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although of less value than his larger The harbor is spacious and secure, and is works, are held in great estimation: they protected by two castles. About three are very rare. Alexander VII made him miles from the harbor is a light-house. In a knight of the order of the golden spur, 1809, the British were attacked at this as a reward for the embellishment of the place, previous to embarking, and their colonnade of the church Della Pace. He general, sir John Moore, was killed. died in 1669, and obtained an honorable Population, 4000. 30 miles N. W. Lago. burial in the church dedicated to St. Luke, Lon. 8° 20' 23" W.; lat. 43° 23 32'' N. at Rome, where he had immortalized Corvée (French, from cura via, care of himself by the design of the altar of St. the road); the obligation of the inhabitMartina. Cortona sacrificed truth to ants of a certain district to do certain pleasing effect. This object, however, he labor, for the feudal lord or the sovereign, did not attain. The defects of his draw- gratis or for pay. As the name shows, ing, which is rather heavy, were redeemed corvée originally meant compulsory labor by the fertility of invention, the attractive on roads, bridges, &c., but it is applied charms of his young female figures (al- also to other feudal services. Generally, though it is objected to them that they are of course, the payment for such services too uniform), and the fresh coloring of his is much below the wages of ordinary laharmonious tints. This last quality is an bor. In some cases, however, the corexcellence peculiar to him, and which no vées have been considered as a privilege, other artist has attained in an equal de- and people have insisted on their right to gree, either before or since his time.

perform the services, and to receive the CORUNDUM, sometimes called also, from pay for them; as the tenth part, for threshits hardness and peculiar lustre, adaman- ing, &c. In some parts of Germany, they tine

spar, is of a grayish, greenish tint, still exist. In Prussia, they were abolishoccasionally reddish; more rarely blue, ed under Hardenberg's administration. In yellow and black. It is translucent or France, the revolution extirpated this relic opaque. Its specific gravity varies from of the feudal times. 3.975 to 4.161. * In hardness, it ranks next CORVETTE (French); a vessel of war to the diamond. It occurs, crystallized, having fewer than 20 guns. in the form of the regular six-sided prism, CORVEY, in the Prussian province of and also in acute and obtuse hexaedral Westphalia, 15 leagues S. E. of Minden, pyramids. It is also found granular and famous, in former times, as Corbeia Nova; compact. It consists almost wholly of a Benedictine convent on the Weser, pure clay, or alumine, sometimes contain- which, with the convent of Fulda, was ing

4 or 5 per cent of silex or lime. The one of the first centres of civilization in blue variety, when transparent, goes by Germany. It was built in the sixth centhe name of the sapphire ;' the rose red tury. The history of this interesting conor the violet, which is sometimes chatoyant, vent is important with reference to the is called the Oriental ruby. Both of these history of the civilization of the middle rank, as gems, next to the diamond. They ages. (See Theatrum illustr. Viror. Corare found in the sands of rivers, and beia Saxonicæ, Jena, 1686, 4to.; and Leibamong alluvial matter in Ceylon. The nitz's Introduct. ad Script. Brunsvic., vol. i, common corundum is found in a granite page 26 et seq.) Wittekind, the historiogroek in India, also at Mont St. Gothard, rapher of the convent, and many other and in Piedmont. A granular variety of learned men, were educated here. From corundum, containing considerable iron, Corvey proceeded_Ansgar, the “apostle is called emery. It is found in the island of the North." In 1794, Corvey was of Naxos, in rolled masses, at the foot of made a bishopric. In 1802, the bishopric primitive mountains. Its powder is well was abolished, and Corvey given to the known in commerce, and greatly valued prince of Nassau and Orange; in 1807, it as a polishing substance.

