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manded the French light cavalry. When carrying with him the book and keys of the emperor Charles V attempted to be the inquisitors, as trophies of his success. siege Landrecy, in 1543, Brissac repulsed M. da Costa was the proprietor of the him three times, and united himself
, in Correio Braziliense, a monthly magazine spite of the superior numbers of the ene- in the Portuguese language, printed in my, with Francis I, who lay, with his London, and discontinued a short time army, near Vitry. This monarch folded before his death, which took place in the him in his arms, allowed him to drink beginning of 1824. out of his cup, and created him a knight Costa Rica ; the most eastern and of his order. After other great actions, he most southern province of Guatimala; berose to the rank of grand master of the tween lat. 8° 20 and 11° 27' N., and lon. artillery of France, and Henry II sent him 80° 27' and 85° 49 W.; bounded N. by as ambassador to the emperor, for the Nicaragua, E. by the Spanish Main, S. E. purpose of negotiating a peace. Here he by Veragua, and W. and S. W. by the proved himself a good diplomatist, and Pacific ocean; 150 miles in length, and obtained for his services the office of gove nearly as much in breadth. It is full of ernor of Piedmont, and the baton of mar- deserts and forests, thinly peopled, and illshal of France, in 1550. He afterwards cultivated. A great part of the inhabitreturned to France as governor of Picar- ants live independent of the Spaniards. dy, and rendered that province important The principal commerce consists in cattle, services. Brissac was small, but very well hides, honey and wax. It has ports in made. The ladies called him the hand- each sea. Carthage is the capital. some Brissac. It is said that the duchess Costa Rica; a river of Guatimala, of Valentinois regarded him with particu- which runs into the Escondida, five miles bar favor, and that Henry II appointed him from St. Carlos, in Nicaragua. lieutenant-general in Italy
merely from COSTER, Laurens (called Jansoens, that jealousy. Brissac died at Paris, Dec. 31, is, son of John), a wealthy citizen of Haer1563.
lem, was born in that city in 1370 or 1371. Costa FURTADO DE MENDOÇA, Hip- He was a member of the chief council in polyto Joseph da; a Portuguese gentle- 1418, and by turns performed the duties man, distinguished for his talents, learning of a judge and a treasurer. and adventures. He was tried and im- according to some, in 1399, he was apprisoned at Lisbon, by the inquisition, for pointed to the office of sacristan (Koster) the pretended crime of free-masonry. The of the parochial church at Haerlem, and following are said to have been the cir- continued in this station; and from this cumstances of his escape from captivity: office, which, at that time, was very honThe door of the cell in which Da Costa orable, he derived his surname.
He died, was confined opening into a hall, which probably, of the contagious disease which was the centre of the prison, he had op- raged, in the latter part of 1439, in Haerlem. portunities for remarking that the daily This is all that the contemporary city recsabors of his jailors terminated with throw- ords have preserved of his history. More ing a bunch of keys on a table where a than a hundred years after his death, in the lamp was left burning. By patience and middle of the 16th century, traces of a perseverance, though conscious of liability tradition appeared, which assigned to the to espial through apertures in the walls city of Haerlem the invention of the art of and ceiling of his cell, he succeeded in printing. At this time, Hadrian Junius forming, out of an old pewter plate, a key produced in a work entitled Batavia, which would unlock his door. Upon written between 1562 and 1571, but not making his final attempt, the bunch of published till 1588, after his death), from keys proved to be a proper collection for the verbal information of some aged peothreading the entire labyrinth of the pris- ple, who, again, derived their knowledge on, not excepting the outer gate. Besides from others, a complete history of the the keys and lamp, there was a book, con- invention of the art of printing, in which taining, among other records, the minutes Coster acted the chief part. During his of his own examinations. This he took walks in a wood near Haerlem (as Juwith him, and, carefully closing and lock- nius relates), he carved letters, at first for ing every door after him, he made his his amusement, in the bark of beech-trees. way, without interruption, to the outside He persevered in these experiments, till of the prison walls; and, after remaining he had finished entire lines, and finally six weeks secluded and disguised in the proceeded so far as to cut out whole neighborhood, he took his departure from pages on the sides of boards. With blocks Portugal, and reached England in safety, of this sort, he effected the impression of
