Imatges de pÓgina

comprised in the Corpus Juris. Some Rome, finished his education at Naples, scholars have attempted to add the later under the care of the celebrated abbe edicts of the Romano-German emperors, Genovesi, and afterwards devoted himself as an eleventh collation. This, however, to the study of the ancient languages and is not acknowledged, and the Corpus Juris botany, at Rome. At the age of 2, he civilis has been, since the time of Accur- returned to his native land, with his friend, sius, considered as completed. Those the duke of Lafoens. Correa was now parts, even of the Justinian collection of actively engaged in the establishment saws, which were brought by the early of the royal academy of sciences at Liscommentators within the circle of their bon, of which the duke of Lafoens was critical examinations, have not acquired, the founder, and the celebrated Pombal in the European courts of judicature, any the patron. The former was appointed legal authority, although they have been president of the academy, and Correa since received into the entire collection of standing secretary. Both acted in concert, the Roman law. With the canonical or and their exertions established a cabinet papal laws, the same mode of proceeding of natural curiosities, a laboratory, &c., has been adopted. From the old resolves and particularly an important printing. of the councils, and the papal decrees, office, which they succeeded in freeing genuine and spurious, Gratian, in the mid- from all restraints of the press. Correa dle of the 12th century, collected his Con- prepared, with the assistance of the menicordantia discordantium Canonum, after- bers of the academy, a collection of unwards called the Decretum. In the 13th published documents (monumentos ineditos), century, a collection of still later papal relating to the history of his native coundecisions or decretals, in five books (com- try. In his botanical researches, he invespiled by order of Gregory IX, by Ray- tigated the physiology of plants with dismond of Pennafort, in 1234), was added. tinguished ability. But, being exposed to These decretals were considered as sup- the danger of becoming a victim to intolplementary and additional, and were there- erance, he was obliged to take a hasty fore described and cited by the name of leave of Portugal. He visited Paris in extra. Boniface VIII (1298) allowed the 1786. Here he associated with Broussoaddition of a sixth book. Clement V add- net (q. V.), the naturalist, on the most intied the decrees of the ecclesiastical coun- mate terms. After the death of Peter III cil of Vienne (1311), under the name of of Portugal, his enemies lost their influthe Clementines, or the seventh book of ence, and he returned to Portugal. Subdecretals, which completed the Corpus sequently, Broussonet, flying from the Juris Canonici, although pope John XXII, reign of terror, arrived in Lisbon, where about 1340, and a learned individual, his connexion with Correa procured for about 1488, collected further decretals of him a flattering reception from the duke the popes, which were added as supple- of Lafoens. But the French emigrants, ments, under the name of the Extrava- who could not forgive Broussonet, for the gantes. The name of Corpus Juris has share which he had taken in the first also been given to many other codes and movements of the French revolution, deprivate collections of laws. There is a nounced him to the tribunal of the inquiCorpus Juris Germanici Antiqui, by Geor- sition as a Jacobin and a freemason, and gisch; a Corpus Juris Feudalis, and a Cor- implicated even his friend Correa. Nothpus Juris Germanici, publici et privati, Me- ing remained for Correa but to seek safety dii Ævi, by Senkenberg; a Corpus Juris in flight, as Broussonet had already done. Militaris, published at Leipsic, &c. An At this time, the duke of Lafoens kept him edition of the Corpus Juris, which may concealed several days in the royal libracorrespond to the improvements of the ry. Correa then went to London, where age, and the progress of knowledge, has, sir Joseph Banks, president of the royal for a long time, been a desideratum. Late- society, received him under his protection, ly, a very convenient edition for ordinary and introduced him to the society, and he use has been undertaken by J. L. W. was elected a member. He enriched the Beck, of which two volumes have already memoirs of the society with dissertations appeared (Leipsic). A complete critical on subjects of natural history. By the edition has also been prepared by pro- interposition of the count of Linhares, fessor Schrader, of Tübingen.

minister of the Portuguese marine, he was CORREA DE SERRA, Joseph Francis, appointed counsellor of legation to the a learned Portuguese scholar, was born embassy at London. After the peace of at Serpa, in the province of Alentejo, in Amiens, Correa resigned this post, and re1750. He commenced his studies at sided 11 years at Paris, where the institute

many of

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elected him a member. In 1813, his sci- as, Greece: if in large capitals, with three; entific zeal carried him to the U. States of North America. While here, the gov- as, James. Where these marks are used ernment of Portugal appointed him min- in correction, the abbreviations Ital., small ister plenipotentiary to the U. States.

