borne the name of the island. Towards the end of the 14th century, it came into the power of the Venetians. It was afterwards taken by the French, and ceded to them by the treaty of Campo-Formio, in 1797. In March, 1799, it was taken from them by the Russians and Turks, and united with Cephalonia, Zante, &c., to form a republic, under the denomination of the Seven Islands. (See Ionian Islands.) Homer, in the Odyssey, describes the beauty of this island of the Phæacians, celebrating the climate and the gardens of Alcinous.
CORFU (anciently Corcyra); capital of the island of the same name; lon. 20° 17′ E.; lat. 39° 40′ N.; population, 15,000; the see of an archbishop. It is the seat of government of the Ionian Islands, is fortified, and defended by 2 fortresses; and has a good harbor and considerable trade. In 1818, a university was established here, under the auspices of the British government, by the earl of Guilford, who was appointed chancellor, and nominated Greeks of the first abilities to the different chairs. The number of students soon amounted to 150.
CORIANDER (coriandrum sativum, Linn.); an annual plant, native of Italy, and cultivated in other parts of Europe. The seed has, when fresh, a very unpleasant smell, like that of bed-bugs. It is, on the contrary, very agreeable and aromatic when dry. It acts in the same manner as aniseed, &c., and enters into several officinal compounds. Its infusion is occasionally employed as a sudorific. It is used, likewise, as a corrective of certain purgatives.
CORILLA. (See Improvisation.) CORINNA; called the lyric muse; a poetess of Tanagra, in Boeotia, contemporary with Pindar, whom she is said to have conquered five times in musical contests, and therefore her image, crowned with the chaplet of victory, was placed in the gymnasium of Tanagra. According to Pausanias, who relates this fact, she was so beautiful that her charms may have influenced, in some degree, the opinion of the judges. It is probably owing to the tenderness and softness of her songs, that she received the surname of the fly. Sappho and Erinna were each called the bee. Of the numerous poems which the ancients ascribed to her, only a few fragments have come down to us. In Creuzer's Meletem. e Disc. antiquit., vol. 2, p. 10 et seq., Welker has collected the accounts relating to her, and critically commented on them.Madame de Staël has given the name of
Corinna to the heroine of one of the most beautiful novels of our age; a work which exhibits, perhaps, more than any of her other productions, the extraordinary talents of this distinguished woman.
CORINTH, a celebrated city upon the isthmus of the same name, which unites the Morea with Livadia, lat. 37° 53′ 37′′ N., lon. 22° 24′ 5′′ E., the inhabitants of which, some years ago, amounted to about 2000; but it has been taken and retaken several times during the late revolution, and the editor found it, in 1821, with hardly any occupants except soldiers. The houses were mostly torn down; and of the 13 columns of the temple, mentioned by Dodwell and several travellers before him, he found but 8. Only a few ruins remain to attest the magnificence of the ancient city; but much might, undoubtedly, be obtained by excavation. Capitals and bass-reliefs are found, in great numbers, in the houses of the bey and other Turks formerly residing here; the latter, however, are put to the use of ordinary pieces of marble, having the figured side turned inwards. The northern harbor, Lochæon, on the gulf of Corinth, is choked with sand, as is likewise the eastern harbor, Cenchrea, on the Saronic gulf. Of the shallow harbor Schoenos, on the north of the city, where was a quay in ancient times, there hardly remains a trace. All these harbors are now morasses, and corrupt the air of the city. The mosques and churches, and the palaces formerly belonging to Turks of high rank, are built partly out of the ruins of the ancient city. The Turks did nothing for the city or the harbors; they only paid a little attention to the Acrocorinthus. (q. v.) Corinth derived, in ancient times, great advantages from its situation on the isthmus, between two bays, belonging to what may be called two different seas, if we consider the poor state of navigation in ancient times; and a great exchange of Asiatic and Italian goods took place there. The duty paid on these goods afforded a great revenue to the state; and the citizens accumulated such wealth, that Corinth became one of the most magnificent, but, at the same time, most voluptu ous cities of Greece. Venus was the goddess of the city, and courtesans were her priestesses, to whom recourse was often had, that they might implore the protection of the goddess in times of public danger; and a certain number of new priestesses were consecrated to her at the commencement of important enterprises Laïs (q. v.) and several other females of
rinthiarii, who were keepers of the ornaments and furniture of the palace.—A certain mixture of various metals was called Corinthian brass, and was very dear. The story that it had its origin in the accidental melting together of different metals at the time of the conflagration of Corinth, when taken by Mummius, is a fable, the brass having been in use long before. (For further information on the political history of Corinth, see Timoleon.)
