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castellan of Coucy are in the Mémoires condition. Even after the acute state of historiques sur Raoul de Coucy, Paris, 1781 inflammation may have subsided, a cough, (in the ancient dialect, with a translation attended with extreme danger, sometimes subjoined, and old music). Uhland has continues to be excited by collections of made this story the subject of a fine bal- pus, or abscesses, which ensue in the sublad.
stance of the lungs, and either terminate Cough, in medicine; a deep inspiration in consumption, or suffocate the patient of air, followed by a sudden, violent and by suddenly bursting; more rarely the pus sonorous expiration, in a great measure is discharged gradually from a small apinvoluntary, and excited by a sensation of erture, and the
patient recovers. In such the presence of some irritating cause in cases, the fever, originally acute, is conthe lungs or windpipe. The organs of verted into a hectic, with daily chills, sucrespiration are so constructed, that every ceeded by heat and flushing of the face, foreign substance, except atmospheric air, night sweats, and emaciation. Another offends them. The smallest drop of wa- frequent origin of cough is the rupture ter, entering the windpipe, is sufficient to of some of the blood-vessels of the lungs, produce a violent coughing, by which the and the consequent effusion of blood into organs labor to expel the irritating sub- the cells, which is expelled by the cough stance. A similar effect is produced by that its irritation excites, constituting what inhaling smoke, dust, &c. The sudden is technically termed hæmoptoe, hæmoptysis, expulsion of air from the lungs is produce or spitting of blood. When the vessels ed by the violent contraction of the dia- of the lungs are thus ruptured, they selphragm and the muscles of the breast dom heal readily, but degenerate into uland ribs. These parts are thus affected by cers, which pour out a purulent matter; a sympathy with the organs of respiration, and, by this discharge, the vital powers which sympathy springs from the con- are gradually worn down and destroyed. nexion of the nerves of the different parts. This is a common source of consumption, The sensation of obstruction or irritation, or phthisis pulmonalis. (See Consumption.) which gives rise to cough, though some- A cough is excited, and the same fatal times perceived in the chest, especially near disorder is also induced, by the existence the pit of the stomach, is most commonly of tubercles in the lungs. These are little confined to the trachea, or windpipe, and tumors, which gradually inflame and ulespecially to its aperture in the throat, cerate, and produce the same consequences termed the glottis. Yet this is seldom the as the ulcerations from hæmoptysis. Calseat of the irritating cause, which is gener- culi, or stony concretions, are sometimes ally situated at some distance from it, and formed in the lungs, and the irritation often in parts unconnected by structure or which they produce necessarily excites a proximity with the organs of respiration. cough, which is liable to terminate in conOf the various irritations which give rise sumption. There is yet another source to cough, some occur within the cavity of of irritation within the lungs, of which the chest; others are external to that cav- cough is an attendant, namely, an effuity; some exist even in the viscera of the sion of serum into the parenchymatous pelvis. Of those causes of cough which substance of the lungs, or into the cellular take place within the chest, the disorders membrane, which connects the cells and of the lungs themselves are the most com- blood-vessels together. This has been mon, especially the inflammation of the called anasarca pulmonum, or dropsy of mucous membranes, which excites the the lungs, and is marked by great difficatarrhal cough, or common cold. This culty of breathing, with a sense of weight disease is generally considered unimpor- and oppression in the chest, occasioned by tant, particularly if there be no fever con- the compression of the air-cells and vesnected with it. But every cough, lasting sels by the accumulated water; hence longer than a fortnight or three weeks, is also great irregularity of pulse, frightful suspicious, and ought to be medically dreams, imperfect sleep, &c., are among treated. Another common cause of cough, its symptoms. Inflammation of the heart, which has its seat in the lungs, is inflam- and of the pericardium, or membrane surmation of those organs, whether in the rounding it, is also accompanied by cough, form of pleurisy or peripneumony. (q. v.) and other symptoms not easily distinguishThese diseases do not differ very essen- able from those of pleurisy and peripneutially, except in violence and extent, from mony. Where a cough is excited by disthe acute catarrh, but are more dangerous, orders of parts external to the cavity of the and more rapid in their progress, and the chest, it is generally dry, as the irritating constitution is excited to a highly febrile cause is external, and not any obstructing
matter in the lungs themselves. Disorders and invariably proved correct.