CORRECTION OF THE PRESS. As it is caps. and caps. should be written in the of much importance for every one who margin. Where a word printed in Italics appears in print to be able to correct the is to be altered to Roman letters, a line is errors which occur in setting up the types, tion Rom. is to be written in the margin.

to be drawn under it, and the abbrevia.. we have thought that a short account of Where a corrector

, after altering a word, the characters employed by printers for this purpose might be acceptable to many

changes his mind, and prefers to let it of our readers. The first impression taken stand, dots are placed under it

, and the from the types is called a proof; and al- word stet is written

in the margin. When most always contains more or fewer errors.

a hyphen is omitted, a caret is made under If the person who corrects these does not

the place where it should be, and such a understand the various signs used in cor

character as this (-) placed in the margin.

The omission of a dash is pointed out in recting by the printers, he is very liable to have his meaning mistaken; and

the same way, only the enclosed line in the errors which occur in books are to be the margin is made a little longer. When referred to this source. Of the printers

a break is made, so as to produce a divissigns, the most important are those which ion into paragraphs, where this was not follow:-When a wrong word or letter intended, the end of the one and the beginoccurs, a mark is made through it, and ning of the other paragraph are connected

and the words the proper word or letter written in the by a curved line margin against the line in which the error Where a new paragraph is to be made, a

no break are to be written in the margin. occurs. If a word or letter is omitted, a caret (1) is placed under the place where caret

is inserted, and this mark I placed in it should have stood, and the omission is crooked lines, &c., appear, it is sufficient to

the margin. Where blemishes, such as written in the margin. If a superfluous call the printer's attention by a dash of the letter occurs, it is crossed out, and the

pen to the place. It is always to be kept character 8, signifying dele, written in the in mind, that the printer will not make any margin. Where words are improperly alteration in the text, unless his attention joined, a caret is written under the place is drawn to it by characters in the margin. where the separation should be made, and Persons correcting the press would do the character # written in the margin. amount of matter can be inserted into or

well to recollect, that no considerable When syllables are improperly separated, taken from a page, without requiring the they are joined by a horizontal parenthe- whole page of types to be deranged ; and, sis; as, du ty. This parenthesis is to be as the length of the page is affected by the made in the margin, as well as at the alteration, it must be adjusted at the exbreak. When words are transposed, they pense of the next page, and so on; so that are to be connected by a curved line, as, all the following pages may have to be not is, when set up for “ is not,” and the when an addition is made amounting to

disturbed. It is therefore very desirable, character tr. is to be written in the mar- more than a few letters, to strike out somegin. When a letter is inverted, the mis- thing of about equal length in the vicinity; take is pointed out by such a character as so, when an erasure of more than a few

in the margin. When marks of punc- ' letters is made, it is desirable to introduce tuation are omitted, a caret is put where an addition, of about the same amount, the mark should have been inserted, and near the place where it occurs. the comma or period, &c., is placed in the

In the early times of the art of printing,

more attention was paid than at present margin, enclosed in a circle; as, O. If

to the correction of the press, the books a mark of quotation has been omitted, the then printed being comparatively few and caret is made as before, and a character important, and superintended by learned of this sort V or V placed in the margin. men in their progress through the press ; Words which are to be printed in Italics while, in modern times, innumerable pubare marked beneath with a single line; as, lications of temporary interest are sent office: if in small capitals, with two lines; forth in great haste. Some of the old

