« AnteriorContinua »
and she produced Malvina, Amélie de called short staple cotton; the last is cultiMansfield, and Elisabeth, or the Exiles of vated in the lower country, near the sea, Siberia. The eloquence and fervor with and on the isles near the shore, and prowhich she expresses the most secret feel- duces cotton of a fine, white, silky appearings of the heart have been much ad- ance, very strong, and of a long staple. mired, especially by her own sex. Her Cotton was found indigenous in America. circumstances enabled her to devote the There are two machines for cleansing profits of her works to benevolent objects. cotton from the seeds; these are, the rolA painful disorder prevented her from ler-gin and the saw-gin. The essential finishing a religious work which she had parts of the first are two small cylinders, begun, and another on education. The revolving in contact, or nearly so. The latter was the only one of her works for cotton is drawn between the rollers, while which she was anxious to gain a favorable the size of the seeds prevents them from reception with the public; for, singular as it passing. The saw-gin, invented by Mr. may seem, she disapproved, in general, of Whitney, is used for the black-seed cotwomen's appearing as authors. She died, ton, the seeds of which adhere too strongly after three months' suffering, Aug. 25, to be separated by the other method. It 1807. Her works are contained in the is a receiver, having one side covered with collection Euvres complètes de Madame strong parallel wires, about an eighth of Cottin, Paris, 1806.
an inch apart. Between these wires pass Cotton is a soft, vegetable down, which a number of circular saws, revolving on a is contained in the seed-vessels, and en- common axis. The cotton is entangled velopes the seeds, of the cotton plant (gos- in the teeth of the saws, and drawn out sypium herbaceum), which is cultivated in through the grating, while the seeds are the East and West Indies, North and prevented, by their size, from passing. South America, and Egypt; in fact, in The cotton thus extricated is swept from most parts of the world which possess the saws by a revolving cylindrical brush, a sufficiently warm climate. It is an and the seeds fall out at the bottom of annual plant. It grows to a considerable the receiver. Mr. Whitney is an American. height, and has leaves of a bright green Arkwright, in England, is highly celebrated color, marked with brownish veins, and for the machinery which he has invented each divided into five lobes. The flowers for the spinning of cotton. North and have only one petal in five segments, with South America, Egypt and India, produce a short tube, and are of a pale-yellow color, most of the cotton consumed, and the with five red spots at the bottom. The cot- greater part is manufactured in England ton-pods are of somewhat triangular shape, and the U. States. The export of cotton and have each three cells. These, when from the U. States, between October, 1828, ripe, burst open, and disclose their snow- and September, 1829, to Great Britain, white or yellowish contents, in the midst amounted to 498,001 bales; the amount of which are contained the seeds, in exported to France, was_184,821 bales ; shape somewhat resembling those of and to the other parts of Europe, 66,178; grapes. The fibres of cotton are extreme- total, 749,000. The crop in 1824—5 was ly fine, delicate and flexile. When exam- 569,259 bales; that of 1825—6 was 720,027 ined by the microscope, they are found to bales; of 1826–7, 957,281; of 1827—8, be somewhat flat, and two-edged or trian- 720,593; of 1828–9,870,415. Of this last gular. Their direction is not straight, but crop, 130,000 bales are estimated to have contorted, so that the locks can be ex- been manufactured in the U. States. tended or drawn out without doing vio- The whole amount of cotton imported inlence to the fibres. These threads are to Great Britain, in 1824, was 149,380,122 finely toothed, which explains the cause pounds; in 1825, was 228,005,291 ; in 1826, of their adhering together with greater was 177,607,401; in 1827, was 272,448,909 facility than those of bombax and several pounds. The value of cotton manufacapocynea, which are destitute of teeth, and tured goods exported in 1824, according which cannot be spun into thread without to the official rates, was £27,171,555; in an admixture of cotton. In the Southern 1825, £26,597,574; in 1826, £21,445,742: States of the American Union, the cotton of cotton twist and yarn, in 1824, accordcultivated is distinguished into 3 kinds ing to the official rates, £2,984,344; in the nankeen cotton, so called from its color; 1825, £2,897,706; in 1826, £3,748,526. the green seed cotton, producing white Cotton Manufacture. The increase of cotton with green seeds; and the black the cotton manufacture, during the last seed cotton. The two first kinds grow in half century, is one of the most interesting the middle and upper country, and are events in the history of commerce. The
