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figure is insufficient to compensate for the costume of the ancient Greek ladies was, air of awkward restraint caused by such in every particular, opposed to stiffness or lacing. 5th. They should never be worn, personal restraint; and we find that the either loosely or tightly, during the hours cestus, or girdle, to gather the flowing reappropriated to sleep, as, by impeding res- dundance of their robes around the waist, piration, and accumulating the heat of the was considered sufficient for the display system improperly, they invariably injure. of their enchanting forms. The Roman 6th. The corset for young persons should ladies were great adepts in the mysteries be of the simplest character, and worn in of the toilet, though not possessed of the the lightest and easiest manner, allowing grace and elegance of the Grecian beautheir lungs full play, and giving the form ties. We find among them rudiments of its fullest opportunity for expansion. At the corset, in the bandages which they this remote period, it is impossible for us wore around the chest, for the purpose of to say whether the corset, in some form, preserving the shape of the bosom, and might not have belonged to the complex displaying it to advantage. They were toilet of the ancient Israelitish ladies. We commonly made of woollen or linen cloth, find the prophet Isaiah, in chap. iii, in- and are alluded to, in several instances, by veighing against their numerous and use the poets. Thus, in Terence, we find less decorations—“the bravery of their Chærea saying to his servant, concerning tinkling ornaments about their feet, and an unknown beauty who attracted his attheir cauls, and their round tires like the tention—“This girl has nothing in commoon, the chains, and the bracelets, and mon with ours, whom their mothers force the mufflers, the bonnets, and the orna- to stoop, and make them bind their bosoms ments of the legs, and the head-bands, and with bandages, in order to appear more the tablets, and the ear-rings, the rings slender”. (Haud similis virgo est virgiand nose-jewels, the changeable suits of num nostrarum, quas matres student demisapparel, and the mantles, and the wim- sis humeris, vincto pectore, ut gracilæ sient). ples, and the crisping-pins, the glasses, and TER., Eun.-A writer in the French Dicthe fine linen, and the hoods, and the tionary of Medical Sciences, in an article vails.". This catalogue, at least, shows thaton corsets, which the reader may compare the disposition evinced by the fair sex to with the present, states that the whaleadorn their persons, and render them more boned corset, dividing the female form attractive, is not of modern origin, but into two parts, is a relic of the ancient most probably originated with our great German costume, which is still to be seen mother Eve. The earliest and most de- in some pictures of celebrated masters. lightful record we have of a contrivance We are not, however, prepared to retract like the corset, among Ethnic writers, is our opinion, that such contrivances were Homer's account of the girdle, or cestus, first resorted to in cases of deformity; for, of Venus, mother of the Loves and Graces, on inquiry, we find that the German fewhich even the haughty Juno is fabled to males, as described by the Roman writers, have borrowed, in order to make a more wore dresses tight to the person, though profound impression upon her rather un- no mention is made of artificial contrimanageable husband, Jupiter. This gir- vances to give it a peculiar form. The dle was invested by the poet with magical dress of both sexes was similar, consisting qualities, which rendered the wearer irre- of a sagum or cloak clasped at the throat, sistibly fascinating

and a vest or tunic which fitted tightly, « In this was every art, and every charm

and showed all the form. Tegumen fuit To win the wisest, and the coldest warm

sagun, fibula si defuisset, spina confertum ; Fond love, the gentle vow,

gay desire,

locupletissimi distinguebantur veste, non The kind deceit, the still reviving fire, Persuasive speech, and more persuasive sighs,

fluxa, sed stricta, ac pene singula membra Silence that spoke, and eloquence of eyes.

exprimente: idem feminis habitus qui et viris. POPE, 'Iliad, book xiv, line 247, &c. B. AUBAMUS, De Morib. etc. omn. Gent.