In 1421, or, the Spegel onzer Behoudenisse. After this, from the battle in stiff coats, not a fold of he improved his mode of printing by cast- which was disordered. Le Kain and ing lead or pewter types. But a person by mademoiselle Clairon, it is said, were the the name of John, whom he had employed first who introduced propriety of costume as an assistant, stole his printing appara- on the stage, under the patronage of the tus one Christmas night, and fled with it count de Lauraguais; but they excluded first to Amsterdam, and then to Cologne only the grosser absurdities: Scythians and and Mentz, at which last place this theft Sarmatians were clothed in tiger-skins, occasioned the general diffusion of the art Asiatics in the Turkish dress; but the old invented by Coster. In Holland, the peo- costume was retained in other respects. ple are so firmly convinced of the truth The scenery of the stage was as incongruof this story, that a statue in honor of ous as the dresses. It is not long since Coster was erected in 1622. His house, Semiramis issued from a palace adorned which fell down in 1818 through age, was with Corinthian columns, and entered a shown with the greatest respect; and, in garden in which a whole American Flora 1740, the jubilee of his invention of the art was blooming; or perhaps she was seated of printing was celebrated. This celebra- on a throne, overshadowed with a canopy tion was repeated in 1823, the justice à la Polonaise. Those by whom she was of the claim of the Dutch being consid- surrounded were dressed in the Turkish ered to be established by Meerman's Ori- style; while a master of horse, in the cosgines Typographicæ (1765), and Koning's tume of the age of chivalry, offered her Verhandeling over het Oorsprong der Boek- his hand. In Germany, the stage, at that drukkunst (1816). The examination of time, was no better in this respect. It is the subject, in the last essay in the Hermes, not very long since the companions of by Ebert (No. xx), leads us to this result; Theseus made their appearance there that Coster, at a time at least as early with large perukes; and, in the Clemenas that of the invention of the art by, za di Tito, Roman soldiers marched on the Germans, employed himself in ex- the stage with stiff boots, and stiffer periments, the design and result of queues. The Germans, however, first which was the invention of the art of made a thorough reform in these absurdiprinting. (See Ebert's article Buchdruck- ties, and the national, now royal, theatre, erkunst in the Encyclopædia by Ersch and in Berlin, in point of scenery and costume, Gruber.)
is at present the inost correct in the world. Costume, in the fine arts; the observ- In France, Talma reformed the Parisian ance of propriety in regard to the person stage.
What he did in this respect or thing represented, so that the scene of for the drama, David (who had, however, action, the habits, arms, proportions, &c., a predecessor in Vien) effected for paintare properly imitated. The peculiarities ing, and his school is entitled to the honof form, physiognomy, complexion ; the or of having strictly observed propriety dress, ornaments, habitations, furniture, of costume. The question, To what exarms, &c., should all be conformable to tent should truth be sacrificed to beauty? the period and country in which the scene is answered in the best manner by an artiis laid. The rules of costume would be cle on the subject of dramatic represenviolated by the introduction of a palm- tation, in Müllner's Almanac for Private grove and a tiger in a scene in Russia, by Theatres (Almanach für Privatbühnen, in the representation of American Indians in two volumes, 1818). There, poetical corturbans, or of Romans with cannons at rectness is distinguished from historical, the siege of Carthage, or an inhabitant of and the cases are pointed out, in which the East seated at table with a knife and the latter must yield to the former, partly fork. That the ancient painters, and even on account of the harmony that must celebrated masters of the modern Europe- necessarily exist between the external apan schools, are often chargeable with devi- pearances and the spirit of poetry, and ations from propriety in regard to costume, partly for the sake of intelligibleness, and is not to be denied ; but nowhere have avoiding what would be offensive to the they been so glaring as on the stage, where less informed spectators. That art may Greek, Turkish and Peruvian princes used be permitted to idealize costume as well to make their appearance in long velvet as language, cannot be denied. No perfect mantles, embroidered with gold; Merope work on costume has as yet appeared. and Cleopatra were equipped in hoop- Dandré Bardon, in his Costumes of the petticoats, Medea and Phædra in French most Ancient Nations, did not confine head-dresses; peasant-girls were dressed himself to the true sources of information. cut in whale-bone, and heroes emerged The Traité des Costumes of Lenz is a very
feeble production, and Martini's Commen- house of commons, indeed, the first seats on taries have very little improved it. Spa- the right of the speaker are appropriated lart's Essay on the Costume of the most to the members from London; but they celebrated Nations of Antiquity, of the occupy them only at the opening of parMiddle Ages, and of Modern Times (Ver- liament, and afterwards resign them to the such über das Costume der vorzüglichsten ministers, about whom their adherents Völker des Alterthums, des mittlern Alters arrange themselves, on this side of the und der neueren Zeiten, published by Igna- house. The members of the opposition tius Albrecht, Vienna, 1796—99, 3 vols.) is party take their stations on the opposite superior, but not entirely free from faults. seats. In France, this party is always The Recueils des Costumes Antiques, by arranged on the left side. The most vioRocheggiani and Willemin, are more use- lent members of the national convention ful productions, but not sufficiently com- occupied the highest benches on this side, prehensive. A new Essay on Antique and and obtained, from this circumstance, the Modern Costumes, by Gironi, appeared in name of the Mountain. The more moderItaly, in 1819; and an Illustration of the ate members, and the partisans of governEgyptian, Grecian and Roman Costume, ment, took their places in front, on the in forty Sketches, with Descriptions, was lower seats, which were called the plain, published by Thomas Baxter, London, the belly, and the morass.
