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year in the bay of Bengal, on the Malabar His four pictures for the council hall at coast, and, in still greater quantity, in the Versailles--Solon, Trajan, Severus and neighborhood of the Maldive islands. Ptolemy Philadelphus-excited the admiThey are used throughout the East Indies, ration of connoisseurs. His chief works especially in Bengal and in the African are, the Martyrdom of St. James (in the trade, instead of small coins. The de- church of Notre Dame), Cain murdering mand is so great, that, notwithstanding the his Brother in the academy), the Trinity insignificant price (in 1780, a pound of and the Conception of the Holy Virgin (in them might be bought for three cents), the Hôtel des Invalides). Coypel had a about $150,000 worth are sent every year rich imagination, drew correctly, underto Bengal.
stood expression, and was an agreeable colCoxe, William, a historian and travel- orist.—2. His son, Anthony, born at Paris, ler, born in London, 1747, was educated in 1661, where he died in 1721, possessed at Eton and Cambridge, and successively spirit and invention. At the age of 14, he accompanied several young men of the studied the works of the Venetian colorfirst English families, on their travels in ists, and, though his studies were interEurope, in the capacity of tutor. Among rupted by his speedy return to France, the these were the earl of Pembroke, the late works that he executed obtained the greatMr. Whitbread (the famous parliamentary est applause, which rendered him probaorator), and the marquis of Cornwallis. bly more careless than he would otherHe published an account of his travels wise have been. The richness of his through Switzerland (1779), and through imagination and the greatness of his comPoland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark position caused his imperfect drawing to (1781–92), which are highly esteemed, be overlooked, and his dazzling coloring and have been translated into almost all excused his want of harmony. His fame the languages of Europe. As a historian, laid the foundation for the manner of the he brought himself into notice by his Me- French school.—3. Much more pure and moirs of Sir Robert Walpole, in 1798, correct, but comparatively neglected by which were followed by those of Horatio the public of his time, was his younger Lord Walpole, in 1802. He then pub- brother, Noel Nicholas Coypel, usually lished his History of the House of Austria called Coypel the uncle, born at Paris, in (1807), which has been translated into 1692, where he died in 1735. Far from German; next, his Memoirs of the Kings desiring to dazzle by a false glitter, he of Spain of the House of Bourbon, from aimed only at truth and nature. Without 1700 to 1788 (1813, 3 vols., 4to.). Marlbo- general popularity, he was satisfied with rough's Life and Original Papers (1818 the praise of a small circle of connoisseurs et seq., 3 vols. 4to.) is a valuable work. of good taste. He finally received a place Mr. Coxe died in 1828.
in the academy.-4. Charles Anthony, the Coxie, or Coxcin, Michael, a painter son of Anthony, born at Paris, in 1694, and engraver, born at Mechlin, 1497, a where he died in 1752, followed the expupil of Bernard van Orley, travelled to ample of his father, and accommodated Rome, where he remained several years, himself to the taste of his time with great attracted by the works of Raphael, with success. The applause which he received whom he was probably personally ac- did him much injury. He was entirely a quainted. Here he executed several mannerist. His coloring was dazzling, but paintings in fresco, and many other pieces. inharmonious. His father was the author He also painted the history of Cupid and of a poetical epistle on painting, addressPsyche, in the style of Raphael, which ed to him, written with much elegance. was engraved on 32 copperplates. In the Coysevox, Antoine, a sculptor, born at imperial gallery of Vienna, we find a Ma- Lyons, in 1640, went to Alsace, in his donna with the infant Jesus, by him. His 27th year, to adorn the beautiful palace of works are rare, even in the Netherlands. the cardinal Fürstenberg at Saverne. On He died in 1592.