earliest seat of the manufacture, known to the consumption of the kingdom. Of this, us, was Hindostan, where it continues to upwards of 40,000,000 pounds are exbe carried on, by hand labor, in all its ported in yarns, valued at £3,500,000 steroriginal simplicity. Such, however, has ling. The value of all other manufactures of been the power of improved machinery, cotton, exported in 1828, was £13,545,638. in its recent application to it, that Europe Some estimates of the annual value of the and America are now pouring back upon cotton manufactured in Great Britain have Asia her original manufacture, and under- been as high as £36,000,000 sterling; but selling her in her own markets. The this would seem to be an exaggeration. In first impulse in these improvements was the early periods of this manufacture, the derived from the inventions of Hargreaves profits must have been enormous. It has and Arkwright, between 1768 and 1780. built up the cities of Liverpool and ManThe improved machinery of which we chester in England, of Glasgow and speak consists of the cylindrical carding Paisley in Scotland, and has been estiengine, by which the fibres of cotton are mated to give employment to a million of disentangled and separated from each persons. After a long period of success, other, and from all foreign substances, interrupted only by occasional and temand delivered in a uniform, continuous porary fluctuations, the production, both roll; the drawing and roving frames, by of the raw material and of the manufacwhich these rolls are repeatedly doubled tured article, seems to have outrun the and extended, until the fibres are drawn consumption of the world, in that eventout into a regular and perfectly horizontal ful year of overtrade, 1825. A long stagposition; and the spinning frame, the most nation succeeded in 1826 ; an unpreceimportant quality of which is the causing dented reduction in the prices of cotton the roving or preparatory yarn to pass manufactures, and in the value of property through two or more sets of rollers, revolv- engaged in it, spread a wide and general ing with different velocities, by which the distress, throughout the districts devoted thread, at the moment of being twisted, is to this manufacture, which continued, with drawn out to any desired degree of tenuity; greater or less intensity, through the years the rollers performing the delicate office 1828 and 1829. Although there is no of the thumb and finger. In addition to diminution in the quantity of cotton conthese, the power-loom was brought into sumed in Great Britain, there is abundant general use about the year 1816, by which evidence, that neither the capital nor labor the laborious process of weaving is con- employed in it is now receiving (1830) a fair verted into the mere superintendence of remuneration. The fall in the prices of two, and even three, of these machines; cotton manufactures, from 1814 to 1826, each one producing from 30 to 40 yards would seem, by a comparison of the real or of cloth per day. In the printing of cali- declared value of the exports with the ofcoes, equally important improvements ficial value, rated by a uniform list, to have have been made. Instead of the tedious been 55 per cent. The greatest export in process of impressing patterns from wood- value, of any one year, was in 1815, haven blocks, the most delicate patterns are ing exceeded £19,000,000 sterling.-In the transferred from copper cylinders with U. States, the progress of this manufacture astonishing rapidity; two, and even three, has partaken of the characteristic energy colors are, in this way, imprinted at one and vigor of the country. It is only since operation. In the richer and more ex- the introduction of the power-loom, that it pensive patterns, however, block-printing can be considered as having been estabcontinues to be used, in addition to the lished on a permanent and useful basis : impressions from the cylinders. The the scarcity of skilful weavers, and the science of chemistry has contributed its high prices of weaving, had been found share of improvement in the new process of serious obstacles to its success, which was bleaching by chlorine, and in innumerable secured by this invention. The first sucnew combinations of colors. In its pres- cessful experiment with this instrument ent state, the entire manufacture, in its was made at Waltham, Mass., in 1815, apvarious departments, presents a greater plied to the coarser fabrics; but so rapid combination of human skill than can be has been the extension of the manufacture, found in any other art or manufacture. In that, besides furnishing the U. States with 1781, the quantity of cotton wool imported its full supply of the more staple producinto Great Britain, was 5,000,000 pounds; tions, and a considerable export of coarse in 1829, it cannot be estimated at less than goods, the beautiful prints of Manchester 210,000,000; and, allowing 20,000,000 for and Glasgow are imitated in great perfecexport, 190,000,000 pounds will remain as tion; and more than half the consump