At the present 1810. There is often no means of in- time, the different parties in the French formation for the artist but the original chamber of deputies arrange themselves sources. For the costume of the ancients, in the same manner. The ministerial he must have recourse to the engravings party take their places in the centre (see of antiquities; for the modern costume, he Centre), the most violent members of the must resort to essays on painting in differ- different parties at the extreme right and ent ages, monumental figures, and trea- left, while the more moderate occupy the tises on costume; and in regard to the intervening spaces. The right side of the costume of foreign nations, he may derive chamber was the strongest from 1815 to information from books of travels: histo- 1828. A majority was secured to the ries, antiquities and geographies, are indis- ministry by means of new laws, regulating pensable guides in these inquiries. The the elections, whieh gave to the great costumes of modern times and foreign na- landholders alone the right of choosing tions are described in the Costumes civils a portion of the deputies, and of assisting actuels de tous les Peuples connus, by St. in the election of the remainder. The Sauveur; and in a large work entitled operation of these laws has been increased Collections of Costumes of various Nations by the reduction of land taxes, and by the (London, 1800 et seq.); and in several pub- exertion of an illegal influence at the eleclications on the costume of the theatre, tions by the ministers. In 1828, a reaction viz., Costumes et Annales des grands Thé- took place, and a majority of liberal men átres de Paris ; Costumes of the Imperial were chosen, in spite of ministerial influCourt Theatre in Vienna (Costumes des ence. In the beginning of 1830, the left K. K. Hoftheaters in Wien), with colored side obtained a complete victory, in conseplates (Vienna, 1812 and 1813); Costumes quence of which the chambers were proof the National Theatre at Berlin (Theater- rogued. The left side accuse the ministecostumes des berliner nationaltheaters) from rial party of a design to increase the power 1816 to 1823—the old ones were given of the church, and restore to the priests the from 1789 to 1813.
influence which they exercised in ages of COTÉ Droit, and Coré GAUCHE ignorance; to reestablish the feudal privi(French; signifying the right and left side leges of the nobility, and to encumber in the French chamber of deputies). It landed property with inalienability, indiviswould be, perhaps, desirable, in all nation- ibility and the feudal tenures. They also al assemblies, that the seats of the mem- accuse them of striving to exclude the bers should be determined in such a way commons from the higher offices of honor, (either by lot or some other means) that and even of a desire to overthrow the the members of the same party should not charte, which, according to the right side, be allowed to cluster together, and split up can be taken away by the same power the assembly into hostile masses. Reg- which granted it. On the other hand, the ulations of this kind are actually establish- right side accuse their opponents of aiming ed in the congress of the U. States, and in to make the present constitution of France most of the German states; but in the more democratical, and to cramp the powEnglish and French parliaments, there are er of the king. They consider them, in no rules of this nature. In the English fact, as wishing to dethrone the Bourbons.