his return to France, he became a memCorpels, THE; 1. Noel, the father, born, ber of the academy of the arts of painting it is uncertain whether at Paris or in and sculpture, and made several busts of Normandy, in 1628 or in 1629, died Louis XIV, and other works for the royal in 1707, at Paris. After he had embel- palaces. His figures are full of grace, Jished, by the royal command, the old natural and noble. He was called the Louvre with his paintings (from the car- Vandyke of sculpture, on account of the toons of Lebrun), and had, in like manner, beauty and animation of his portraits. adorned the Tuileries, he was appointed a The statue of cardinal Mazarin, in the director of the French academy in Rome. museum at Paris, is a inasterpicce of art. Besides this, his most distinguished works body and limbs are incrusted with a hard, are the statue of Louis XIV, on horseback, compact shell. Of the sense of taste, we for the estates of Bretagne; the sepulchre can say nothing, but that, as the animals of Colbert; the statues representing the possess a remarkably complex and elabDordogne, Garonne and Marne ; the group orate apparatus for mastication, there is of Castor and Pollux; the sitting Venus; no reason for believing them devoid of the Nymph of the Shell; the Hamadryad; this sense. The mouth is furnished with the sportive Faun with the Flute; Pega- at least eight pieces or pairs of jaws, sus and Mercury. Coysevox died at Paris, which pass the food through an extremely in 1720, in the 80th year of his age. short gullet into a membranous stomach
CRAB (cancer, Lin.). This name, which of considerable size. This stomach is appears to be derived from the Greek rendered curious by having within certain capaßos, through the Latin carabus, used by cartilaginous appendages, to which strong Pliny to designate certain crustaceous grinding teeth are attached. These, in species, is now applied to a considerable crabs, are five in number, and placed at group of invertebral animals, whose bod- the pyloric extremity, or outlet of the ies are covered by an external skeleton, or stomach ; so that the aliment, after being calcareous crust, having 10 articulated subjected to the action of the jaws, is again limbs, adapted for swimming or walking, more perfectly chewed by the stomachand breathing by branchia, or gills. The teeth, before entering the digestive tube, head and corselet are united, the latter where it is exposed to the action of the being broader than it is long. The tail is biliary fluid of the liver. The latter organ short in proportion, and concealed by be- is of great size in these creatures, and is ing turned forward beneath the body. all that soft, rich, yellow substance, found This genus is distinguished from all oth- immediately beneath the superior shell, ers of the same family by the semicircu- usually called the fat of the crab, and lar shape of the corselet, the pointed or justly esteemed a delicious morsel
. A hooked extremities of the last joint of the little posterior to the stomach (commonly limbs, the narrowness of the superior called sandbag), the heart is situatedshell from before backwards, the posterior somewhat globular, whitish body, which direction of the hinder tarsi, and the ab- propels a colorless lymph to the gills sence of spines or ridges from the forceps, (called dead man's flesh or fingers) and rest or biting claws. They belong to the of the body, whence it is brought back to fourth section of ten-legged, short-tailed the heart by a hollow vein (vena cava), of crustacea (decapoda brachyura) of the latest considerable size. The process of sloughsystems, and are of numerous species, ing, moulting, or throwing off the entire exceedingly various in size, color, and calcareous covering, which constitutes modes of living. A slight survey of the their only skeleton, is common to all the structure of these animals might lead to crustacea, and is very worthy of attention. the opinion that their senses were lim- As it is obvious that the hard shell, when ited or imperfect; but proper observation once perfected, cannot change with the shows the contrary to be true. The sense growth of the animal, it becomes necesof sight, in most of the species, is pecu- sary that it should be shed entirely; and liarly acute, and enables them to distinguish this shedding takes place at regular perithe approach of objects from a very con- ods, at which the increase of size occurs. siderable distance. Their power of smell- No one can behold the huge claws oi ing is also great, though we have not yet forceps of various species, and the smalldiscovered the organ by which this sense ness of the joints between them and the operates. It has been inferred that the body, without feeling some surprise that antenna serve this purpose. Until more the creature should be able to extricate positive knowledge is acquired on the them from the old shell, though this is subject, no evil can arise from this opin- readily accomplished. The aquatic crabs, ion as to the seat of the sense of smell. when the season of shedding arrives, genThe entrance to the organ of hearing is at erally seek the sandy shores of the creeks the base of the peduncle sustaining the and rivers, and, having selected a situation, antenna, and consists of a small, hard, they remain at rest, and the change betriangular prominence, covered by a mem- gins. The body of the crab seems to brane, within which is a cavity containing swell, the large upper shell is gradually the expanded auditory nerve. Of all the detached at the edge, or where it joins the senses, that of touch, except so far as it thorax or corselet, and the membrane may be possessed by the antenna, appears gradually gives way, and rises up from to be the least perfect, since the whole behind, somewhat like the lid of a chest.