It might prove interesting to inquire into This, after all, we are persuaded, was the influence which the costume of the nothing but such a corset as we have de- mailed knights, during the age of chivalry, scribed in the beginning, worn by an ele- had upon female dress, and whether much gant form, to which it was accurately of the disposition to display the entire adapted. Even Venus herself could not figure, as far as possible, did not arise look otherwise than awkward and repul- from this display constantly made by the sive in one of the armadillo, shell-like male sex, in their closely-fitting armor. It machines, which are sold as fashionable, would lead us too far, however, to engage without regard to their inelegance. The in such an examination here; neither shall

the

we attempt to copy M. de Jouy's account tent auxiliaries of their charms. That of the thoracic corset of the Bayaderes of they should rush into the extreme we India (a finely-woven net made of bark, have deprecated, appears to result merely which is worn about the bust, and never from inattention; and we sincerely hope laid aside), as having but little relation to that but a short time will elapse before the objects we have in view.—Through- they will strictly respect the boundaries out our observations, we have spoken of established by good sense and good taste, a certain degree of display of the female united with the lovely purity inherent in form, as not incompatible with correctness their sex, remembering the exclamation of of manners. But there is a limit which, we the poetbelieve, cannot be exceeded without immediate detriment to public morals, and pos

“O! Beauty is a holy thing

When veiled and curtained from the sight itive offence to delicacy. A spirit of ri- Of the gross world, illumining, valry and emulation to excel in dress has One only mansion with her light.” frequently betrayed females of unques

Lalla Rookh. tionable character into wearing costumes Corsica, the third in size of the Italian which their modesty would shrink from islands, is separated from the northern under ordinary circumstances. Perhaps coast of Sardinia by the straits of Bonia majority of them, exclusively intent facio, which are 10 miles in breadth. It upon their own adornment, do not reflect is about 50 miles distant from Tuscany, upon the consequences that may result and 100 from France. It contains 3790 from their appearance in public. It is square miles, 18 large towns, of which 4 certainly exacting a great deal of young are seaports (with 3 harbors, capable of conmen, in the full vigor of life, to expect taining large fleets), 5 market-towns, 560 them to behold, unmoved, the most seduc- villages, including 63 pièves, or cultivated tive of forms displayed with all the allure- valleys, and 180,400 inhabitants. San Fioments of dress, in such a manner as scarce- renzo, which has fine roads for ships to ly to leave any thing for the imagination; anchor in, ought to be the capital, and to nor is it surprising, that their passions be fortified. A range of mountains, with should be excited, and their principles numerous branches, traverses the whole shaken, when, in the street, in church, and, extent of the island, and, near the middle, in short, every where, such exhibitions rises to such an elevation, that the snow are constantly placed before them. It remains on the summits during the greater cannot be doubted, but that this cause part of the year. The monte Rotondo and daily operates to the deterioration of public the monte d'Oro (from 8 to 9000 feet in morals; and it is full time that it should height) are covered with perpetual snows. receive the serious attention of parents and This chain of mountains consists, in part, guardians. There was a time when this of precipitous rocks, and is, in part

, overmode of dressing to display every personal spread with forests. A number of small charm was peculiar to an unfortunate rivers, of which the Goló alone is navigaclass of beings, regarded as lost to all the ble, flow easterly and westerly into the modesty and dignity of the sex; but it is sea. Most of these frequently become a melancholy truth, that this distinction dry in summer. The eastern coast is between the lost and the reputable no more flat than the western, on which are longer exists in our great cities, where most of the inlets of the sea. The climate leaders of fashion and celebrated beauties, is mild, since the heat of the sun is renclaiming the highest rank and character, dered less oppressive by the high mounare most remarkable for the solicitude tains and sea breezes. The air, in many with which they prepare their lovely per- parts of the island, owing to the many sons to be gazed at and admired, in all lakes of stagnant water, is unhealthy; and their proportions, by the passing crowd! these districts have, consequently, become We should not have alluded to this sub- desolate. The soil is very fertile, particuject, did we not hope that a slight animad- larly in the valleys and near the coast; version upon its evil tendency would help for which reason the inhabitants, although to produce its correction. It has an im- very inattentive to agriculture, yet reap a mediate influence in lowering the sex in sufficient supply of grain for their necesthe estimation of men, since it lessens sities (with the exception of oats, which their reverence for beings they would are not produced there). The lower order otherwise always look upon with deep of Corsicans subsist, commonly, on chestrespect; and surely the fair sex have not nuts, and seldom obtain wheat bread. yet to learn, that modest reserve and Wine, which resembles the Malaga and retiring delicacy are among the most po- French wines, notwithstanding the negli