In speaking of the political sentiments of actors also wore them, perhaps, at first, as a member of the house of deputies, it is commemorative of the expeditions of generally said, he sits on the right side, on Bacchus; and, at a later period, in order the left side, in the centre, &c.
to give additional height to the actors who CÔTE-D'OR; a chain of mountains in played the part of heroes. Hence cothurBurgundy, so called from the abun- nus is sometimes used figuratively for dance of excellent wine which they yield. tragedy. The cothurnus used for this purTheir height_varies from 1400 French pose differed from the hunting cothurnus feet to 1600. The chain runs from N.N.E. in this respect, that it had a sole of cork, to S. S. W., and is about 36 leagues long, at least four fingers thick. beginning at the plateau of Langres, and Cotin, Charles, counsellor and almoner extending to the sources of the Bourbince of the king, and member of the French and the Ďheune.
academy, was born at Paris, in 1604. He CÔTE-D'OR; a department of France, is indebted for his notoriety, in a great formerly a part of Burgundy. (See De- measure, to the satires of Boileau. He partment.)
possessed a knowledge of theology and COTERIE ; a French word, now much philosophy, understood the Hebrew and used in English society. Originally, cote- Syriac languages, and studied the Greek rie was a commercial term, signifying an authors so diligently, that he could repeat association in which each member furnish- large portions of Homer and Plato by ed his part, and received his proportion heart. Among his poems are many which of the profits, or bore his proportion of have much merit. It has often been supthe loss. Thence it was used for small posed, that Boileau introduced the name societies, in which certain individuals are of Cotin into his satires, because it furnishin the habit of meeting, and each contrib- ed a convenient rhyme, and Moore refers utes his share of conversation and enter- to this in his Life of Byron, vol. 1. But tainment. A coterie consisting of ladies Boileau had good reasons for complaining and gentlemen of talent, vivacity and of Cotin, who had represented him, at the agreeable manners, is one of the finest hotel Rambouillet, as a dangerous man. productions of modern society. It is from The ridicule of Boileau exasperated Cotin coteries that we derive a large stock of the still more, and he attempted every means most entertaining and instructive matter of silencing him. His influence at court, in the numberless French memoirs. his title and wealth, appeared to give him
CÔTES-DU-NORD; a French depart- the means of effecting this object; but, ment, formerly the northern part of Upper unluckily, his follies drew upon him a new Brittany.
enemy in Molière, who, in his Femmes Côtes, VIN DE; a Bordelais wine. (See Savantes, introduced him on the stage, and Bordelais.)
exposed him to ridicule, under the name CŐTHEN, ANHALT; one of the Anhalt of Trissotin. The sonnet to the princess principalities. (See Anhalt.) All the pos- Urania was composed by Cotin ; and he sessions of the prince of Anhalt-Cőthen engaged in a dispute respecting this poem amount only to 300 square miles, contain- with Ménage, in the presence of a select ing 4 towns and 33,500 inhabitants, fur- society, in which the disputants used the nishing 320,000 guilders of revenue, and same kind of language which Molière burdened with 1,200,000 guilders public places in the mouths of Trissotin and Vadebt. The prince and his wife-a natural dius. Cotin died in 1682. His Ervres daughter of Frederic William II of Prus- Mêlées appeared in 1659, at Paris, and his sia-embraced the Catholic religion in Euvres Galantes, in 2 vols., in 1665. Paris, Oct. 24, 1815, which caused some COTOPAXI; the most remarkable volcanreligious excitement in Germany. Cöthen, ic mountain of the Andes, in Quito; 35 the capital, has 700 houses and 5500 in- miles S. S. E. of Quito, N. N. E. of Chimhabitants.
