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peated the Miserere, and De profundis, after which they retired.”

Having some curiosity to know what was in the vessel, I advanced a little way into the tent, and when I supposed that no one observed me, I put my hand within. I there found some paste made of butter and rice flour. I took away a considerable lump, which I kept for a long time, till it was at last devoured by the rats. This composition is a sacrifice which the heathens offer upon the graves of their deceased friends some days after their burial.”*

I will now for the present conclude, leaving the two preceding extracts without further comment, to the reader's reflection, in order that he may pick out for himself as many particles of Christianity as he can find. He may perhaps think the undertaking something like searching for two grains of wheat among so many bushels of chaff; but if he only persevere, his diligence will probably be rewarded with equal success.

I remain, Sir,
Yours, &c. most respectfully,

QUISPIAM.
(To be continued.)

PAPAL EXACTIONS IN SPAIN.

“As a matter of curiosity, let us trace the millions to which the sums amount, which have been withdrawn since the sixteenth century from Spain to Rome for Bulls, (matrimonial) dispensations, and such like inventions of the papal Curia. Let the five annual millions of the last six years be taken as an average to reckon by—although a much higher rate ought to be fixed-considering the greater number of provisions and favours issued by the Curia from 1500 till 1814, and it will be seen that 1,600,000,000 reals, or £16,000,000 sterling, went from Spain to Rome. To this must be added more than 350,000 reals, £3,500 sterling, which had been annually sent to Rome since the

year 1537, for the building of St. Peter and St. John de Lateran, which till 1820 amounted to the astonishing sum of 99,050,000 reals. Nor must we forget to swell the above amount by the 100,000 reals annually given to the Nuncio of Spain, since the Concordat of 1753, amounting to 6,700,000 reals, about £67,000 sterling ; on the whole, about seventeen millions sterling, at a very diminished calculation. As, in that period we have taken, there were twenty-two Popes, each holy father drew about £800,000 on an average from Spain. This is feeding the flock, with a vengeance. If the matrimonial briefs, &c. be computed at the same rate, from 1814 to 1820, the product from Spain to Rome since 1500 would be no less than £76,800,000,-about three millions and a half per Pope !"--Foreign Review, No. II, p. 367.

TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS.

We have received, and will iusert the first opportunity, the communication of

*Hope D." We should be glad of his address, as we wish to avoid inserting ano

nymous reviews. The papers of “K," "Quispiam," and "R," shall be inserted. On the first of July will be published, No. 13 of the PROTESTANT GUARDJAN, on an enlarged plan, price One Shilling.

Norbert's Mem. Hist. Tom. 3. pp. 31--33.

END OF VOL. I.

THE

PROTESTANT GUARDIAN.

TULY, 1828.

INTRODUCTION TO VOL. II.

THE Roman Catholic controversy was in a considerable degree composed in this country after the full and able discussion, which the several topics in dispute underwent in the hands of our Protestant Apologists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. While the works of our Jewells, Chillingworths, and Stillingfleets were in general use, there was little disposition on the part of the partizans of the Church of Rome to provoke public discussion ; and they pursued their purposes by other means. But when through an alteration of circumstances, and of the public taste in style of writing, those valuable works had fallen in a great measure into disuse, the propagandists of Popery became more active and forward, and for some time were allowed to pursue their measures with little counteraction. Popery was made to assume a garb suited to the time and place. The Church of Rome was represented as quite a different thing from the fierce and domineering Hierarchy which it is in Spaiu and Italy, and which it formerly was in this country. Some of her doctrines and practices, which are most opposed to the Word of God and to reason, were disguised; and others mentioned only to be ridiculed as chimeras, having no existence but in the slanderous reports of her enemies.The “incurable scepticism” as to some very important matters, which prevails in that Church, was kept entirely out of sight, and her religion represented as a system in

VOL. II.

all its parts ascertained and harmonious; while the disagreement in some matters, certainly not of greater importance than those, which the Church of Rome has left at large, between the Protestant Churches, was tauntingly held forth as destructive of the Unity of Faith necessary to their being parts of the One Catholic Church. The Reformation was asserted to have been brought about by men urged by the basest motives; and the most false and atrocious charges were made upon the character of those, who have stood foremost in the defence of Protestant principles.

These proceedings at length aroused the slumbering zeal of Protestants ;—the controversy is now revived, and it is likely to be prosecuted with as much vigour and interest as ever. In this neighbourhood it was found expedient to oppose some measures to the aggressions of Popery; and as it was inconvenient always to meet its attacks through separate publications, it was deemed expedient to institute a monthly periodical, corresponding in its character to the title of the PROTESTANT GUARDIAN, which, it was conceived, would possess equal advantages with any other mode of publication in treating the stand, ing topics of the controversy, or past events connected with it; and, at the same time, would be a convenient receptacle for notices of circumstances relating to the controversy, as they might take place. *

The approbation which their work has met with, bas confirmed the opinion of the conductors of the PROTESTANT GUARDIAN, that such a work is suited to the wants of the times, and has encouraged them to proceed in it.