:

gent mode of cultivation, is obtained in upon the landing of the French, to seek abundance. The island also produces for foreign aid. The French evacuated much flax, and oranges, which form an the island, on the breaking out of the Gerarticle of export, in perfection. It is man war, in 1741, and another insurreccovered with forests of chestnut and oak- tion took place. In 1755, the Corsican trees, great quantities of olive-trees, fir- senate appointed Pascal Paoli (q. v.) their trees and birch-trees, which reach the general, who conducted their affairs with elevation of from 120 to 130 feet. The so much success, that the Genoese, even breeding of cattle is carried on here to a with the assistance of the troops of the great extent; but the horse, ass and mule French garrisons (after 1764), were able to are of a small breed : the horned cattle retain in their possession only a few mariare, indeed, large, but very lean; and the time towns, with the capital, Bastia, and wool of the sheep is coarse. The tunny, renounced the hope of ever bringing the anchovy, and oyster fisheries afford the island again into subjection. They, thereinhabitants one of their principal employ- fore, in 1768, abandoned these places to ments. The mountains contain various France, by a treaty, which Spinola and kinds of minerals; and yet the art of work- the duke of Choiseul concluded at Paris, ing mines is almost wholly unknown. in which it was stipulated, that the king The iron is celebrated for its good quali- of France should reduce the island, and ties.—The Corsicans are still nearly in a govern it until the republic should repay state of nature. The majority of them are the expenses of the war. This convention Italians, and profess the Catholic religion. was a mere subterfuge to deceive the Industry is unknown. Even the most English, and to save the senate from the renecessary mechanics are wanting: each proach of a sale. The French thought one makes for himself almost every thing that the subjugation of Corsica could be he has need of. Their habitations, furni- effected by a small military force; but ture and clothing are miserable, and there Paoli, in the expectation of assistance from is a great want of good seminaries for England, made so spirited a resistance, education. Valor, love of freedom, indo- that the expedition soon cost the French lence, and desire of revenge, are the char- 30,000,000 livres, although they had gained acteristics of the Corsicans. As late as no important advantages. The number the year 1822, the prefect of Corsica, in a of the French troops was afterwards inpamphlet, urged the French government creased, so that they amounted to 30,000 to legalize the practice of duelling there, men, under the marshal de Vaux. Engbecause the quarrels of the inhabitants land still remained inactive; and, in sevoften became hereditary feuds. Until the eral actions, the Corsicans were so unfirst Punic war, the Carthaginians were mindful of their duty, that Paoli, in demasters of this island. They were suc- spair, gave up all thoughts of resistance, ceeded by the Romans. In later times, and, in June, 1769, fled to England, Corsica was, for a long time, under the where he was supported by a pension dominion of the Vandals, and afterwards from the king. A partisan warfare was, passed successively into the hands of the however, maintained in the mountains Greek emperors and the Goths. In 850, until 1774. At the time of the French the Corsicans were conquered by the Sar- revolution, Corsica was incorporated with acens, who held them in subjection until France, as a separate department, and the beginning of the 11th century; at sent deputies to the national convention. which time they fell under the dominion of Paoli now returned to his native land; but Pisa. In 1284, this island submitted to the the terrorists required his presence at dominion of the Genoese, who had before, Paris, where he would inevitably have in 806, subdued it, but were unable to retain been put to death. He therefore unfurled possession of it for a long time. Exas- the banner of the Death's head (the old perated by the oppressions of the Genoese Corsican arms), and summoned his coungovernment during 400 years, the Corsi- trymen to his standard. With the assistcans took up arms, in 1729, and, since ance of the English, who landed Feb. 18, that time, have never submitted to the 1794, he reduced Bastia, May 22, and Genoese. Genoa called in the imperial Calvi, Aug. 4. The Corsicans submitted forces in 1730, and the French, in 1738, to the British sceptre, in a general conto their assistance. In 1736, baron The- vention of deputies, at Corte, June 18, odore von Neuhof (see Theodore), a West- 1794. Corsica was constituted a kingdom, phalian, so won the affections of the Cor- under the government of a viceroy (Ellisicans, that they elected him king, under ot); the constitution and laws of England the name of Theodore I. He left them, were adopted; and a parliament, such as