presses are celebrated for great correct47



ness, and the works which have issued peculiar grace in the movements of his from them, therefore, are held in high figures, and a loveliness in their expresesteem; e. g. the publications of the Aldus-' sion, which takes possession of the soul. es, the Stephenses, &c. It was not un- These attitudes and movements could not common in those times for the proof-sheets be executed by any artist, without his to be hung up in some public place, that masterly skill in foreshortening, which not any body might have an opportunity of only gives greater variety to a piece, but detecting errors. From this custom the is also favorable to gracefulness. Avoidproof-sheets are still called, in German, ing all roughness and hardness, Correggio Aushängebogen (sheets hung out). Some sought to win the soul by mild and almost modern presses have been distinguished; effeminate beauties. He strove to obtain and, in the case of particular works, con- this object also by harmony of coloring, sisting wholly or in part of tables of fig- of which he may be called the creator. ures, or of arithmetical calculations, a re- He is unrivalled in the chiar oscuro; that ward has been offered for every error dis- is, in the disposition of the light; in the covered. In the preface to Vega's loga- grace and rounding of his figures, and in rithmic tables, two louis d'ors are offered the faculty of giving them the appearance for every erratum detected. On the whole, of advancing and retiring, which is the however, more attention has been paid, in distinguishing excellence of the Lombard modern times, to elegance than to correct- school, of which he may be considered the ness of execution. Some of the English head. In his drapery, he calculated with newspapers deserve much credit for their extreme accuracy all the effects of the correctness, considering the rapidity with chiar oscuro. He possessed the power of which much of their contents is printed, passing, by the most graceful transition, as in the case of parliamentary speeches, from the bright colors to the half tints. It delivered late at night, perhaps after mid- was ever his object to make the principal night, and given to the public early the next figure prominent, that the eye, after gazmorning. The Germans, who are distin- ing till it was satisfied on the bright colguished, in so many respects, for laborious ors, might repose with pleasure on the accuracy, yet print with less correctness softer masses. He made a skilful use of than the other great literary nations. Some this art in his Night (la notte di Correggio)

, of the editions of the works of their first which is to be seen in the gallery in Dresauthors have two or three pages of errata. den, where there are seven pictures in

CORREGGIO, Antonio Allegri, frequently which his progress in the art may be reccalled Antonio da Correggio, from the ognised. That this artist was imbued place of his birth, was born, in 1494, at with the spirit of poetry, is proved by the Correggio, in the duchy of Modena, and allusions which he sometimes introduced was intended for a learned profession; but into his pictures ; for example, the white nature had designed him for an artist. It hare in the Zingara (Gipsy), in Dresden has not been ascertained how much he and Naples (a Madonna, which has rewas indebted to his instructer, who was ceived this name from the Oriental style probably his uncle Lorenzo Allegri. His of the drapery and head-dress); and the genius pointed out to him the way to im- goldfinch, in the Marriage of St. Cathamortality. It is related that once, after rine, at Naples. By the nearness of these having viewed a picture of the great Raph- timorous animals, the idea of the innoael, he exclaimed, Anch' io sono pittore cence and purity of the persons delineated (I also am a painter); but it is not proved is strongly represented, and the stillness that Correggio ever was in Rome; and in and repose of the scene is forcibly imParma and Modena, where, according to pressed on the mind. Among his best D'Argensville, he might have seen works pictures, besides the Night, are, the St. of Raphael, there were none at that time; Jerome, which has kindled the admiration so that this story wants confirmation. of several distinguished painters to such That Correggio, without having seen a degree as to render them unjust towards either the works of the ancient masters

, Raphael; the Penitent Magdalen; the ulor the chefs-d'æuvre of the moderns who tar-pieces of St. Francis, St. George and preceded him, should have become a St. Sebastian ; Christ in the Garden of model for his successors, by the unassisted Olives (in Spain); Cupid (in Vienna); the energies of his genius, renders him so fresco painting, in Parma ; and, above all, much the more deserving of our admira- the paintings on the ceiling of the cathetion. Three qualities will always be ad- dral, in the same city. He died in 1534. mired in him-grace, harmony, and a skil- The story of his extreme poverty, and of ful management of the pencil" There is a his death in consequence of it, has been