was assigned to Westphalia; in 1815, to CORUNNA, a seaport of Spain, in the Prussia ; in 1822, it was made a mediaprovince of Galicia, on the north-west tised principality (106 square miles, 10,000 coast, on a peninsula at the entrance of inhabitants). The magnificent cathedral the bay of Betanzos. The streets of the contains many monuments. In 1819, Paul upper town are narrow and ill paved. Wigand published a history of the abbey The lower town stands on a small tongue of Corvey. of land, and has tolerably broad and clean CORVISART, Jean Nicolas, baron, a disstreets. The chief objects of interest are tinguished French physician, was born the royal arsenal, and an ancient tower, at Dricourt, in the present department of admired for its elevation and solidity. the Ardennes, Feb. 15, 1755. His father, procureur to the parliament of Paris, Cos, or Coos; an island in the Ægæan wished to educate him for the law; but sea (now Stanchio or Stincho), on the an invincible inclination for medical stud- coast of Asia Minor, opposite the towns ies led him into a different career, in of Halicarnassus and Cnidos (95 square which he was soon distinguished for his miles, 4000 inhabitants); the land of intelligence and his extensive learning. He Apelles and Hippocrates. Here was a succeeded Rochefort as physician to the celebrated temple of Æsculapius. In hôpital de la charité, and was the first Cos was manufactured a fine, semi-transprofessor of internal clinics in France. parent kind of silk, much valued by the He was chief physician to the first con- ancients. sul (1802), and afterwards to the emperor Cosel; a small, yet not unimportant for(to whom he was faithfully attached, but tified town, on the left bank of the Upper with whom he had not, according to the Oder, in Upper Silesia (197 houses and Mémoire of him by baron Cuvier, any 3600 inhabitants); first fortified by Fredpolitical influence, as some have asserted), eric the Great, after the conquest of Sileprofessor in the collège de France from sia. It has been several times besieged 1797, member of the imperial institute, in vain. &c. Corvisart's great merit was not COSEL, countess of; one of the many overlooked after the restoration. The mistresses of the prodigal Augustus II, place of honorary member of the royal king of Poland and elector of Saxony. academy of medicine was conferred on She was the wife of the Saxon minister him just before his death, which happen- Hoymb, who, well knowing the king's ed Sept. 18, 1821. Corvisart felt that the disposition, kept her far from court; but, most distinguished practitioner of medi- on one occasion, when excited by wine, cine has not performed his whole duty to he praised her so much to the king, that his science, unless he leaves some me- the latter ordered her to be brought to morial of his experience. He translated Dresden. She was soon divorced from some important works, with commenta- Hoymb, and appeared at court as the ries, and was the author of several valua- countess of Cosel, the mistress of the ble treatises. His two principal works are king. A palace was built for her, still a Treatise on Diseases of the Heart, and a called the Cosel palace, which was preCommentary on the work of Auenbragger, eminent for magnificence and luxury. a German physician, published in 1763, The furniture alone cost 200,000 Saxon at Vienna. In 1770, it was translated into dollars (150,000 Spanish). It must be French, but so much forgotten, that Corvi- remembered that the king had no income sart says, “ I could have sacrificed Auen- from Poland; on the contrary, the royal brugger's name to my vanity, but I did not dignity was a source of great expense to choose to do so: I only wish to revive his the elector; thus the little electorate had beautiful discovery." His place in the to support, unaided, the enormous extravFrench academy of sciences has been fill- agance of its ruler. For nine years, the ed by M. Magendie, and his chair in the countess succeeded in preserving the college of France had been occupied by king's favor, and exercised an arbitrary M. Hallé for several years before the time sway in affairs of government. At last, of his death.

she fell into disgrace, and was dismissed CORYBANTES (Curetes, Ilæi Dactyli, from the king's presence.

She retired among the Romans, a peculiar order of into Prussia, and was afterwards arrested priests called Galli) are said to have de- at Halle, at the request of Augustus, and rived their origin from Corybas, son of carried to Stolpe, in Saxony, where she Cybele and Jasion, who appointed them remained imprisoned 45 years, and died to perform religious service to his moth- 80 years old. So much power had she er, the goddess Cybele, in the island of over the king, when in favor, that dollars Crete and in Phrygia. According to and florins were actually coined, bearing much more ancient traditions, they were the stamp of the royal arms in conjuncdescendants of Vulcan. The story of tion with those of the countess. She is their clashing together instruments of one among many similar instances of the forged metal, when Rhea gave them the advantages which legitimacy brings in its infant Jupiter, in order to prevent Saturn train, subjecting nations to the control of from hearing his cries, seems to have profligate monarchs, who are governed by some connexion with this tradition. Ac- equally profligate mistresses. cording to Apollodorus, the Corybantes Cosenza (anciently Cosentia); a city of were sons of Apollo and Thalia ; accord- Naples, capital of Calabria Citra, situated ing to others, of Apollo and Rhetia. on seven small hills, at the foot of the