were

Ireland had, was established. But a large called el justizia, selected from persons part of the people were averse to the of the second class, presided over the English, whom they regarded as heretics, administration of the government. He and the French party again appeared on decided all questions and disputes bethe island, in Oct., 1796, under general tween the king and his subjects, and Gentili. Sickness rendered the situation confined the royal power within the

of the English very critical: their power constitutional limits. King Ferdinand of 1 was still further weakened by the reduc- Arragon and Isabella of Castile succeeded

tion of the neighboring city of Leghorn, in rendering themselves independent of by the French, in 1796 ; and, in conse- the estates (las cortes); and afterwards, quence, they evacuated Corsica. Since when the Castilians dared to resist an un1811, the island has formed a French de- constitutional tax, at a meeting convoked partment, of which Bastia is the capital. at Toledo, by Charles, in 1538, the king The revenue received from the island by abolished this assembly of the estates. France, in 1821, amounted only to 500,000 After this, neither the clergy nor nobility francs, while the administration of it were assembled : deputies from 18 cities costs the crown, yearly, the sum of were sometimes, however, convened, but 3,000,000 francs. (See Memoirs of Napo- this only in case subsidies were to be leon, Fourth Part (London, 1824), by count granted. Philip II restrained the liberties Montholon; Sketches of Corsica in 1823, of the Arragonese in 1591. After the with Specimens of its National Poetry, by Spanish war of succession, Philip V deRobert Benson (London, 1825, with 51 prived those provinces which had adcopperplate engravings); and Boswells hered to the Austrian party of the priviAccount of Corsica.)

leges that still remained to them. From Corso. The Corso is one of the prin- that time, the cortes

convened cipal streets in Rome, and, like the chief only to pay homage to the king, or the streets in many Italian cities (Florence, prince of Asturias, or when a question for example), derives its name from the respecting the succession to the throne horse-races which enliven the evenings was to be determined. But when Napoof the carnival. The Corso, at Rome, is leon attempted to extend his influence over nearly 3500 paces in length, and is en- Spain (see the articles Ferdinand VII, and closed by high and mostly splendid edi- Spain since 1808), he convoked (June 15, fices; but its breadth is not proportionate; 1808) a junta of the cortes at Bayonne. In 80 that, in most parts, not above three their last session (June 7, 1812), a new concarriages can go abreast. The higher stitution was adopted by them. The 9th class of citizens take the air in carriages, article regulated the powers and duties of which form a very long row. This even- the cortes, and provided that they should ing promenade, which, in all large Italian consist of 25 archbishops, 25 nobles, and cities is splendid, and is imitated in very 122 representatives of the people. Naposmall towns (although it may have only a leon afterwards attempted, by offering to few coaches), attracts great numbers of restore the cortes to their ancient imporspectators on foot. The carnival is the tance, to gain over the Spanish nobility, gayest of the festivals; and, at this time, and, through them, the people, but failed. the Corso appears in its greatest splendor. (In regard to the new cortes in Spain and (See Göthe's description of the Roman Portugal, see those articles.) In 1828, carnival and the Corso.)

don Miguel assembled the cortes of PorCORTEs. The cortes was the old as- tugal, in order to be acknowledged by sembly of the estates in Spain and Portu- them, and to give his usurpation an apgal. In Spain, the cortes of Castile, which pearance of legitimacy. was composed of the nobility of the first Cortez, Fernando, the conqueror of rank, the superior ecclesiastics, the knights Mexico, born in 1485, at Medelin, in Estreof the orders of St. James, Calatrava and madura, went to the West Indies in 1504, Alcantara, and the representatives of cer- where Velasquez, governor of Cuba, gave tain cities, held the first rank during the him the command of a fleet, which he time of the united Spanish monarchy. sent on a voyage of discovery. Cortez In early times, the king was very depend- quitted San-lago, Nov. 18, 1518, with 10 ent upon them; indeed, they were in- vessels, 600 Spaniards, 18 horses, and some vested with the power of making war, field-pieces. "He landed in the gulf of and frequently exercised it in opposition Mexico. The sight of the horses, on to the throne. In the original constitu- which the Spaniards were mounted; the tion of Arragon, the form of government movable fortresses, in which they had was very remarkable. A supreme judge, crossed the ocean; the iron which covered