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long since disproved, yet Oehlenschläger beauty of form, as even more admired has made it the subject of one of his best than mere regularity of features, or from tragedies in German and Danish. being, apparently, more attainable by art,

CORREGIDOR, in Spain and Portugal; a received an early and ample share of atmagistrate ; a police judge with appellate tention, and has largely exercised the injurisdiction.

genuity of the fair aspirants for love and CORRÈZE; a French department, form- admiration. It is our office now to aid ed of a part of what was the Lower Li- them to the utmost in attaining their mousin. (See Departments.)

wishes, by indicating the true principles CORRIDOR (Italian and Spanish), in ar- upon which the corset should be conchitecture; a gallery or long aisle leading structed, and the attentions necessary to to several chambers at a distance from secure all the advantages of its application. each other, sometimes wholly enclosed, Of the abuse of this instrument of the toisometimes open on one side. In fortifi- let, and the dire catalogue of miseries it eation, corridor signifies the same as cov- often occasions, the writer has elsewhere ert-way, which see.

spoken at large, and readers are referred CORRIENTES, LAs; a town of Buenos thereto, who are desirous of ascertaining Ayres, in Santa Fé, at the union of the what great evils may flow from an appaParana and Paraguay, 440 miles north of rently trifling cause. *„To prevent the Buenos Ayres ; Ion. 60° 36' W.; lat. 27° form from too early showing the inroads 50 S.; population, about 4500.

of time; to guard it from slight ineleganCORROSIVES (from corrodere, to eat ces, resulting from improper position, or away), in surgery, are medicines which the character of exterior drapery ; to secorrode whatever part of the body they cure the beauteous proportions of the bust are applied to; such are burnt alum, white from compression or displacement; and,

; precipitate of mercury, white vitriol, red at once, agreeably to display the general precipitate of mercury, butter of antimony, contour of the figure, without impeding lapis infernalis, &c.

the gracefulness of its motions, or the genCORROSJYE SUBLIMATE. (See Mercury.) tle undulations caused by natural respiraCORRUPTION OF Blood. (See Aitainder.) tion, are the legitimate objects of the cor

CORSAIRS (from the Italian corso, the set. For this purpose, it should be comact of running, incursion) are pirates who posed of the smoothest and most elascruise after and capture merchant vessels. tic materials, should be accurately adapted Commonly those pirates only which sail to the individual wearer, so that no point from Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and the

ports may receive undue pressure, and should of Morocco, are called corsairs. Those never be drawn so tight as to interfere ships which, in time of war, are licensed with perfectly free breathing, or with by European or American governments graceful attitudes and movements. It is to seize upon hostile ships, are called pri- obvious that such corsets should be envateers. Lord Byron's Corsair, it is well tirely destitute of those barbarous innovaknown, derives its name from the charac- tions of steel and whalebone, which, by ter of the hero.

causing disease, have thrown them into CORSET; an article of dress, especially disrepute, and which, under no circumintended to preserve or display the beau- stances, can add to the value of the instruties of the female form. Its name appears ment, when worn by a well-formed indito have been derived from its peculiar vidual. Such hurtful appliances were action of tightening or compressing the first resorted to by the ugly, deformed or body, and may be compounded of the diseased, who, having no natural pretenFrench words corps and serrer.—The in- sions to figure, pleased themselves with fluence of female charms, among civilized the hope of being able, by main strength, people, has, in all ages, been extensive exerted upon steel-ribbed, whaleboned and and beneficial, and the sex have always padded corsets, to squeeze themselves into regarded the possession of beauty as their delicate proportions. If, however, it be richest endowment, and thought its acqui- remembered that the use of corsets is sition to be cheaply made at any expense to preserve and display a fine figure, not of fortune. To this cause may be attrib- to make one, and that they are to be secuted the origin of the cosmetic arts, with ondary to a judicious course of diet and their countless baneful and innocent pre- exercise, it will be readily perceived that scriptions, for restoring smoothness to the such injurious agents are utterly uncalled skin, and reviving the delicate roses upon

* See an essay on the evils caused by tight cheeks too rudely visited by sickness or lacing, appended to Godman's addresses delivered time. The preservation or production of on various occasions, Philad. 1829.