Apennines; 145 miles 'S. E. Naples; lon. a creation than an emanation of the Deity. 16° 27' E. ; lat. 39° 22' N.; population, 7989. Plato says the universe is an eternal

The metropolitan is the only church image of the immutable Idea, or Type, within the walls; but there are three united, from eternity, with changeable parish churches in the faubourgs. There matter. The followers of this philosopher are 12 convents. The environs are beau- both developed and distorted this idea. tiful, populous and well cultivated, pro- Ammonius, à disciple of Proclus, taught, ducing abundance of corn, fruit, oil, wine in the sixth century, at Alexandria, the and silk. This town was anciently the coëternity of God and the universe. capital of the Brutii, and a place of con- Modern philosophers, and also ancient sequence in the second Punic war. Co- ones (e. g., Xenophanes, according to senza has frequently suffered from earth- Diogenes Laertius), went further, and quakes, particularly in the year 1638. taught that the universe is one with the

Cosmetics (from koouéw, I ornament, Deity. Parmenides, Melissus, Zeno of beautify); means for preserving or increas- Elea, and the Megaric sect, followed this ing the beauty of the human body. Every doctrine.—II. The theory which considone knows that such means are used ers the matter of the universe eternal, but by the most savage, as well as the most not its form, was the prevailing one civilized, nations; that cosmetics have among the ancients, who, starting from afforded a rich harvest to charlatans; and the principle that nothing could be made that it is very difficult to find good ones out of nothing, could not admit the creaamong the numberless bad ones.

tion of matter, yet did not believe that the Cosmo I OF MEDICI. (See Medici.) world had been always in its present state.

COSMOGONY (from the Greek kóquos, the The prior state of the world, subject to world, and yovos, generation), according to a constant succession of uncertain moveits etymology, should be defined the origin ments, which chance afterwards made of the world itself; but the term has be- regular, they called chaos. The Phænicome, to a great degree, associated with cians, Babylonians, and also Egyptians, the numerous theories of different nations seem to have adhered to this theory. The and individuals respecting this event. ancient poets, who have handed down to Though the origin of the world must us the old mythological traditions, reprenecessarily remain forever concealed from sent the universe as springing from chaos, human eyes, there is, notwithstanding, a without the assistance of the Deity. Hestrong desire in the breasts of mortals to un- siod feigns that Chaos was the parent of veil it; so that we find hypotheses among Erebus and Night, from whose union all nations, respecting the beginning of al sprung the Air (Alone) and the Day ('Huépa). things. We may divide these hypotheses He further relates how the sky and the into three classes :-1. The first represents stars were separated from the earth, &c. the world as eternal, in form as well as The system of atoms is much more fasubstance. 2. The matter of the world is mous. Leucippus and Democritus of eternal, but not its form. 3. The world Abdera were its inventors. The atoms, had a beginning, and shall have an end. or indivisible particles, say they, existed -I. Ocellus Lucanus is one of the most from eternity, moving at hazard, and proancient, philosophers who supposed the ducing, by their constant meeting, a vari world to have existed from eternity. ety of substances. After having given Aristotle appears to bave embraced the rise to an immense variety of combina same doctrine. His theory is, that not tions, they produced the present organiza only the heaven and earth, but also ani- tion of bodies. This system of cosmog, mate and inanimate beings, in general, are ony was that of Epicurus, as described without beginning. His opinion rested by Lucretius. Democritus attributed to on the belief, that the universe was neces- atoms form and size, Epicurus added sarily the eternal effect of a cause equally weight. Many other systems have existeternal, such as the Divine Spirit, which, ed, which must be classed under this being at once power and action, could not division. We only mention that of the remain idle. Yet he admitted, that a spi- Stoics, who admitted two principles, God ritual substance was the cause of the uni- and matter, in the abstract, both corporeal, verse; of its motion and its form. He for they did not admit spiritual beings. says positively, in his Metaphysics, that The first was active, the second passive. God is an intelligent Spirit (voữs), incorpo- -III. The third theory of cosmogony real, eternal, immovable, indivisible, and makes God the Creator of the world out the Mover of all things. According to of nothing. This is the doctrine of the this great philosopher, the universe is less Etruscans, Druids, Magi and Bramins.