CORINTHIAN, with some of the earlier English writers, was used to signify a person of a loose, licentious character, in allusion to the voluptuous and corrupt state of society in ancient Corinth. (q. v.) It has very recently been applied to express a person in high life, and of fashionable manners. This usage is drawn from the Corinthian capital in architecture, which is distinguished for its elegance and ornament. The latter usage, particularly when it is applied to a lady, is rather offensive to the ear of one familiar with the older application.
the same profession were distinguished by their great accomplishments and beauty, and the high price which they set on their charms: hence the old proverb, Non cuivis homini licet adire Corinthum. The virtuous women celebrated a feast to Venus apart from the others. The famous Sisyphus was the founder of Corinth. His family was succeeded by the Heraclides (who were dethroned after several centuries), and the government intrusted to 200 citizens, called Bacchiades. Heeren thinks that they were, at least several of them, merchants. To this oligarchy followed a monarchical form of government, which was succeeded by a constitution approaching nearer to oligarchy than to democracy. In the sequel, Corinth became the head of the Achæan league, and was conquered and destroyed by the consul Mummius, 146 B. C. Julius Cæsar, 24 years later, rebuilt it; but its commerce could not be restored: the productions of the East now took the road to Rome. St. Paul lived here a year and a half. The Venetians received the place from a Greek emperor; Mohammed II took it from them in 1458; the Venetians recovered it in 1687, and fortified the Acrocorinthus again; but the Turks took it anew in 1715, and retained it until the late revolution of the Greeks, during which it was the seat of the soi-disant Greek government. Against any enemy invading the Morea from the north, Corinth is of the highest military importance. It is described at some length in the editor's Journal of his stay in Greece, in 1822 (Leipsic, 1823). The situation of Corinth is one of the most charming that can be imagined, surrounded as it is by the beauties of nature and the charms of poetic and historical associations. The Acrocorinthus, on its picturesque and beautiful cone, seems like an observatory for surveying the whole field of Grecian glory. The waters of two bays wash the olive groves, which border the city; and from every hill in it, you can survey the noble Helicon and Parnassus, or let your eye wander over the isthmus, where, in happier ages, the Isthmian games were celebrated, even to the mountains and shores of Megara and Attica. Nero began to dig a canal through the isthmus, but his successors were ashamed to complete a work which had been undertaken by such a monster, though it happened to be a good one. The luxury of ancient Corinth was greater than that of any other place in Greece. At the court of the Byzantine emperors, there were officers called Co
CORINTHIAN ORDER. (See Architecture, and Order.)