tion of the country, in this important establishments for the manufacture of cotbranch, is supposed to be now furnished ton, in the U. States, at present (1830), are from native industry. The actual ex- at Dover, N. H.; Lowell, Mass. ; Pawtent of this manufacture, in the U. States, tucket, R. I.; Patterson, N. J.; and in the at the present time (1830), is matter of neighborhood of Philadelphia and Baltiestimate only; a very moderate one is be- more. The increase of the production lieved to be the consumption of 35,000,000 of the raw material is even more wonderpounds of cotton per annum, manufactured ful than that of the manufacture. In into 140,000,000 of yards of cloth, of which 1791, the whole export of the U. States about 10,000,000 are exported, and up- was 64 bags, of 300 pounds each; the wards of 20,000,000 printed; the value, $i2 average of 1826, 7, and 8, is 235,000,000 to 14,000,000 ; and employing a capital of pounds ; and, if we include that consumed $25 to 30,000,000. Several improvements, in the country, the average production is originating in the country, have been in- 270,000,000 pounds, valued at $27,000,000; troduced into the manufacture, and the the price having fallen to about one third whole process is believed to be performed of that of 1815. This reduction of price to as great advantage as in any part of the seems destined to cause a still further world. The descriptions of cottons ex- immense extension of the manufacture, ported are mostly of a coarse fabric, which which is rapidly taking the place of are taking the place of the cottons of In- hempen sailcloth, and the different dedia, and are known abroad by the name scriptions of coarse linens. In fact, this of American domestics. They have been valuable material, at once delicate, strong extensively imitated by the English, and and cheap, seems equally well adapted to a competition is going on, between the every fabric, from the gossamer-like muslin manufacturers of the two countries, for of the ball-room to the coarse garment of the possession of the foreign markets. It the Negro slave.-As the subject of cotton is thought, that the possession of the raw manufactures is one of so much interest, material on the spot, and the use of the we shall here give a detailed account of the comparatively cheap moving power of process, and mention the most important water, instead of steam, with the proxim- machines by which each part is performed. ity of the great markets of South America, After the cotton has been ginned (see the are advantages, in favor of the U. States, first part of this article), and picked or batmore than sufficient to counterbalance ted, that is, beat up and separated into a some disadvantage in the higher cost of light, uniform mass, the first operation of machinery, and, as is commonly sup- the manufacturer is carding, which serves posed, in the higher wages of labor. But to equalise the substance of the cotton, the labor in the cotton mills producing and dispose its fibres in a somewhat parthese goods, being wholly performed by allel direction. The carding-engine confemales, has been ascertained not to be sists of a revolving cylinder, covered with dearer than the same description of work in cards, which is nearly surrounded by a England ; and, as it is not easily applicable fixed concave framing, also lined with to any other branch of industry, it would cards, with which the cylinder comes in seem not improbable, that this country contact. From this cylinder, called the will be the future source of supply, in breaker, the cotton is taken off by the mocoarse cottons, for foreign markets. The tion of a transverse comb, called the doffinggreat profits attending this manufacture plate, and passes through a second carding have attracted to it
, in a very short period, in the finishing cylinder. It is then passed a great amount of capital
, and produced a through a kind of funnel, by which it is violent competition: the consequence has contracted into a narrow band or sliver, been a sudden reaction and great depres- and received into tin cans, in the
state of a sion of prices, producing considerable em- uniform, continued carding. The next barrassment in those establishments ope- step in the process is called drawing the rating with inadequate capital, and unable cotton. The machine employed for this to meet the shock of impaired credit
. purpose, called the drawing-frame, is conBut, although individuals may meet with structed on the same principle as the heavy losses by imprudent speculations, spinning-frame, from which the idea of it there is no reason to distrust the eventual was taken. To imitate the operation persuccess of the manufacture, which must formed by the thumb and finger in handsoon find relief, under the increasing con- spinning, two pairs of rollers are employed; sumption of the country. The price of the first pair, slowly revolving in contact coarse cottons, in 1829, was less than one with each other, are placed at a little disthird of the price in 1815. The largest tance from the second pair, which revolve
