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Doubtless, they are designed for that, daring to record a conjecture as to among numberless other grand and their office and bearings in illimitable efficient purposes : and this planet space, he might very wisely and momay, in like manner, make a return destly forbear to do more than intiin kind to those spheres, all being mate their having been coeval with communicating parts of one stupen- the phenomena whose perceptible uses dous whole, and created each to im- he had noticed.
B. part light, or prove in some way beneficial, to the others. So that an SIR, November 17, 1824. listerian, esuch mac Moses histrict prof W "Turpation decline hoofst priestly priety, record that our earth was made tensions among that sect of Protestant to accommodate, in the way ordained Dissenters which has in some measure by Providence, the world he inhabited, been deservedly entitled Rational, the without authorizing an inference that ceremony of ordination fell by degrees we exist exclusively for that purpose. into deserved disrepute and general,
Then, what is there in the passages disuse. quoted inconsistent with the soundest It appears from an article in your philosophy? It would be the excess Intelligence department of last month, of hyper-criticisin to impute to Moses (XIX. 631,) that some Unitarian miany thing beyond the questionable nisters are attempting to revive this error (none in the view I have taken) exploded custom; it being stated that of omission. There is no pretence “ the subject of the revival of ordinato charge him with misrepresentation, tion services among Protestant Disseneither from design or from ignorance. ters was discussed in several speeches."
How pitiful, therefore, the attempt These, I conclude, were only on one to fasten upon his words a literal side of the question, as the writer meaning, which there is scarcely a adds, that "there appeared to be but primâ facie reason to suppose was in one feeling as to the agreeable and the writer's contemplation! As well salutary impression produced by the might we conclude him to have inti- services of that day.' mated that God made nothing else I
presume to think that the cerebut the system, parts only of which ony of the ordination of ininisters are exposed to our cognizance; though did not fall into disuse without good every man of common reflection, ad- and weighty reasons, because men are verting to the infinity (a word seldom always reluctant to discontinue any taken into the account, though indis- custom until they are convinced of its pensable in the true consideration of impropriety; and from the little I it) of God himself, of his power, and have read on the subject, I ain of of space, must be convinced that the opinion that those reasons cannot ealast abounds with systems inaccessible sily be reconciled with the revival of to human observation, and commen- the ceremony. It should seem, howsurate with that portion of his infinite ever, from the report in question, that power hich the Divine will and wis- the only objection against it, considom have hitherto brought into acti- dered in the full discussion at Bolton, vity.
BREVIS. is, its liability to be abused to superstiP.S. Moses beheld the sun and felt tious purposes, which, the writer adds, its influence; the moon, and experi- in its present form is guarded against. enced hers. Of these he speaks in It were to be wished, for the inforterms appropriate to his limited ob- mation of Rational Christians, that servation of their effects. “God made the substance of the full discussion the stars also,” is the simple (and which took place at Bolton, had been may we not say uncommented ?) men. given in the Repository. From the tion that he trusts himself with in report, however, I conclude that it regard to them; for it may well be was not so full as could have been doubted whether the two succeeding wished: for if it be supposed that the verses, after such a slight and, as it superstitiousness of the practice in were, parenthetical glance at the stars, question is its weakest side, the cirbe applicable to any but the great cumstance that occasioned its disconoverruling lights which he had dis- tinuance, I fear the supposition would tinguished. Unconscious of, and not not be borne out by facts. Was it not
objectionable on far other grounds cifixes, the signs of the cross, the than this an infringement on vestments, the gowns, the bands, the Christian liberty; as a practice not form of Common Prayer, the union enjoined by Christ, or authorized or of Church and State, and all the stuused by his apostles, and as such par. died formalities of devotion? Hocce taking truly of the character of will- erat, Magne Parens, quod nos per tela worship; as accompanied, in many atque iynes eripuisti? No, let us cases, with a considerable degree of still continue to trample upon every spiritual usurpation, and in general relic, and try to erase every vestige, calculated to impress men's minds of superstition. Let us join in no with superstitious notions, especially unauthorized practice, however sancin regard to the validity and sacred- tified by custom, in no “ will-worness of the clerical office and cha- ship.” 'Let us renounce every notion racter?