The crab next begins to withdraw the to turn them from their course. With limbs from their cases, and the large mus- unyielding perseverance, they surmount cles of the claws undergo a softening, every obstacle which may intervene, which allows of their being drawn through whether a house, rock, or other body, not the smaller joints. This movement is avoiding the labor of climbing by going slowly effected, and, at the time it is ac- round, but ascending and passing over it complished, the parts about the mouth, in a straight line. Having reached the the antenne and eyes are withdrawn from destined limit of their journey, they detheir old cases, and the animal escapes, posit their eggs in the sand, and recomretaining his original figure, but soft, help- mence their toilsome march towards their less, and incapable of exertion or resist- upland retreats. They set out after nightance. By a gentle and not very obvious fall, and steadily advance, until the apmotion, we next observe the sand dis- proach of day-light warns them to seek placed below the body, and the crab be- concealment in the inequalities of the gins to be covered with it, until, at length, ground, or among any kind of rubbish, he is sufficiently covered for safety, though where they lie ensconced until the stars still in sight. This is generally in shallow again invite them to pursue their undeviwater, where the sun shines freely upon ating course. On their seaward journey, the bottom; and, in the course of 12 hours, they are in full vigor and fine condition; the external membrane begins to harden, and this is the time when they are caught so as to crackle like paper when pressed in great numbers for the table. Their upon, and the process of hardening goes flesh, which is of the purest whiteness, is on so rapidly, that, by the end of the next highly esteemed, but, like that of all crus48 hours, the crab regains something of taceous animals, is rather difficult of digeshis former solidity and ability to protect tion. Returning from the coast, they are himself by flight or resistance. Myriads exhausted, poor, and no longer fit for use. of these animals are caught on the shores They then retire to their burrows, and of the rivers and creeks of the Chesa- slough, or shed their shells, after which peake bay, when in their soft state, and operation, and while in their soft state, sold to great advantage. The epicure they are again sought by epicures. Seewho has never tasted soft crabs should ing they are so much valued as an article hasten to Baltimore, Annapolis or Easton, of food, it is not surprising that their numin Maryland, in July and August, to maké bers should be exceedingly diminished, or himself acquainted with one of the highest quite extinguished, in populous islands, luxuries of the table, which fairly disputes where multitudes are annually consumed, the palm with canvass-back ducks, also before they have deposited their eggs for to be obtained in perfection in Baltimore the continuance of the species. Besides during the winter. The habits of crabs this cause of diminution, they are destroyare very various : some are exclusively ed, in great numbers, by other animals, aquatic, and remain on the sands or rocks, and numbers of them perish from exhausat great depths in the sea; others inhabit tion and injury on their homeward progexcavations formed in the soft coral reefs ress. When the eggs are hatched, the or bars on certain coasts; some spend young, in like manner, seek the hills, and their days altogether on shore, living in pursue the course of life peculiar to their burrows or dens, formed in a moist or Crabs generally subsist upon aniboggy soil ; others resort to the rocky flats mal matter, especially in a state of decomor beaches, to bask in the sun, where only position, though some of them are very an occasional wave dashes over them, and fond of certain vegetable substances. This seek refuge in the sea when alarmed; is especially the case with the swift-runwhile some species are completely terres- ning or racer crabs, which live in burrows trial, inhabiting holes upon the highest made in a soft or watery soil
, in the vicinhills and mountains of the West Indies. ity of sugar-cane fields. From their numOf these land-crabs, the most remarkable bers and activity, they become a great is the species formerly so abundant in the nuisance, destroying large quantities of highlands of Jamaica (cancer ruricola), and cane, by cutting it off and sucking the still common in less densely peopled or juice. They sometimes increase to such uninhabited islands. When the season a degree, that, in conjunction with the for spawning arrives, vast armies of them rats and other destroyers of the cane, they set out from the hills, marching in a direct blight the hopes of the planter, and comline towards the sea-shore, for the purpose pletely spoil his crop. Their excavaof depositing their eggs in the sand. On tions in the soil are so deep and extensive, this grand expedition, nothing is allowed and it is so very difficult to catch or de