A plan of the viscera of the abdomen, especially had been proposed to the estates of Britof those which lie in contact with the tany for making navigable canals in their diaphragm (the muscular curtain separ- province, and Coulomb, as commissioner ating the cavities of the belly and chest), of the government, was to give his opinion frequently induce a cough. A short, dry of the scheme. Convinced that the ulticough invariably attends inflammation of mate benefit would by no means be prothe liver, whether acute or chronic, and portioned to the immense cost of the work, accompanies the various tubercular and he decided against it. As this interfered other obstructions in that organ. Hence with the plans of certain of the ministry, inflammation of the liver is not unfre- he was obliged to do penance in the Abquently mistaken for inflammation in the baye. Coulomb requested permission to lungs; and, in some of the chronic dis- resign his office. His request was denied, eases of the liver, the cough is occasion- and he was sent again to Brittany. His ally complained of as the most urgent second decision was the same as the forsymptom. The presence of pain in the mer, and the estates of Brittany honored right side, shooting up to the top of the his judgment by the present of a watch shoulder, the dryness of the cough, and bearing the arms of the province. On the pain, enlargement, hardness, or uneasi- breaking out of the revolution, Coulomb ness on pressure below the ribs of that was knight of the order of St. Louis, and side, will afford the best means of distin- lieutenant-colonel in the corps of engiguishing whether a disease of the liver is neers. He gave up all his offices to dethe origin of the cough. Disorders of the vote himself to the education of his chilstomach are, also, often accompanied with dren. This leisure was useful to the cause a cough of the same dry and teasing na- of science; for he was led, by experiture, especially when that organ is over ments on the elastic force of bent metal distended with food, or is in the opposite rods, to discover the secrets of magnetism, condition of emptiness. A short cough and the principles of electricity, which he is, therefore, a frequent symptom of indi- ascertained with the more precision from gestion and hypochondriasis, or of that his habit of combining, in all his inquiries, weakness of the stomach which is popu- calculation with observation. On the reslarly termed bilious. In short, there is toration of the institute, he was made a scarcely any one of the viscera, in the member, and appointed inspector-general cavity of the abdomen, the irritation of of public instruction. He was actively emwhich, in a state of disease, has not ex- ployed in this department, which he was cited cough. Disorders of the spleen, constantly elevating by his writings, and pancreas, and even the kidneys, have all was in the enjoyment of much domestic given rise to this symptom; and external happiness, when he died, Aug. 23, 1806. tumors, attached to them, have had the COUMASSIE; a town in Upper Guinea, same effect. Any distension of the abdo- the capital of the kingdom of the Ashanmen, which, by its pressure upwards, im- tees. Bowdich estimates its inhabitants pedes the descent of the diaphragm, and at 18,000. Lat. 6° 39 50' N.; lon. 20 consequently the expansion of the lungs, 11' 4511 W. occasions cough. Thus, in the ascites, or Council; an assembly : by way of dropsy of the belly, the water-in tym- eminence, an assembly. of the church, panites, the air—in corpulency, the fat in called, also, synod. Provincial councils the omentum-and, in pregnancy, the were held as early as the 2d century, that gravid uterus,—all have the effect of ex- is, synods consisting of the prelates of a citing cough in many constitutions. The single province. The assembled bishops variety of causes from which coughs may and elders deliberated on doctrines, rites arise, must convince every reader of the and church discipline, and promised to absurdity of attempting to cure all kinds execute the resolutions of the synod in of cough by the same remedy.
their churches. These assemblies were Coulomb, Charles Augustin de; born usually held in the capitals of the prov1736, at. Angoulême; entered the corps of inces (metropolis)
, the bishops of which, engineers; was sent to Martinique, where who, in the 3d century, received the he constructed fort Bourbon. " In 1779, title of metropolitans, usually presided his theory of simple machines obtained over their deliberations. The councils the prize offered by the academy; and, in had no other legislative authority than 1781, he was unanimously chosen a mem- that which rested on the mutual agreeber of that body. In all difficult cases of ment of the members. After Christianity mechanics, his judgment was appealed to, had become the established religion of
the Roman empire, in the beginning of thought it the best means for restoring the 4th century, the emperors summoned peace to the church.