Before idolatry was introduced into China, people and of their name. Some derive the people worshipped a Supreme Being, both races from the province of Casachia, Chang-Ti, the Mover and Regulator of so called by Constantine Porphyrogenethe universe. Anaxagoras was the first tes. In the Turkish, cazak signifies a robamong the Greeks, who taught that God ber; but, in the Tartar language, it signifies created the universe from nothing. The a soldier lightly armed, for rapid motion. Romans generally adopted this theory, Since the Cossacks came from the plains notwithstanding the efforts of Lucretius beyond the Volga, they may be the reto establish the doctrine of Epicurus. mains of the Tartar hordes who settled The beginning of Ovid bears a striking there at different times. Some suppose resemblance to the beginning of Genesis. them to be of Russian origin. Their Clement of Alexandria therefore thinks language is properly Russian, although, that the Pentateuch was known in in consequence of their early wars with Greece and Rome before the time of the Turks and Poles, they have adopted Christ. It is not necessary, however, to many words from these people. It is probadopt this conclusion, for the two systems able that both races of the Cossacks are of cosmogony might have had a common descended from the united Russian adorigin. The Indian cosmogony also bears venturers, who came from the provinces of much resemblance to that of Moses. It Novogorod. Their object was to collect is well known to every reader, that the booty in the wars and feuds with the Mosaic cosmogony belongs to the class Tartars, on the frontiers of the Russian we are now describing: It is distinguish- empire. As they were useful in protected by its great simplicity. The ration- ing the frontiers, the government granted alists, as they are called in Germany, re- them great privileges; and their numbers gard it as an Asiatic tradition, and not as rapidly increased, more especially as a revelation. Some of the most impor- grants of land were made them. Thus tant sources of information respecting the their power was augmented, and they different systems of cosmogony, besides became, by degrees, better organized and the book of Genesis, are the works of firmly established. Their privileges, howHesiod, Diogenes Laertius, Nonnus of ever, have been very much limited since Panopolis, Eusebius, Philo the Jew, the year 1804. In the war of 1538, 3000 Pliny and Diodorus. A very learned Cossacks of the Don made their first and ingenious treatise on the Mosaic his- campaign with the Russians in Livonia. tory of creation is contained in a work full They then conquered Siberia, repulsed of learning—

Mythologus oder gesammelte the Tartars from many Russian provinces, Abhandlungen über die Sagen des Alter- and assisted in defeating the Turks. Durthums von Philipp Buttmann, vol. I, Berlin, ing the frequent rebellions of the Cossacks 1828.

of the Don (the last of which was conCossacks (Casacks); the tribes who in- ducted by the formidable Pugatscheff), habit the southern and eastern parts of quarrels arose among them, and the great Russia, Poland, the Ukraine, &c., guarding family became divided into several parts. the southern and eastern frontier of the Thus a branch of the great tribe of the Russian empire, and paying no taxes, per- Don, consisting of about 7000 men, in forming, instead, the duty of soldiers. order to escape the punishment of their Nearly all of them

belong to the Greco- offences, retired, in 1577, to the Kama and Russian church. Their internal adminis- to Perm, and afterwards to the Oby. tration, however, is independent of the (See Siberia and Stroganoff.) They drove Russian government. They form a mili- out the Woguls, the Ostiacs and Tartars, tary democracy. They must be divided who were settled there. Their numbers into two principal classes, both on ac- having been much reduced by these concount of their descent and their present tests with the inhabitants, and their leader condition—the Cossacks of Little Russia being no longer able to maintain his con(Malo-Russia), and those of the Don. quest, they placed themselves under the Both classes, and especially those of the protection of the Russian government, and Don, have collateral branches. From obtained assistance. This braneh of the those of the Don, who are the most civil- Cossacks has since spread over all Siberia. ized, are descended the Volgaic, the Te- The strength of the Cossacks is variously rek, the Grebeskoi, the Uralian and Sibe- estimated. Archenholz makes the numrian Cossacks. To the other race belong ber of warriors 700,000; but not half the Zaporogians or Haydamaks, who are this number is in actual service, and two the wildest and most unrestrained. Writers thirds of those are employed only the are not agreed as to the origin of this domestic service, and never enter Europe,