stroy them in any way, that they may be of my prize, one vigilant imp at a distance regarded as seriously subtracting from the has taken alarm, and, by dashing across value of estates situated near the sea, or the spot where the unsuspecting individwhere they are abundant. No one, who ual rested, set all in the vicinity to flight, has not made the experiment, could read- and changed my anticipated triumph to ily believe the great distance at which mortification.- Inquirers who wish to obthese marauders descry an approaching tain the most ample knowledge of the pursuer, nor the extraordinary celerity construction, functions and classification with which they escape. Few men can of crustaceous animals, we refer to Desrun with sufficient swiftness to overtake marest's excellent work, entitled Consithem; and even when, from any accident, dérations générales sur les Crustacés (8vo., the pursuer is led to hope that he has cut Paris, 1825). Such as wish to be satisfacoff the retreat of his victim, the wonderful torily acquainted with the habits of these facility they have in running, or rather curious beings, would find much gratificadarting in any direction, or with any part tion from a visit, during the fine season, of their bodies foremost, almost uniformly to some of the places of resort upon our enables them to elude capture, and re- Atlantic coast, where they will find an commence their flight. It is seldom, abundant field thrown open to their exhowever, that they leave the mouths of amination. Perhaps cape May is one of their dens, or go to a distance from them, the best situations for this purpose, on in the day-time; and their vigilance is account of the facility of visiting it, and such, that they regain them in a moment, the excellence of its sea beach. and disappear securely, as soon as a man CRAB, in ship-building; a sort of woodor dog comes near enough to be seen. en pillar, whose lower end, being let down The writer has known a planter, whose through a ship's decks, rests upon a socket, crop was ruined one season by bad weath- like the capstern. It is employed to wind er, rats and crabs combined, vent his in the cable, or to raise any weighty matspleen by shooting the crabs, which were ter. It differs from the capstern by not not otherwise to be approached so as to being furnished with a drum-head, and by be killed. This, as might be supposed, having the bars going entirely through it. was a very ineffectual revenge, since their CRAB-APPLE. (See Apple.) shells are sufficiently hard to cause most CRABBE, George, one of the most popuof the shot to glance harmlessly off. Per- lar of the modern British poets, was bom haps poisoning, by means of the powder Dec. 21, 1754, at Altborough, in Suffolk. of the nur vomica, or St. Ignatius's bean, He was the son of an officer of the cuswould prove a more effectual method. A toms, and was intended for a surgeon. mixture of this powder with sugar or mo- The poetical
disposition of the
boy showed lasses and crumbs of bread might be tried itself early, being awakened by the oppowith a considerable prospect of success. site spirit of the father, who used to cut The species which daily bask in the sun, all the verses out of the journals which he on the rocky shores of the West India read, considering them as a useless incumislands, are quite as vigilant, and very little brance. The pieces of paper containing inferior in swiftness to those above-men- them served the children for playthings. tioned. Some of them are very large, Thus the little George acquired the habit splendidly colored, and well suited to ex- of reading verse, learned many of the cite the wishes of a naturalist to add them pieces by heart, and, after a while, atto his collection. Many an hour of anx- tempted to supply the gaps often made in ious watching, and many a race of breath- the pieces by the process of excision. less eagerness, have they caused the writer By and by, he wrote for the journals, and, in vain. Sometimes when, with great in 1778, gained a prize for a poem on caution, I had approached, and placed hope, which induced him to give up the myself between the crab and the sea, study of surgery, and go to London, where hoping to drive him inland and secure he devoted himself entirely to belles-lettres him, just at the instant success seemed to Here Edmund Burke became his paternal be certain, the vigilant animal would dart friend and adviser. The first poems which sidewise, backwards, or in a direction he published after his change of residence, entirely opposite to that he might be ex- including the Village (1782), received great pected to take, and scamper securely to applause.