But the popes, councils, which were called ecumenical, recollecting the decisions at Pisa, Conthat is, universal councils, because all the stance and Bâle, so disadvantageous to bishops of the empire were invited to their authority, constantly endeavored to them. Among these, the most remarka- evade it. At length the pope could no ble are, 1. the council of Nice (q.v.), in 325, longer resist the importunities of the emby which the dogma respecting the Son peror and the states. He summoned a of God was settled ; 2. that of Constantino- council at Trent (q. v.), which began its ple (q. v.), 381, by which the doctrine con- session in 1545, and labored chiefly to cerning the Holy Ghost was decided ; 3. confirm the doctrines of the Catholic that of Ephesus, 431; and, 4. that of Chalce- church against the Protestants. Since don, 451; in which two last, the doctrine of the council of Trent, there has been no the union of the divine and human nature council, in which all the Catholic states in Christ was more precisely determined. of the West have been represented; but In the 4th century, the opinion arose, that there have been several national councils, the councils were under the particular particularly in France. The Lutherans direction of the Holy Ghost; hence the have never settled their church concerns great authority which their resolutions by councils; but in the Calvinistic churchobtained. Like the Roman emperors, the es, many particular synods have been German kings exercised, at first, the right held, among which, that of Dort (1618), of assembling synods; in particular, Char- which confirmed the peculiar opinions of lemagne, during whose reign the clergy Calvin on election, in opposition to the of the Frankish empire held a council at Arminians, is distinguished. The ProtestFrankfort on the Maine, in 749, which con- ant councils could never have the same demned the worship of images introduced authority as the Catholic in matters of among the Greeks. In the middle ages, doctrine, for the Protestants do not conthe
popes maintained the right of summon- sider their clergy as constituting the ing councils, which, however, cannot be church:
moreover, in the Protestant counconsidered as general councils, since the tries of Europe, each monarch has assumWestern church was soon separated fro ed the station of head of the church of the Greek. The principal of these Latin his country. The chief questions in recouncils are that of Clermont (1096), in the gard to councils are, 1. What is their reign of Urban II, in which the first crusade authority in matters of doctrine and disciwas resolved upon, and some later ones, pline? 2. What is necessary to give them in which a reunion with the Greeks was the character of ecumenical or general attempted. In consequence of the great councils, and to which of those that have schism towards the end of the 14th cen- been held should this name be confined ? tury, which gave rise to, at first two, 3. Who has the right to convoke councils, and afterwards three, candidates for the to preside over them, to be a member of papal throne, the council of Pisa was them? 4. Whether their decrees are auconvened, in 1409, which declared that thoritative per se, or whether they require the popes were subordinate to the general to be confirmed by some other power, as council, and condemned the schismatic the pope, for instance ? All these points candidates. After the dissolution of the are of vital interest to the Catholic church, council of Pisa, without having terminat- and have occasioned violent contests. ed the schism, the council of Constance They involve too many considerations to (q. v.) was held in 1414, the most solemn be treated here, and we must refer the and numerous of all the councils, which reader to Catholic works on this point. revived the principle, that a general coun- Among others, the Dictionnaire de Théocil is superior to the pope, adjusted the logie, par Bergier, extrait de l'Encyclopédie schism, and pronounced the condemnation Méthodique, Toulouse, 1817, contains a full of John Huss (1415), and of his friend article Concile. Jerome of Prague (1416). The council Council, AULIC. (See Aulic Council.) of Bâle (q. v.), in 1431, asserted the same COUNCIL OF State, in modern politics; principle, and intended a reformation, if a term of very vague meaning. In gennot in the doctrines, yet in the constitution eral, it means a council intended to assist and discipline of the church. At the the sovereign, and composed of members, time of the reformation, the Protestants whose chief business it is to discuss, adrepeatedly demanded such a council; vise, legislate or decide; it being the duty even the emperor, and the states which of the ministers to execute. Buillard's had remained faithful to the old doctrine, Histoire du Conseil d'État (Paris, 1718, 4to.),