CORIOLANUS; the name given to an ancient Roman, Caius Marcius, because the city of Corioli, the capital of the kingdom of the Volsci, was taken almost solely by his exertions. His valor in the victory over the Antiates was rewarded by the consul Cominius with a golden chain. Coriolanus, however, lost his popularity when, during the famine which prevailed in Rome 491 B. C., he placed himself at the head of the patricians, in order to deprive the plebeians of their hard-earned privileges, and even made the proposition to distribute the provisions obtained from Sicily among them only on condition that they would agree that the tribuneship should be abolished. Enraged at this, the tribunes commanded him to be brought before them; and, when he did not appear, they endeavored to seize his person, and, failing in this attempt, condemned him to be thrown from the Tarpeian rock. But the patricians rescued him; and it was finally determined that his cause should be brought before the tribunal of the whole people. Coriolanus appeared, and made answer to the complaints alleged against him by the tribunes (who accused him of tyranny, and of endeavoring to introduce a regal government), by the simple narration of his exploits, and his services towards his country. He showed the scars on his breast, and the whole multitude were affected even to tears. But, notwithstanding all this, he was unable to repel
the accusations against him, particularly that of distributing the spoils of war among the soldiers, instead of delivering them to the questors, as the laws of Rome required; and the tribunes were enabled to procure his banishment. Coriolanus now resolved to revenge himself upon his country, and immediately went to the Volsci, the bitterest enemies of Rome, and prevailed upon them to go to war with her before the expiration of the truce. He himself was joined with Attius in the command of their army, which immediately made itself master of the cities of Latium. The Volscian camp was pitched in sight of Rome before troops could be raised for the defence of the city. The envoys sent by the senate returned with the answer, that Rome could purchase peace only by the surrender of the territory taken from the Volsci. A second embassy was of no more avail; and at length, the priests and augurs having returned equally unsuccessful, the terror of the inhabitants was extreme. Valeria, the sister of Valerius Publicola, exhorted the women to try the effect of their tears on the resolution of Coriolanus. She immediately went to the house of Veturia, his mother, whom he highly honored, where she also found Volumnia, his wife, and besought both to go with the other women to make a last experiment upon the heart of the conqueror. The senate approved of this resolution, and the Roman matrons, Veturia and Volumnia with her children taking the lead, went towards the camp of Coriolanus, who, recognising his mother, his wife and his children, ordered the lictors to lower their fasces, and received them with tender embraces. He then urged them to leave the treacherous city, and to come to him. During this time, his mother never ceased entreating him to grant his country an honorable peace, and assured him that he never should enter the gates of Rome without passing over her dead body. At length, yielding to her entreaties, he raised her from the ground, and confessed that she had prevailed. He then withdrew his army from before Rome, and, as he was attempting to justify himself in an assembly of the Volsci, was assassinated in a tumult excited by Attius. The Roman senate caused a temple to be built to female fortune upon the place where Veturia had softened the anger of her son, and made her the first priestess.
CORK; a county of Ireland, formerly a kingdom, bounded N. by the county of Limerick, E. by the counties of Tipperary
and Waterford, S. S. E. and S. W. by the sea, and W. by the county of Kerry; 99 English miles in length and 71 in breadth. The land is generally good. The principal towns are Cork, Kinsale, Youghal, Mallow, Donneraile and Bandon-bridge. Population stated, in 1813, at 523,936; by census, in 1821, 702,000. It is now above 730,000.
CORK; a city of Ireland, capital of the county of Cork, 162 miles S. W. Dublin; lon. 8° 28′ 15′′ W.; lat. 51° 53′ 54′′ N.; population, 100,658. It was originally built on an island formed by the river Lee, but is now greatly extended on the opposite banks of both branches of the river. It is 15 miles from the sea, and its harbor, or cove, 9 miles below the town, is celebrated for its safety and capaciousness. Its entrance, deep and narrow, is defended by a strong fort on each side. Cork is the second city in Ireland, and exports great quantities of salt provisions; and during the slaughtering season, 100,000 head of cattle are prepared. The other exports are butter, candles, soap, whiskey, hides, pork, rabbit-skins, linen, woollens, yarn, &c. Its manufactures are sail-cloth, sheeting, paper, leather, glue, glass, coarse cloth, &c. The approaches to the town were formerly two large stone bridges, to which three others have been added. The public buildings are generally of a plain exterior. The principal ones are a stately cathedral, exchange, market-house, custom-house, town-house, 2 theatres, several hospitals and churches, large barracks, &c. The Cork institution is an incorporated scientific establishment, in which lectures are delivered on chemistry, agriculture and botany. The houses of the city are generally old and not elegant. It sends two members to parlia
CORK is the external bark of a species of oak (quercus suber) which grows in Spain, Portugal, and other southern parts of Europe, and is distinguished by the fungous texture of its bark, and the leaves being evergreen, oblong, somewhat oval, downy underneath, and waved. principal supply of cork is obtained from Catalonia in Spain. In the collecting of cork, it is customary to slit it with a knife at certain distances, in a perpendicular direction from the top of the trees to the bottom; and to make two incisions across, one near the top, and the other near the bottom, of the trunk. For the purpose of stripping off the bark, a curved knife, with a handle at each end, is used. Sometimes it is stripped in pieces the