Doctor Johnson encouraged his ocean hiding-place. At other times, the young poet to persevere. Burke perwhile stealing upon one which was pre- suaded him to study theology, and, by lavented from observing my approach by a borious application, without having visited projecting piece of rock, and almost sure a university, he gained an academic de
gree. The duke of Rutland conferred on the capital of Poland, and though, afterhim a living in his gift, to which another wards, Sigismund III (who reigned from was afterwards added. Crabbe now mar- 1587 to 1632) fixed the royal residence at ried, and became the father of a numerous Warsaw, still it remained, till 1764, the family. At a later period, he received a place of coronation. It contains about lucrative benefice, in the county of Suf- 25,000 inhabitants, of whom many are folk; and, in 1813, he was made rector Germans, and a great number Jews. It of Trowbridge. The study of theology, consists of Cracow proper, or the old for a long time, withdrew Mr. Crabbe city, surrounded with fortifications, walls almost entirely from poetic labors. As and ditches, and the suburbs of Stradom late as 1807, after an interruption of almost and Clepar on the left, and Casimir
on 20 years, he gave some new poems to the the right, bank of the river Vistula. The public, among which the Borough de- traveller, on seeing the number of rich serves particular mention. His latest old churches and towers, the lofty castle, work is the Tales of the Hall, in which and the mass of houses, spread out before two brothers, who have met after a long him on the boundless plain, would supseparation, describe many scenes and pose that he was approaching a splendid events which they have witnessed. His city; but, on entering, he finds a labyrinth smaller tales, in verse, deserve also to be of crooked and dirty streets, bearing the mentioned. His works have gone through remains of former splendor. Cracow is many editions, and, of late years, he has the see of a bishop, who formerly bore the himself made a collection of them. His title of duke of Severia. The church of poetry has been justly compared to the the castle (a Gothic building well worth painting of Teniers and Ostade, being seeing), the richest church in Galicia, condistinguished for truth, accuracy and life. tains the monuments of many Polish Its charm lies in the masterly treatment kings, the tombs of the famous Sobieski, of subjects which, in themselves, have of Jos. Poniatowski, of Kosciusko and little of a poetical character. His muse Dombrowski. Of the other 72 churches, loves to visit the huts of poverty and mis- some are remarkable for their antiquity. ery, and describes the scenes which they In the church of St. Anna stands the exhibit with heart-rending truth. His marble monument of Copernicus. On descriptions of nature are living, circum- one of the three hills near Cracow stands stantial and true. Every thing about him the monument of Kosciusko, 120 feet is characteristic, clear and simple. He high. The city is supposed to have been has been called the anatomist of the human founded by a prince named Cracus, about soul.
A. D. 700. It adopted the Magdeburg CRABETH, Dierk and Wouter, brothers; law in 1257. From this time, it has been painters on glass; said, by some, to be the seat of a flourishing commerce, and Germans; by others, to be Dutchmen. has possessed a good university, with They lived at the end of the 15th and the an observatory. The university was rebeginning of the 16th centuries, at Gouda, modelled in 1817. On the division of where they executed 11 paintings on Poland, in 1795, Cracow fell to Austria, glass, in St. John's church, which are still which had already taken possession of the admired. Wouter excelled in exactness, suburb of Casimir. In 1809, it was, toDierk in power. The art of painting on gether with all West Galicia, made a part glass, according to some accounts, ceased of the duchy of Warsaw. By an act of with them. It is related that the jealousy the congress of Vienna (1815), Cracow, of the two brothers prevented them from with a territory of 487 square miles and communicating to each other the secret of 108,000 inhabitants (of whom 7300 are their particular style, and that each, on Jews, and 1500 Lutherans), was declared receiving a visit from the other, carefully a republic, to remain perpetually neutral, concealed such of his works as were not and to be governed according to the concompleted, lest the observation of the grad- stitution of May 3, 1815. The city has a ual improvement of the painting might militia for its defence. The taxes are enable his brother to acquire the peculiar considerably reduced, a part of the debts advantages of his style.
paid, and useful buildings have been Cracow; a republic and city in Poland, erected. The three powers, under whose in West Galicia, situated on an extensive protection Cracow is (Austria, Russia and plain, at the confluence of the rivers Prussia), on the 5th of Oct.
, 1826, estabRudawa and Vistula, where many impor- lished a new course of study for the unitant commercial roads centre ; lon. 199versity and other institutions for instruc57' 9' E.; lat. 50° 3' 52'' N. It was formerly tion. The constitution, signed by Met