Imatges de pÓgina

severest of all penalties; their obedience, with the highest order of happiness, and in its greatest abundance. But, the laws that govern property or character being of a lower order, less [an accompanies their infraction, less pleasure, their obedi


What then, is the highest order of laws? From what source springs the most exalted pleasure and the most intense suffering that man can possibly experience? From the laws of mind. Who is the lord of Creation? Man. What is the greatest work of God within our knowledge? Ourselves What terrestrial being is susceptible of experiencing the greatest amount of enjoyment and of suffering? Mankind. What governed by the widest range and highest grade of laws, and most capable of obeying or violating them? The same being, man. And what part of man constitutes the highest department of his nature? Mind. Which is the king, which the subject, in his nature?-which that part for whose special service all others were created? Mind. From what fountain head, gushes forth every pleasure, every pain, that man experiences? From mind-mind only. The laws of mind, are then the highest order of laws within our knowledge; and their obedience is productive of the greatest amount, and of the purest, the most exalted, and the most condensed, of all enjoyment; while their violation plunges the suffering rebel into the deepest hell of misery imaginable or supportable! For what was man created? Mainly, or even merely, to eat, sleep, breathe, labor, glitter, and die? By no means; but to think and feel-to adore God, study his works, obey his laws, and be happy. What constitutes his identity and personality-his essence-himself? Is it his coat? Is it his tody, even? It is his intellectual and moral nature, in which consists his entity, and for which he was created. This u man. All else is worthless. Cut from him limb after limb, and one portion of his body after another, until the whole is removed, but leave the mind entire, and his identity remains; but, let insanity derange that mind, or let death separate it from the body, and his personality is destroyed, though his body remain entire. The lifeless body of a friend is not that friend; but our minds, our own powers of thought and feel

And if this be true of the study of mind, how infinitely more true is it of the means of operating on mind. To attempt to operate on mind-to reform mankind, educate mankind, produce moral purity in man's feelings or conduct, by means of motives and appeals addressed to the mind merely, will be comparatively a failure. The first step towards making mankind wiser or better-towards disciplining their minds, purifying their motives, diminishing their vices, promoting virtue and happiness, &c.—is to rectify their physiology. As long as it is in an inflamed, or rather enfeebled or diseased condition, to attempt to elevate man in the scale of moral or in. tellectual excellence, is as vain as to sow blasted seed upon the barren rock, or plant tropical flowers in Siberia. It is like operating with feeble weapons upon effects, yet allowing their causes to remain in full force. Preach to men ever so eloquently, ever so piously, ever so prayerfully, and add revivals and all the means of grace, while their bodies are soaked in alcoholic liquors—as well attempt to stay the fierce winds by raising your puny hands or will against them, or arrest the flowing tide by the voice of command. Moralists and reli. gionists have yet to learn that reform must begin and be continued, by throwing the body into a healthy condition,

If this doctrine be so construed as to imply the doctrine of materialism, be it so. This inference will not alter the fact of the existence of these relations. Besides, those who insist on the correctness of this inference, as drawn from these premises, are themselves the main advocates of materialism; for, as to the correctness of these premises, there cannot be the least possible question. They are matters of daily and constant experience and obserration. Whichever be the cause, and whichever the effect, however-whether the organization and physical condition be the cause, and govern, and the mental state be the effect; or whether the mental constitution be the cause of organization, and govern that organization, -affects neither the correctness nor importance of the inference; and let not so valuable a truth be discarded-so valuable a means of improving the mind and augmenting our happiness as this principle unfolds, because of this inference, whichever way it may be decided.



HAVING established the fact of the existence of reciprocal relations between the body and the mind, we pass naturally to the consideration of the important question, what conditions of the one produce given states of the other? What conditions of the body, cause or occasion particular qualities, states, capabilities, and manifestations of mind? and what states of mind produce their corresponding effects on the body?-questions among the most momentous that can possib.y engage the attention of mankind. Though we find a great variety of organizations among men, yet they can generally be classed under three heads, including the varieties produced by their combinations in their various degrees of development. Shape is the first great index of the tone, power, and other characteristics of this organization. That is, different casts of organization give different dispositions and capabilities, which capacitate their possessors for different occupations, and these different casts assume different shapes, according to the qualities they impart. Thus, the organization of the tiger is in keeping with his habits and characteristics; that of the shark, with his element and wants, and so of all that live and grow in the vegetable and animal kingdoms.

If this be so, it is a great, an invaluable truth. If the qualities, both mental and physical, be as the organization, and the shape be also adapted to, and in keeping with, the organization, and therefore characterizes, it furnishes us with a simple and yet an unerring guide in our observation of character and qualities.

To be still more specific. A coarse, roughly organized body,

always be found to accompany coarse, rough, harsh feelings; while a fine, light, exquisite organization, goes along with fine, soft, delicate feelings, keen susceptibilities, and goodness of disposition. In other words, the organization, texture, and characteristics of the brain, are as those of the

body, and of course those of the mind are as those of the brain, so that the general form, contour, texture, and other qualities* of the body will serve as a faithful index of the physical, mental, and moral character of the person or thing observed.*

To promote perspicuity, and facilitate our understanding of the subject, we will employ the word temperament as synonymous with the term organization. The body is composed of three principal classes of organs, the predominance or deficiency of each of which gives very different organizations and mental characteristics, which are then greatly diversified by their almost innumerable combinations.

They are, first, the VITAL temperament, or the NUTRITIVE apparatus, embracing the entire system of inside organs which manufacture vitality, sustain animal life, and re-supply the brain, nervous system, and muscles with that vital energy which their every action compels them to expend, and include the heart, lungs, digestive apparatus, blood, viscera, and all the internal organs, being analogous to those removed from the inside of animals in fitting them for the table. The second is the MOTIVE apparatus, or bilious temperament, embracing the bones, muscles, sinews, tendons, &c., which constitute the frame-work of the system, give it its size and shape, and produce bodily motion, physical strength, &c. The third is the MENTAL organization, or nervous temperament, which embraces the brain and nervous system, the exercise of which produces thought, feeling, sensation, memory, talents, &c.t

*See a more full elucidation of this subject in a series of articles in the Journal, Vol iv., p. 12. This important truth seems never to have been fully caught or presented by Physiologists, yet the author has a work now in press, which will be issued probably in June, entitled "Physiology, mental and physical," in which this subject will be carried out fully, along with many others merely stated in the earlier portions of this work. Physiology, heretofore, has been studied and written upon, separately from its effects on mind. We now require a work in which the influences and effects of various states and conditions of body on the mind shall be fairly stated. This the author designs to do, thus entering upon an almost entirely untrodden field of philosophical inquiry.

+ For a full description of these temperaments, and their accompanying mental manifestations, see "Fowler's Practical Phrenology," pp. 10 to 29.

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