But a small portion of the materials, which we wish to bring before the public has yet appeared. We purpose to

in our work till we have made a full exbibition of the tenets of the Church of Rome, according to her symbolic documents, her liturgical services, and the works of her most accredited writers. We shall lay open to public inspection, and fix the real value upon, those treasures which she looks up in a dead language. We intend to shew that the principles of persecutiou are interwoven into her system; and to expose the history of the horrible effects of these principles where they have been left to their natural and free operation. That Church has never relinquished the prerogative of persecuting even to

proceed

• We observe that a similar measure is likely to be adopted by the Roman Catholic Bishops in Ireland. They are said to have held a Meeting in Dublin for the purpose of instituting a periodical for the defence of Roman Catholic tenets.

death, the members of other Churches, as heretics. This terrible scourge she still retains in her possession, and never till she be disabled from using it, or till it be wrested from her reluctant grasp, will the members of other Churches be secure.

In our endeavours to arouse the vigilance of Protestants, we have neither need nor inclination to resort to exaggerated statements. To exhibit the principles of the Church of Rome in their just dimensions, and in their true light, and to expose the measures she is taking to regain her ascendancy in this conntry, are sufficient means, we apprehend, of awakening a zealous and vigilant opposition to her aggressions.

That the public may perceive with what atrocity Protestantism in general, and especially our established religion, is attacked in these head-quarters of Popery, we subjoin a quotation from a Tract lately printed and disseminated in this neighbourhood.

" What then is this Protestantism? It is not a term designating any particular sect, but a name given to all who have deserted or are excluded from the Catholic Church; it is a coat that fits every back, a receptacle for men of the most opposite belief and opinions, as well as for those who have no religious opinions at all. There is no test by which the faith of a Protestant can be tried, as there is no creed to which he is bound; you may believe that God has predestinated you to a state of felicity, and your neighbours irretrievably to eternal torments; and yet be a good Protestant. One believes that Christ at his last Supper gave his real body, another believes that he gave nothing but a piece of bread; they are both Protestants. Some believe that baptism is necessary for children, others that it is only necessary for adults, and others who are still more liberal, that it is necessary for neither one nor the other! One pays divine worship to God the Son, another calls it idolatry by making more Gods than one. One says we are obliged to believe all that Christ has taught, another says we may believe as much of it as we please, provided our lives be moral and honest, since God is too good to condemn any one for a mistaken belief; yet they are all Protestants, and all prove their faith from the Bible! Can this be the divine system which the Son of God came down upon earth to establish?

Is it a religion, a holy Church, or a Babel of confusion? Would it not be better if those who are enlisting the whole world in the circulation of Bi

he says,

bles and Tracts, would take the trouble to make the people acquainted with what the Bible contains.

Protestantism, as applied to the Church of England, cannot be the true religion, because it was not founded by Christ; the religion of Jesus Christ had subsisted 1500 years before Protestantism was heard of. It cannot be the true religion because it was founded by bad men, and for bad purposes ; all the first disciples of the Reformation, embarked in the concern, either through pride or lust; King Henry the VIIIth left his religion because it would not allow him to put away his wife; Luther, its founder, was originally a Catholic Priest, and abandoned his religion because he was too baughty to submit to its reprehensions; after he turned Reformer, and set himself to preach against fasting and doing penances, he became a complete monster of pride and brutality. We have bis own words for it, which every person may read who will take the trouble of consulting his works. “I am burnt,'

with the flames of lust. I am almost mad with the rage of lust and the desire of women. I who ought to be fervent in spirit, am fervent in impurity, in sloth, &c. Relying on the strong foundation of my learning, I yield not in pride, either to Emperor, King, Prince, or Devil.' (Resp. ad Maled. Reg. Aug.) Such is the real character of the man whom Protestants are taught to consider as a saint, and as one appointed by God to reform religion ! That the other Reformers followed his example I will prove from the testimony of Erasmus, who observed with his own eyes. And who,' he says, "are these gospel people ? Look around you and shew me one who has become a better man. Shew me one who once a glutton, is now turned sober; one who before violent, is now meek; one who before avaricious, is now generous ; one who before impure, is now chaste. "I can point out multitudes who are become far worse than they were before. Their discourses are little else than calumnies against the priesthood. They have abolished confession, and few of them confess their sins, even to God. They have abrogated fasting, and they wallow in sensuality. St. Paul commanded the first Christians to 'shun the society of the wicked ; and behold, the Reformers seek most the society of the corrupted!

At the present day, we never hear of a Catholic turning to Protestantism through a desire of living a stricter life; if ever he leaves his religion, it is because his religion is too strict for him, and he shakes it off, that he may live as he pleases; but when death comes, be is generally glad to return to it again. Death is the time for trying people's sincerity; and the number of Protestants who wish to have

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