with greater velocity. The lower roller In 1775, the mule-jenny or mule was inof each pair is furrowed, or fluted longi- vented by Samuel Crompton, of Bolton. tudinally, and the upper one is covered The spindles are mounted on a movable with leather, to give the two a proper hold carriage, which recedes when the threads of the cotton. If a carding be passed are to be stretched, and returns when they between the first pair, it will be merely are to be wound up. The process of compressed by the pressure of the rollers; stretching is intended to produce threads but if it be then passed through the second of the finest kinds, and consists in forcibly pair, moving with twice or thrice the stretching portions of yarn, several yards velocity of the first, it will be drawn twice long, in the direction of their length. The or thrice smaller than it was when it purpose of it is to reduce those places in entered the first rollers. The relative the yarn which have a greater diameter velocity of the two pairs of rollers is than the rest, so that the size and twist of called the draught of the machine. Sev- the thread may become uniform througheral of these drawings are then passed out. Here ends the process of spinning, together through rollers in the same man, and that of weaving begins. The followner, plying (coalescing) as they pass, and ing progress of a pound of cotton may forming a single new drawing. The be not uninteresting to our readers. It drawing and plying are several times re- appeared, originally, in the English Monthpeated, and have the effect of arranging all ly Magazine. “There was sent to Lonthe fibres of the cotton longitudinally, in don lately, from Paisley, a small piece of a uniform and parallel direction, and doing muslin, about one pound weight, the hisaway all the inequalities of thickness. tory of which is as follows: The wool In these operations, the cotton receives no came from the East Indies to London; twist. Roving the cotton, which is the next from London it went to Lancashire, where part of the process, gives it a slight twist, it was manufactured into yarn; from Manwhich converts it into a soft and loose chester. it was sent to Paisley, where it thread, called the roving: The machine was woven; it was sent to Ayrshire next, for performing this operation is called the where it was tamboured; it was then conroving-frame or double speeder. In order veyed to Dumbarton, where it was handto wind the roving upon the bobbins of sewed, and again returned to Paisley, the spindles, in even, cylindrical layers, whence it was sent to Glasgow and finthe spindle-rail is made to rise and fall ished, and then sent, per coach, to London. slowly, by means of heart-wheels in the It may be reckoned about three years that interior of the machine. And, as the it took to bring this article to market, size of the bobbins is augmented by each from the time when it was packed in layer, the velocity of the spindles and of India, till it arrived complete, in the merthe spindle-rail is made to diminish grad- chant's warehouse, in London; whither ually, from the beginning to the end of the it must have been conveyed 5000 miles by operation. This is effected by transmit- sea, nearly 1000 by land, and have contribting the motion to both, through two op- uted to reward the labor of nearly 150 posite cones, one of which drives the other persons, whose services were necessary in with a band, which is made to pass slow- the carriage and manufacture of this small ly from one end to the other of the cones, quantity of cotton, and by which the and thus continually to alter their relative value has been advanced more than 2000 speed, and cause a uniform retardation of
cent." the velocity. The bobbins are now trans- Cotton, Charles, a burlesque poet of ferred to the spinning-frame, which has a the 17th century, born in 1630, received double set of rollers, like those described his education at Cambridge, after which in the account of the drawing and roving- he travelled in France. Not being of a 'frames, and which, operating in the same very provident disposition, he was subject manner as in those machines, extend the to frequent embarrassments, and, at one rove, and reduce it to a thread of the time, was confined in prison for debt. He required fineness. The twist is given to died' at Westminster in 1687. His works this thread by flyers, driven by bands, are numerous, including Scarronides, or which receive their motion from a hori. Virgil Travestie, being the first book of zontal fly-wheel, or from a longitudinal Virgil's Æneid, in English burlesque, and cylinder. The yarn produced by this a translation of Montaigne's Essays. Afmode of spinning is called water twist, ter the death of Cotton, a volume was from the circumstance of the machinery, published, entitled Poems on several Ocfrom which it is obtained, having been, at casions (8vo.), which contains some pieces first, generally put in motion by water. of considerable merit, chiefly of the light
and humorous kind. He also translated been the nephew, or at least the kinsman, the Horaces, a tragedy of Corneille; and of Raoul, lord of Coucy, who accompanied his pen was often employed to relieve his Philip Augustus to the Holy Land, and pecuniary difficulties.