(antichristian in its very nature) of How far the ceremony, in its present things, persons or places rendered form, is guarded against these and holy by consecration or superstitious other abuses, I pretend not to say, as usage. Let us not pretend to keep I did not witness the performance; Christmas or venerate Good Friday, but I fear that, in that single view because they pretend (" lying in wait of its objectionable character contem- to deceive”) that those days are the plated in the speeches at Bolton-its anniversary of the birth and crucifixliability to superstitious purposes-it ion of Christ. Let us never consent is more than the brethren can fairly to meddle with any unauthorized obpromise that it will not be so abused; servance, however it may be reiterated and it is more than I will answer for, in our ears that it may be made usethat their own representations of it, ful, and that there can be no harm in and the stress which they lay upon it, it. There is harm in it. It is useful will not tend, within the pale of Uni- only to the ends of false religion, and tarianism, rather to light the dying not of godliness. Every such act or embers of superstition, than to era observance is an encroachment of sudicate that rankest and deadliest of perstition upon the confines of pure weeds.
Christianity. Let us never be wheedled I must confess, Mr. Editor, that I by the ensnaring observation, that a feel great concern to see inany Uni- religious service may be very useful tarians of the present day revert to on a particular occasion, to countesome of those
beggarly elements” nance any ordinance or observance from which the Rational Christians of not of divine authority. the last century were rescued by a The measures adopted, I fear, in race of enlightened and disinterested compliance with the superstitious veministers, who sacrificed their worldly neration of men for pretended religiinterests to those of Christian truth ous observances; this compromise of in its primitive simplicity. They ex, the men who understand pure Chrishibited greater courage, and under- tianity, with “the enemies who have went greater hardships in the warfare sowed the tares,” has a very unpromaintained against superstition and mising aspect on the future progress the errors of Christian idolatry, than of Unitarianism. Let me obtest my is required of us their followers. They Unitarian brethren, who alone, of all had severer contests to maintain, wea- Christians, I consider to have, with pons of warfare very different from any tolerable degree of correctness, ours to contend with, and forces and developed the system of religion conmeans of attack greatly inferior to tained in the New Testament,- Jet ours; and yet, if they did not gain me earnestly beg them to renounce a glorious victory, they successfully all the machinery and specious devices repelled the enemy's attacks, and of a fictitious devotion and an assumed gained ground inch by inch. And sanctity. Let them not endeavour to shall we now collect the scattered revive what Christ has abolished-the ruins of the fabric of superstition whole ceremonial constitution of the which we saw tra.npled under their law, including the consecration or feet- the relics of an age in which ordination of "priests. What Christ Christianity was essentially different positively and expressly condeinned, from the religion of Christ-the crucannot be approved by his true dis
ciples. Let us leave all extra-christian Sects of Christians. I am quite at a devices to the moles and the bats, to loss how to reconcile your statement the temporal priest and to the furious in your advertisement with truth. zealot, with whom (i. e. the zealot)
H. the end sanctifies the means, and whose profit and boast is the increase
Dec. 6, 1824.
N obtest them, how- p. 649Mr. Cogan adınits ever speciously it may be advocated the canon, which he has quoted from by a general muster of the argumenta the Classical Journal, holds good in ad hominem, and which is dictated by the following expression,- Kupios a worldly and compromising policy, ήμων και σωτηρ Ιησες Χριςος. Now but which will eventually do more in this expression is, I believe, peculiar jury to their cause, and that of truth, to the Second Epistle of Peter. See than any opposition, however violent. i. 11, iii. 18, and, with the exception Hæ non vobis erunt artes.
* of the word duw, ii. 20. But if Mr. RURIS COLONUS. Cogan admits that the canon holds
good in this expression, how will he
explain the words ο Θεος ημων και σωτηρ To the Rev. John Baker, on his
Ιησες Χριςος, which occur in the first “ Prayer-Book.”
verse of the first chapter? Both ex. Taunton,
pressions are used by the same writer,
within no great distance of each other; SIR, January 8, 1825.
and, if the canon holds good in the EEING your advertisement on the one caye, why should it not hold and Christian Reformer for last inonth, Three ways present themselves to of a new work by you, entitled “The my mind of getting rid of the diffiFamily Prayer-Book," &c., in which culty. The first is by denying that you state that “it will be found per- Peter was the author of the epistle, fectly consentaneous with the opinions and attributing it to some later and of every religious sect, and calculated more orthodox writer, who regarded to promote the best interests of man- the two expressions as conveying in kind;" — feeling desirous to possess effect the same idea : the second is by and promote the sale of a cheap work supposing that the author, whether on such a basis, I purchased a copy; Peter or any other person, was not and when I tell you that my senti- sufficiently skilled in the Greek lanments on religious subjects are in guage to inake the proper distinction: unison with the Monthly Repository and the third is by considering owing and Christian Reformer, you will per- as sustaining the same relation to 8 haps guess my surprise when I read Kupos, in the three passages first menthe following lines from this work, at tioned, as Kupaos, without the article,
does to Θεος or ο Θεος, in the passages
to which Mr. Cogan has principally * O Love divine ! what hast thou done!