and Guyot's Traité des Droits des Dignités, In 1679, the number of members, having et Offices du Royaume (Paris, 1787), show become inconveniently large, was limited the indefinite, vacillating and arbitrary to 30. It is now, however, again indeficharacter of the powers of the conseil nite, but only such members attend as are d'état, in France, before the revolution. summoned on each particular occasion. It judged cases of maritime prizes, often The lord president of the council is the decided in civil and criminal processes, fourth great officer of state. He is apdetermined the authority of the papal pointed, by letters patent under the great bulls, &c. The abolition of such a body seal, during pleasure. Privy counsellors was an act of wisdom in the constituent are nominated by the king, without patent assembly. It was succeeded by the court or grant, and removable at his pleasure. of cassation (q. v.), which is not only the The power of the privy council, in ofcourt of ultimate appeal, but also defines fences against the government, extends the jurisdiction of different tribunals in only to inquiry, and their committal is not case of conflict. The constitution of the privileged beyond that of an ordinary jusyear III established a council of state, tice of the peace. But in plantation or under the direction of the consuls, pour admiralty causes, in disputes of colonies rédiger les projets de loi et de réglements, et concerning their charters, and in some pour résoudre les difficultés en matière ad- other cases, an appeal lies to the king in ministrative. These extensive and vague council. The privy council continues for powers of the council contained the seeds six months after the accession of a new of mischief, particularly as that body was prince, unless he previously dissolve it
. under the direction of the consuls. In Proclamations, which, if consonant to the 1802, the conseil d'état was constituted law of the land, are binding on the subjuge des appels comme d'abus ; and this ject, are issued with the advice of this abuse still continues. The powers of the council. council were still further enlarged by COUNCIL AND SEssion, LORDS OF ; the senatus-consultes, and even by imperial supreme judges of the highest court of decrees: thus it was empowered to annul Scotland. (See Scotland.) the decisions of the cour des comptes, and COUNCIL BLUFFS; a military post bestill retains this dangerous authority. Un- longing to the U. States, on the west bank der the Bourbons, the conseil d'état has of the Missouri, about 50 miles above the been intrusted with powers of indefinite junction of the La Platte, and 650 above extent, and of all kinds, which are by no the junction of the Missouri with the Mismeans vested in the executive, by the sissippi. Lon. 96° 42' W.; lat. 41° 31' N. charte. Besides this, the members are It is an important station, the highest up appointed and removed at the will of the the Missouri, that is occupied by the U. king. This council has, says Cormenin States as a military position. Before the (Questions de Droit Administratif, p. 5), U. States occupied this post, the Ottoes une juridiction tellement étendue, qu'on and Missouris held a council there, Aug. ne trouve rien de semblable ni en France 3, 1814, which gave rise to the name. dans les temps antérieurs à la révolution, ni Bluff was originally a sea term meaning dans les autres pays de l'Europe, telle enfin, high land. (See Pickering's Vocabulary qu'elle se mêle à presque tous nos intérêts, of Americanisms.) qu'elle affecte presque toutes nos propriétés, COUNSEL; those who give counsel in qu'elle touche à presque toutes nos personnes. law; any counsellor or advocate, or any In Spain, when the constitution of the number of counsellors, barristers or sercortes was in force, a constitutional coun- geants, as the plaintiff's counsel or the decil of state existed. In Prussia, an asser- fendant's counsel. In this sense, the word bly composed of the highest civil and has no plural, but is applicable, in the military officers, with the princes, is called singular number, to one or more persons. Staatsrath (council of state), but, of course, COUNSELLOR, in law, is one whose prono power is vested in that body. They fession is to give advice in questions of give their opinion on questions laid before law, and to manage causes for clients. them by the king. The prince royal is its (See Advocate.) president. In some of the U. States, there Counsellor (in German, Rath). In Gerare councils, which the governors are many, the mania for titles is carried to a obliged to consult upon executive busi- greater degree than in any other country ness, and which have a negative upon in Europe. Almost every man is desirous their appointments to office.