for in their composition. By selecting a stances, it is vain to hope that beauty of material proportioned, in its thickness and figure can be maintained by corsets, or elasticity, to the size, age, &c., of the wear- that they can effect any other purpose er, and by a proper employment of quilt- than that of cramping and restraining the ing and wadding, they may be made of movements, and causing discomfort to the any proper or allowable degree of stiffness. wearer. On the other hand, proper exerIf it be then accurately fitted to the shape cise, and abstinence from all but the simof the individual, and laced no tighter than plest food, would enable the corset to perto apply it comfortably, all the advantages form its part to the greatest advantage. of the corset may be fully obtained. But There is another error, in relation to corsuch, unfortunately, is not the course gen- sets, as prejudicial as it is general, and erally pursued. Ladies purchase corsets of calling for the serious attention of all those the most fashionable makers, and of the concerned in the education of young lamost fashionable patterns and materials, dies. This error is the belief that girls regardless of the peculiarities of their own just approaching their majority should be figures, which may require a construction constantly kept under the influence of and material of very different description. corsets, in order to form their figures. Hence it often happens that females, nat- They are therefore subjected to a disciurally endowed with fine forms, wear cor- pline of strict lacing, at a period when, of sets designed for such as are dispropor- all others, its tendency is to produce the tionately thick or thin, and destroy the most extensive mischief. At this time, all graceful ease of their movements, by hedg- the organs of the body are in a state of ing themselves in the steel and whalebone energetic augmentation; and interference originally intended to reduce the super- with the proper expansion of any one set abundant corpulence of some luxurious is productive of permanent injury to the dowager. As no two human figures are whole. So far from making a fine form, precisely alike, it is absolutely requisite the tendency is directly the reverse, since that the corset should be suited with the the restraint of the corsets detrimentally minutest accuracy to the wearer; and a interferes with the perfection of the frame. naturally good figure cannot derive advan- The muscles, being compressed and held tage from any corset but one constructed inactive, neither acquire their due size nor and adapted in the manner above indi- strength; and a stiff, awkward carriage, cated. Slight irregularities or defects may with a thin, flat, ungraceful, inelegant perbe remedied or rendered inconspicuous, son, is the too frequent result of such inby judicious application of wadding, or by judicious treatment. The corset of a girl

, interposing an additional thickness of the from her 12th or 15th year till her 21st, cloth. But it should be remembered that should be nothing more than a cotton certain changes occur to the female frame, jacket, made so as rather to brace her after the cares of maternity have com- shoulders back, but without improper menced, which are absolutely unavoid- compression of the arm-pits, and devoid able. Among these, the general enlarge- of all stiffening, but what is proper to the ment or filling up of the figure is the most material of which it is made. At this age, observable, but is never productive of in- slight imperfections of form, or ineleganelegance, unless it take place very dispro- ces of movement, are especially within portionately. The undue enlargement of the control of well-directed exercise and the bust and waist is most dreaded, and appropriate diet: force is utterly unavailthe attempt to restrain their developement ing, and can have no other tendency than by mere force has led to the most perni- that of causing injury. We may conclude cious abuse of the corset. There is no what we have to say on the use of the doubt but that a judiciously fitted corset, corset, by imbodying the whole in a few whose object should be to support and plain, general rules :lst. Corsets should gently compress, might, in such cases, be be made of smooth, soft, elastic materials. advantageously worn; but, at the same 2. They should be accurately fitted and time, it must be thoroughly understood, modified to suit the peculiarities of figure that the corset can only be really beneficial of each wearer. 3d. No other stiffening when combined with a proper attention to should be used but that of quilting or paddiet and exercise. Thus many ladies, who ding; the bones, steel, &c., should be left dread the disfigurement produced by obes- to the deformed or diseased, for whom ity, and constantly wear the most unyield- they were originally intended. 4th. Coring and uncomfortable corsets, lead an sets should never be drawn so tight as to entirely inactive life, and indulge in rich impede regular, natural breathing, as, unand luxurious food.' Under such circum- der all circumstances, the improvement of

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