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views, however, were much more extensive, being to attack in detail, by first capturing the port of Revel, and destroying the fleet there, when the other division, it was confidently believed, would fall an easy sacrifice.

This design was bravely attempted, but it was not attended with that success that might have been hoped from the strength of the armament, the bravery of the seamen, and the skill and intrepidity of the native and foreign officers employed. The result of the attack brought no tarnish to the glory of those who conducted it.

In most maritime expeditions, and more especially those which are destined to act against fortresses and batteries on shore, the elements may prove the most potential allies, or the most formidable enemies. The truth of this was fully exemplified in this attack upon Revel and the Russian fleet. This fleet, then lying at anchor, consisted of eleven sail of the line, three of which were three-decked ships, and four large frigates. Independently of their own guns, this powerful fleet was defended in a very advantageous manner by numerous batteries in the harbour, and by the fortifications about the town, all of which were mounted with heavy cannon.

The Swedes approached boldly, receiving and returning a tremendous fire. Under all these disadvantages, which became the more apparent as they were the more closely encountered, the Duke continued this desperate attack with unabating intrepidity, and when he was, to all appearance, on the very threshold of success, the wind suddenly changed, and so violent a storm ensued, that his vessels were obliged to close their lower-deck ports, thus rendering the tiers of his heaviest metal useless, and reducing his attacking power by one half.

The adverse hurricane also prevented many of his ships from taking any share in the action whatever, so that, after proving courage, conduct, and good seamanship, he was obliged to return with his fleet, at the moment when the enemy appeared all but defeated.

This was not the extent of his disasters. The wind setting dead in upon the shore, the fury of the elements drove the Prince Charles, of sixty guns, after being dismasted, into the hands of the Russians. The Ricket Stander, of the same force, was wrecked, abandoned, and set fire to by orders of the Duke ; and the Valeur, another line-ofbattle ship, was drifted on shore, but was afterwards enabled to escape, and get to sea again, by throwing overboard a part of her guns.

Amidst all these misfortunes, it was soon discovered that English officers were on board, and Captain Sidney Smith in personal command in this discomfited fleet, by the rapidity with which its damages were repaired. On the very next day, such were the zeal and diligence of the Duke of Sudermania, and the commanders under his direction, that the fleet was again under sail a league and a half from Norglon, and so completely repaired from its recent damages, that it waited with impatience to make a second attack.

On the 3rd and 4th of June, 1790, two more desperate battles were fought in the Gulf of Wilbourg, in which the party that our hero espoused was again defeated; the Swedes losing seven ships, three frigates, six galleys, and about sixty armed small craft. The Russians also suffered severely. The slaughter, as might reasonably be expected, was particularly fatal to the English officers in the Russian service. In these affairs the point of the utmost danger was the point of honour. Captains Dawson and Trevenor were slain, and Captain Marshall also lost his life on the same occasion. Being mortally wounded, he had the agony, in the bitterness of the hour of death, to see the ship that he had commanded, and the crew that he had disciplined, sink with him, his colours still flying in melancholy defiance. Captains Aikin and Miller were also grievously wounded.

We must premise, that an unsuccessful attempt had been made by the King of Sweden, who commanded in person, to destroy the Russian squadron in Viborg. The approach of the Prince of Nassau, with the Cronstadt division, had already made the position of the Swedes at the entrance of Viborg Bay extremely critical, the more especially as their scarcity of ammunition, and their want of provisions, made their return to their own ports a measure of first necessity.

In this situation of affairs, the king resolved to avail himself of a strong easterly wind, which set in on the 3rd of June, to gain Swerksund and Sweaborg. It was necessary for the fleet to penetrate through a narrow pass, and, in so doing, to sustain the fire of four Russian ships of the line, two of which were placed on each side of the strait; and, after this, to engage the whole of Admiral Tschitcshakoff's line, which, at a small distance, was drawn up along the coast, while his frigates were ranged and judiciously placed among the islands which lie nearer the shore.

Unappalled by this display of superior force, the Swedish van, led on by Admiral Modée, passed the Narrows without suffering any material loss, firing with great spirit both broadsides at the same time against the enemy on either side. The cannonade from the four Russian line-of-battle ships was, however, so powerful, and so well supported, that it was resolved by the Duke of Sudermania to attempt their destruction by fireships ; but this operation proved so unsuccessful, that they were driven back upon two of his own fleet, a ship of the line and a frigate, both of which were blown up.

The Swedish admiral, instead of having recourse to so uncertain an experiment as fireships, should have placed a vessel of equal force alongside each of these Russian vessels, and having thus masked their fire, the smaller vessels could have passed up the centre of the strait in absolute safety, and then the protecting ships could have followed, forming an excellent protective rear-guard. The unfair means of war by fire-vessels was then much in vogue, but now we are happy to say that among civilised nations their employment is generally condemned, and their utility disallowed.

The Swedes being confused in a considerable degree, by this peculiarly distressful accident, the ships that were to follow were unable to proceed with the requisite order and circumspection ; four of them struck upon the rocks, and were thus left at the mercy of the enemy.

During the further course, along the coast, of this

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