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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND

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EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit:

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:

I. Ashmead & Co, Printers.

"Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought_down to the present Time; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth."

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, "An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned:" and also to the act, entitled, "An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."

D. CALDWELL,
Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

BATTLE-AXE; a weapon much used in the early part of the middle ages, particularly by the people who fought on foot. It was not uncommon, however, among the knights, who used also the mace, a species of iron club or hammer. Both are to be seen in the different collections of old arms in Europe. Both these weapons, and another kind, called, in German, Morgenstern (morning star), consisting of a staff, having an iron ball at the end, with cross iron spikes, served to give stunning blows, whose force was felt through the iron armor of the knights. Knights used chiefly the Morgenstern and the mace. The Greeks and Romans did not employ the battle-axe, though it was found among contemporary nations. In fact, the axe is one of the earliest weapons, its use, as an instrument of domestic industry, naturally suggesting its application for purposes of offence; but, at the same time, it will always be abandoned as soon as the art of fencing, attacking and guarding is the least culti-guished the skirmishes, surprises, &c., vated; because the heavier the blow which, are represented with so much given with this instrument, the more will skili by Antonio Tempesta, John Snel it expose the fighter. It is a weapon linky Jos. van der Velde, John Asselyn, which affords hardly any guard, and it: Peter, Sneyers, Robert von Hoek, Fulnever would have remained so long in cone, called oracolo delle battaglie, James use in the middle ages, had at not been Courtois, Francis van der Meulen, Philip for the iron armor, which protected the, Wouvermann, Charles Breydel, Henry body from every thing but heavy blows. Verschuuring and George Philip RugenIn England, Ireland and Scotland, the das. battle-axe was much employed. At the battle of Bannockburn, king Robert Bruce clave an English champion down to the chine with one blow of his axe. A blow of equal force was given by a Suabian knight, in the Levant, in presence of the German emperor. The Lochaber axe remained a formidable implement of de

struction in the hands of the Highlanders nearly to the present period, and is still used, by the city-guard of Edinburgh, in quelling riots, &c.

BATTLE-PIECE; a painting which represents a battle, exhibiting large masses of men in action. The armor of the ancients, and the whole array and action of their battles, afford subjects much more favorable to the artist than the straight lines, or condensed columns, and the firearms of the moderns. A painter of battle-pieces ought to have an accurate knowledge of the appearance of horses and men, and, if possible, to have seen a battle, as few persons are able to form from hearsay an accurate idea of such a scene. Some of the greatest pieces of this kind are, the battle of Constantine, of which the cartoons were drawn by Raphael, and which was executed by Giulio Romano; Lebrun's battles of AIexander, and the battles of the Amazons, by Rubens. From these may be distin

BATTOGES, BATTACKS; two thin sticks, with which criminals in Russia were formerly beaten upon their naked backs The criminal was laid upon the ground, and one of the executioners sat upon his head, another upon his feet. By the code of Catherine II, this punishment was abolished.

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