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VOL. III.

so that not many more than 100,000 men but they are tough and well broken, and are at the disposal of the Russian govern- so swift, that, when they do not move in ment, in case of a war in Europe. Dur- compact bodies, and carry little or no baging the seven years' war, the Russian gage, they can travel, without much diftarmy included but 10,000 Cossacks. Ac- culty, from 50 to 70 miles a day, for sevcording to the regulations of 1804, two out eral days in succession. Each pulk has of three regiments do duty at home, and two or more silken banners, usually the third on the frontiers. But they are all adorned with images of the saints. The Jiable to be called into the field, and they Cossacks fight principally in small bodies, then receive pay and rations from the with which they attack the enemy on all emperor. They form, in general (par- sides, but principally on the flanks and ticularly those of the Don, who are the in the rear, rushing upon them at full most independent), the irregular flying speed, with a dreadful hurrah, and with cavalry of the Russian army, being divid- levelled lances. If they succeed in breaked into separate troops. The Cossacks of ing through the enemy by a bold attack, Little Russia are more disciplined; they they drop their lances, which are dragged may almost be called regular troops. The along by the strap, and, seizing on their Cossacks have no pobility among them. sabres and pistols, do great execution. If All are equal, and all may, without de- they meet with opposition, and find it imgrading themselves, alternately command possible to penetrate, they immediately and obey. Their officers are chosen by retreat, hasten to some appointed place, them from among themselves, only the form anew, and repeat the attack until the commander-in-chief must be approved by enemy is put to flight, when they bring the government. He cannot be displaced destruction on the scattered forces. In except by its consent. The commanders 1570, they built their principal stanitza are always in the pay of the crown, but and rendezvous, called Tscherkask, 70 the common Cossacks receive pay only wersts above Azoph, on some islands in while they are on duty. Their regiments the Don, 1283 miles from Petersburg, (pulks) are from 500 to 3000 strong, ac- now containing 2950 houses and 15,000 cording to the size of the circle, and are inhabitants, the seat of the ataman. It commanded by a chief (hettman, q. v.; in may be called the Tartar Venice, for the their language, ataman). The commander houses rest on high wooden piles, and are of the whole corps is also called hettman. connected with each other by small The officers under the colonel are with- bridges. When the river is high, which out rank (with the exception of those of is from April to June, the city appears to some particular regiments, who have an be floating on the water. Their churches equal rank with the officers in the army), are richly adorned with gold and precious and, in case of necessity, may be command- stones. There is a regular theatre here. ed by the inferior officers of the regular There are also many private libraries, and army. Each Cossack is liable to do duty a school where French, German, geomefrom the age of 18 to 50, and is obliged try, history, geography, natural philosoto furnish his own horse, and to be cloth- phy, &c., are taught. A great deal of ed in the Polish or Oriental fashion, al- business is done by the Greeks, Armethough the texture and quality of his gar- nians, Jews, &c. As the city is rendered ments are left to himself. Their principal unhealthy by the overflowing of the island weapon is a lance from 10 to 12 feet in on which it stands, they have lately built length : they have also a sabre, a gun or New Tscherkask, on an arm of the Don, a pair of pistols, as well as a bow and about four miles from the present city, arrows. The lances, in riding, are carried to which all the inhabitants of the old upright by means of a strap fastened to city will remove, so that, perhaps, in 50 the foot, the arm, or the pommel of the years, no vestige of the old town will resaddle. Those who use bows carry a main. quiver over the shoulder. The kantschu, Cossé, Charles de, more known by the also, which is a thick whip of twisted title of marshal de Brissac, was son of leather, serves them for a weapon against René Cossé, who was lord of Brissac in an unarnned enemy, as well as for the Anjou, and chief falconer of France. He management of their horses. Though served with success in the Neapolitan and little adapted for regular movements, they Piedmontese wars, and distinguished himare very serviceable in attacking bag- self as colonel in the battle of Perpignan, in gage, magazines, and in the pursuit of 1541. The first noblemen of France, and troops scattered in flight. Their horses even the princes, received their military are mostly small, and of poor appearance; education in his school, while he com

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