borazo; lat. about 0° 40 S. It is the most COTHURNUS, with the ancients; a kind beautiful of the colossal summits of the of shoes, laced' high, such as Diana and Andes. It is a perfect cone, which, being her nymphs are represented as wearing. covered with an enormous layer of snow, They are still worn by the hunters in Italy. shines with dazzling splendor at the setThey were particularly in use among ting of the sun, and stands forth in bold the Cretans. “Galen and Pollux describe relief from the azure heavens. This corthem as reaching up to the middle of the ering of snow conceals from the eye of calf, and laced tight by means of thongs, the observer even the smallest inequalities to protect the foot and ankle, without ob- of the ground. No point or mass of rock structing freedom of motion. The tragic penetrates the coating of snow and ice, or
breaks the exact regularity of the conical His Allgemeine Zeitung is a daily political figure. The crater is surrounded by a paper; Das Morgen-Blatt is a daily paper, small circular wall, which, when viewed principally devoted to entertaining matter; through a telescope, appears like a para- Das Kunst-Blatt treats of the fine aris; pet. Its height above the sea is 18,898 Das Ausland gives information only refeet. It is the most tremendous volcano specting foreign countries; Das Inland is in Quito, and its explosions have been chiefly for Bavaria ; Das Polytechnische most disastrous, spreading destruction over Journal is devoted to the useful arts; Die the surrounding plains. Remarkable erup- Politischen Annalen is made up of long tions took place in 1698, 1738, 1742, 1744, political treatises and documents; Das 1766, and 1768; and one in 1803. In 1698, Literatur-Blatt is a daily paper containing the eruption destroyed the city of Tacunga, short critiques, somewhat similar to the with three fourths of its inhabitants, and London Literary Gazette, but its contents other settlements. In 1738, the flames are more valuable. All these different rose nearly 3000 feet above the brink of publications are carried on in Stuttgard, the crater; and in 1744, its roarings were Tübingen and Augsburg. Some years heard as far as Honda, on the Magdalena, since, Mr. Cotta purchased the barony of 600 miles distant. With respect to the Cottenberg, in the kingdom of Würtemexplosion of 1803, Humboldt observes, berg, whereby he became entitled to a “ At the port of Guayaquil, 52 leagues seat in the chamber of the nobles of that distant, in a straight line, from the crater, state, where he has shown himself disposed we heard, day and night, the noise of this to liberal sentiments. His Allgemeine Zeitvolcano, like continued discharges of a ung has likewise this character, as much battery; and we distinguished these tre- as is possible in a country in which the mendous sounds even on the Pacific conductor has been obliged already, three ocean.” In viewing this volcano, every times, to change the place of its publicathing contributes to give it a most majestic tion, in order to evade a strict censorship. and awful character. The pyramidal It never contains matter professedly editosummits of Illinissa ; the snowy ridges of rial. Mr. Cotta's wealth is very great, and the other mountains; the singular regular- he applies it liberally in procuring valuable ity of the inferior line of snow, and the contributions to the various journals publuxuriance of the great plains, offer an lished by him, which contain, for instance, unparalleled assemblage of the grand and much original correspondence from forpicturesque features of nature. Humboldt eign countries. found it difficult to ascend the mountain, Cortin, Sophie Ristaud, better known in 1802, as far as to the limit of perpetual by the name of madame Cottin, the author snow, and he pronounces it impossible, by of several novels and works of entertainany human art, to reach the summit. ment, was born in 1773, at Tonneins, in
Cotta, J. G., baron of Cottenberg; the the department of Lot and Garonne, marmost eminent living bookseller of Ger- ried, at the age of 17, a banker at Bormany. Mr. Cotta, whose resources, in his deaux, and went soon after to Paris, youth, were but scanty, studied theology, where, in a few years, she lost her husand
was, for some time, a private instructer. band. To relieve her sorrow, In 1798, he established, in connexion with herself up to intellectual pursuits. To some other persons, the Allgemeine Zeit- divert her thoughts, she wrote down the ung (q. v.), which soon became, through fancies and reflections that strongly occuhis efforts, the best political paper of Ger- pied her active mind, without supposing many. Mr. Cotta then becarne a publisher that they would be of interest or value of books; and his establishment still con- beyond the circle of her immediate friends. tinues under the firm of J. G. Cotta'sche In the ease with which she expressed her Buchhandlung, and is distinguished, not- thoughts, she discovered a talent, which like those of his contemporaries, Crapelet even those most intimate with her had not and some others for the peculiar beauty hitherto appreciated. Her first attempts and correctness of the publications which were small poems, and a history of 200 proceed from it, but for the great number, pages. One of her friends having occaamong which have been many of the sion for 50 louis-d'ors, in order to leave best works of German literature. But France, from which he was banished, the circumstance which probably renders madame Cottin, to assist the unfortunate Mr. Cotta's press unique, is the number of man, published her Claire d'Albe, but kept periodicals that he has succeeded in estab- her name a secret. The necessity which Lishing, which embrace a very extensive she felt of pouring out her feelings detercircle of scientific and literary subjects. mined her io appear again as an authoress,