“I am a

them; the noise of the cannon ;-all these tion of power. A viceroy had charge of objects alarmed the natives. Cortez en- the civil administration, and Cortez was tered the town of Mexico Nov. 18, 1519. intrusted only with the military command Montezuma, the sovereign of the country, and the privilege of prosecuting his disreceived him as his master; and the in- coveries. The division of powers proved a habitants, it is said, thought him a god constant source of dissension; and, though and a child of the sun. He destroyed the he discovered the peninsula of California idols in the temples, to whom human sac- in 1536, most of his enterprises were frusrifices were offered, and placed in their trated, his life imbittered, and he returned room images of the virgin Mary and of the again to Spain, where he was coldly resaints. In the mean time, he made con- ceived and neglected. One day, having tinual progress towards getting possession forced his way through a crowd round of the country, forming alliances with the carriage of his king, and put his foot several caciques, enemies to Montezuma, on the step to obtain an audience, Charles and assuring

himself of the others by force coldly inquired who he was. or stratagem. On a general of Mon- man,” replied Cortez, “who has gained tezuma attacking the Spaniards, in obe- you more provinces than your father left dience to a secret order, Cortez repaired you towns.” He passed the remainder to the imperial palace, had the com- of his days in solitude, and died Dec., 1554, mander and his officers burnt alive, near Seville, in the 63d year of his age, leavand forced the emperor, while in chains, ing a character eminent for bravery and to acknowledge, publicly, the, sovereignty ability, but infamous for perfidy and cruelty. of Charles V. The unhappy monarch CORTONA, a fortified town of Tuscany, added to this homage a present of a large contains 7 churches (including the cathequantity of pure gold, and a number of dral) and 12 convents. It is a place of precious stones. But the jealousy of Ve- great antiquity. Population, 4000. It lies lasquez was so much excited by the deeds 45 miles S. E. Florence. of his representative, that he sent an army CORTONA, properly Pietro Berretini, a against him. Cortez, reinforced by fresh painter and architect, was born in 1596. troops from Spain, advanced to meet it, He was commonly called Pietro di Cortona, gained over the soldiers who bore arms from the name of his native town, Cortona against him, and, with their assistance, in Tuscany. He acquired the first rudiagain made war with the Mexicans, who ments of his art under his father, Giovanhad also revolted against their own em- ni, who was also a painter and architect, peror, Montezuma, whom they accused and afterwards studied with Andreas Comof treachery. After Montezuma, who had modi and Baccio Ciarpi at Rome. At hoped to restore tranquillity by showing the commencement of his studies, his himself to the multitude, had fallen a vic- awkwardness was so remarkable, that his tim to their rage, Guatimozin, his nephew fellow students called him ass's head. and son-in-law, was acknowledged as em- Nevertheless, he devoted himself to the peror by. the Mexicans, and gained some study of the antiques, and of the great advantages over the Spaniards. He de- masters, Raphael, Caravaggio and Michael fended his crown during three months, but Angelo, and unexpectedly made his apcould not withstand the Spanish artillery. pearance as an artist, with the Rape of the Cortez again took possession of Mexico, Sabines. The Birth of Christ, in the church and, in 1521, the emperor; the empress, the of Our Lady of Loretto, established his ministers, and the whole court, were in his reputation. His painting, on the ceiling power. The unhappy Guatimozin was of the large saloon in the Barberini palsubjected to horrid cruelties to make himace, representing the Triumph of Honor, disclose the place where his treasures is a very happy effort. Mengs declares it were concealed, and was afterwards exe- one of the grandest compositions ever executed with a great number of his nobles. cuted by a painter. He afterwards travThe court of Madrid now became jealous elled through Lombardy, the Venetian of the power of Cortez, who had been, states and Tuscany, where he painted some time before, appointed captain-gen- the ceilings of the Palazzo Pitti in Floreral and governor of Mexico. Commis- ence, and thence returned to Rome. sioners were sent to inspect and control During this journey, he was constantly his measures; his property was seized; employed as a painter and architect. He his dependants were imprisoned, and he was subsequently attacked by the gout, repaired to Spain. He was received with and could not, in consequence, ascend the much distinction, and returned to Mexico stagings: he therefore employed himself with an increase of titles, but a diminu- in the execution of easel pictures, which,

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