of possessing one, and the title of even COUNCIL, Privy, in England, is the the lowest officer is reverently repeated, principal council belonging to the king. with a preceding Mr., as often as the in
dividual is addressed by persons of equal Count, COUNTEE, or County (from the or lower rank; for instance, we have Mr. Latin comes), appears to have been first Lieutenant,nay,sometimes Mr.Taxgatherer, used, as a title of dignity, under the reign and even Mrs. Taxgatheress (Frau Steuer- of Constantine. During the existence of einnehmerin). The title Rath (counsellor), the republic, the inferior officers, as tribucin particular, has been distributed with a ni, præfecti, scribæ, medici, haruspices, acmost ridiculous profusion. In all branches censi, præcones, who accompanied the of government, you meet counsellors in proconsules and proprætores into their proabundance. Every one is a counsellor vincial governments, were known as the who has passed through certain preparato- comites or cohors of their principal. (Cic. ry degrees, particularly in Prussia. In fact, pro Rab. Post. 6.) On the establishment the term, in Prussia, is as common as man- of the imperial government, the name was darin in China. The judges are not judges, applied to the court and household of the but court-counsellors, which title, for the prince; and Dio (53) mentions a council sake of precision, is amplified to coun- of senators, selected by Augustus as his try, or city, or high-country-court counsel- comites. (Salmas. ad Sueton. Tib. 46.) lor (Oberlandesgerichtsrath). There are also On the first distribution of his dominions, Finanz-Räthe, Medizinal-Räthe, Regier- and the foundation of the new capital by ungs-Räthe, &c.; and, in all branches, Ge- Constantine, 10 out of 35 provincial generheime-Räthe, as, Geheime-Medizinal-Räthe, als received the title of comes. The civil Geheime-Finanz-Räthe, &c. Moreover, as it officers, likewise, who were honored with always happens that honors and titles grad- this distinction, gradually became very ually decline in value, new ones must be numerous, and lists of them may be found 'invented: thus, in Prussia, the title Geheime- in the Cod. Theod. vi, 12—20, in the NoRath being given to persons who have titia Imper., and in the glossaries of Spelnothing to do with the private deliberations man and Du Cange. After the fall of of the government, it has been deemed the Roman power, the title was retained necessary to give to the actual counsellors by the conquerors; and, under Charlea new and distinguishing title : they are magne, it denoted equally a military or called real-privy-counsellors. And you civil employment. About the end of the find, therefore, in Prussia Wirkliche-Ge- 15th century, in Germany, and under the heime-Ober-Finanz-Räthe (real-privy-high- last princes of the Merovingiạn race in finance-counsellors)! and so in all branches. France, the title appears to have become And who are these real-privy-high &c.'s ? hereditary in families, from the weakness You would think they were at least sev- of the crown, which was unable to recall eral degrees higher than the privy coun- the dignity which it had once bestowed. sellors of England. They are, in fact, Selden, in his Titles of Honor, treats the however, mere assistants of the minister. origin and progress of the title at much Besides this host of Räthe, who have ac- length, and with his usual learning. Such tually official duties to discharge, there is is the account usually given of the origin another swarm, equally numerous, of of the counts of modern times. The instipeople whose title of counsellor is a mere tutions of the ancient German tribes may, title of honor, like the Chinese peacock's however, have contributed much to the feather. The title most generally bestow- establishment of this class of nobles. In ed in this way is Hofrath (counsellor of the early times, before the existence of the Latcourt). Hofrathe and Geheime-Hofräthe are in comites, the Germans had officers chosso common in Germany, that a traveller en, at least in some tribes, by the people. observes, if you spit out of the window These were a kind of inferior judges. on a crowd, it is ten to one that you lit a After the Franks became the ruling nation, Hofrath. There are also Bau-Räthe (build- they made a change in their character. ing-counsellors), Steuer-Räthe (tax-coun- The kings now appointed them, and they sellors), Universitäts-Räthe, Commerzien- exercised jurisdiction over certain districts Räthe; and again the same titles, with the in the king's name, with the title of Grahonorary term Geheime (privy) prefixed, as fen. The word has been derived very Geheime-Bau-Räthe, &c. The title of variously from grau (gray or venerable), Kriegs-Rath (counsellor of war) is often from ypáow, to write (like the Gallicogiven to men who have nothing military in Latin word graffare, whence greffier), &c., their occupation or habits. The old prov- from gefera, signifying companion, and erb says, Šat verbum sapienti, but here we corresponding to the Latin comes; but are tempted to exclaim, Sat verbum stulto. there is little doubt that it is really from
COUNSELLOR, Privy. (See Council, the Saxon gerefa (gatherer, and subsePrivy.)
quently judge)." These ancient officers