with whom he has been sometimes conCotton, sir Robert Bruce; a celebrated founded. A manuscript in French verse, English antiquary and collector of literary in the royal library at Paris, entitled Rorelics. He was born at Denton, in Hun- mance of the Castellan of Coucy, and the tingdonshire, in 1570, and, after having Lady of Fayel, written about 1228, and a been at Westminster school, completed chronicle on the same subject, in 1380, in his studies at Trinity college, Cambridge. the possession of Fauchet, relate the folHe then settled in London, devoting much lowing story: Renaud, castellan of Coucy, of his time to antiquarian pursuits, and was smitten with the charms of Gabrielle employing himself especially in collecting de Vergy, lady of Aubert de Fayel. The ancient deeds, charters, letters, and other castle of Fayel was situated not far from manuscripts of various kinds, illustrative Coucy, in the neighborhood of St. Quenof the history of England. He was one tin. Renaud threw himself at the feet of of the earliest members of the antiquarian Gabrielle, confessed his passion, and was society; and he not only promoted the at first repulsed, but not forever. The general objects of that learned association, lovers often saw each other in private. but also assisted with his literary treasures, Assurances of the most ardent love, and as well as with his purse, Speed, Camden, unceasing precautions against the jealousy and other writers on British archæology of the husband, gave occasion to the songs In the reign of James I, he was knighted; of Renaud, of which a collection has been and, on the institution of the order of bar- preserved to us, breathing the language of onets, he was promoted to that rank. He the most glowing passion. The happidied in May, 1631. He is chiefly memo- ness of the parties was interrupted by the rable as the founder of the valuable Cotto- summoning of Coucy to the crusade. He nian library, which collection was long embarked with Richard of England at preserved at Cotton-house, Westminster. Marseilles. With him he fought at CæIn 1700, it was appropriated to the public sarea, and conquered at Ascalon. But, in use; and, after having been partly de- defending a castle where the king was stroyed by fire in 1731, it was removed, in quartered, he was wounded by a poisoned 1753, to the British museum, where it now
The wound proved incurable, remains.
and Renaud requested leave to return to COTTONIAN LIBRARY, in London, was his country, which was granted. But, in collected by sir Robert Bruce Cotton (q.v.), a few days, he felt sensible that his end secured to the public by a statute, in 1700, was approaching; and, giving to his faithafter which it was several times removed, fiul squire a silver casket, with the presents and, after being injured by conflagrations of his mistress, “ Take it,” he said, “and and political disturbances, was at last plac- guard it well; when I am dead, enclose ed in the British museum (q. v.), where it my heart in this casket, and bear the whole remains.
to the lady of Fayel.” He also added a Cottus. (See Briareus.)
letter, which he was hardly able to sign. Cotys, or Čotetto; a goddess of de- He died, and his faithful squire hastened bauchery, worshipped at Corinth and to the castle of Fayel. He was surprised Chios. Her festival was called Cotyttia, by the lord of the castle, who, suspecting or Cotyttis, and was celebrated during the his appearance, ordered him to be searchnight (in what way is easily to be inferred ed, and found on him the gifts and the from the character of the goddess)
, at Ath- letter of Coucy. Burning with rage, he ens, Corinth, Chios, in Thrace, &c. Cotys determined on revenge. He ordered the is probably the same with the goddess of heart to be served at table. It was done, the Edoni in Thrace.—Korvos Ocaoúrns, fol- and Gabrielle ate of it. “Have you found lower of Cotys; a common term for a the dish to your taste, madam?” he asked. profligate person.
6 Excellent!" answered his victim. “I Couching; a surgical operation, that doubt it not,” he replied ; “it must have consists in removing the opaque lens out been a dainty morsel for you, for it was of the axis of vision, by means of a needle the heart of the castellan of Coucy.” In constructed for the purpose.
fearful confirmation of his words, he gives Coucy, Renaud, Castellan of, was the her the letter of the dying Renaud. The hero of a tragical' occurrence, which has unhappy woman, after this horrible meal, been often celebrated in ancient ballads refused all sustenance, and died of volun
He is supposed to have tary starvation. The love-songs of the