confined his remarks. This last exTh' immortal God hath died for me ! The Father's co-eternal Son
planation, however, is scarcely admisBore all my sins upon the tree :
sible, because, among other things, Th’immortal God for me hath died ! the pronoun autq, in the last clause My Lord, my love, is crucified.
of chap. iii. ver. 18, seems to require “ see, and to the Cross draw nigh,
that Κυριος and σωτηρ should be under
stood of one and the same person, The bleeding Priuce of Life and Peace! Come, see, ye worms, your Maker die,
Of the first and second explanations, And say—was ever grief like his ?" &c.
I feel inclined to give the preference
to the latter. It is no new thing to Your statement, that these Devo- call in question the genuineness of the tional Exercises “ would be found epistle in which the above expressions perfectly consentaneous with the opi- occur ; and the argument furnished nions of every religious sect,” led me by the difference of style between this to suppose that you were not unac- and the First Epistle of Peter, which is quainted with the views of the various universally acknowledged to be genu
ine, appears to me decisive and final and Saviour Jesus Christ.” This was upon the subject. But allowing that the language of a much later period. Peter was the author, is there any It was alike unknown to the apostles thing heretical in charging the apostle and to their contemporaries and imwith the commission of an inaccuracy mediate successors. As far, therefore, in a language with which he was, in as I am able to see my way at present, all probability, but imperfectly ac- we are reduced to this dilemma,quainted ?
either we must admit that two exI observe that the words to @ce pressions constructed exactly alike, in duwe xai owingos Inge Xp158, (ch. i. the most perspicuous of all languages, ver. 1,) are rendered, in our common are capable of different and opposite English Version, “ of God, and our senses; or that the author of this Saviour Jesus Christ :”—but is this a epistle did not understand the lancorrect translation? Are we at liberty guage in which he wrote, and thereto take juw from its connexion with fore wrote ungrammatically and unin78 Oct, and apply it to owinpos? I 'telligibly.
Ω. think not; but I write with diffidence. Perhaps Mr. Cogan, whose knowledge P.S. I will here take an opportuof the Greek language is far superior nity of adding a remark or two on to mine, can help me to a satisfactory Galatians vi. 11: “Ye see how large solution of these questions ?
a letter I have written unto you with In the Improved Version, the ex- mine own hand.”– It is generally suppression is rendered as follows: “of posed that the apostle alludes, in this our God, and of our Saviour Jesus place, to the length of his epistle. Christ." But if we apply to this pas. But if this had been his allusion, he sage the canon in question, the general would not, as Dr. Whitby observes, accuracy of which Mr. Cogan allows, have used the word ypaupaon. The must we not be compelled to admit, Greek scholiast supposes that the aposeither that the article is necessary be- tle, by the words anxoss ypaguari, fore outrpas, in order to justify this intended to call the attention of the translation; or that the exception Galatians to the largeness and inelewhich Mr. Cogan inakes in the case gancy of the character in which the of the word Kupios, should be extended letter was written. But if the handlikewise to the word owimp?
writing had been of this kind throughAgain, Mr. Cogan admits that the out the whole epistle, the proper place canon holds good in the words ó Kupoos for this remark would have been, not juwe kou owing Inoes X81505. It may in the body of the letter, but at the be so. But if the words Kupros and end, in the way of postscript. If owing are descriptive of the same per- again, his object had been, as Mr. son, would it not have been better, Belsham says, in bis excellent work and more agreeable to scriptural usage, on the epistles of Paul, to call the atto have said ο Κυριος και σωτηρ ημων tention of the Galatians to the cirΙησες Χριςος, or I. X. ο Κυριος και σωτηρ cumstance of this having written the quw? See Philipp. ii. 25, Etap poortor letter lıimself, and to preclude the τον αδελφον και συνεργος και συςρατιωτης possibility of the pretext that the let-με ; 2 Thess. ii. 16, Ο Θεος και πατηρ ter was forged, why allude particularly quar ó ayatınsas nuas; and Philem. I, to the largeness of the hand-writing? Φιλημονι το αγαπητό και συνεργοι ημαν. This could have afforded no actual
Lastly, if • Kupios fuwy Kal wimp proof that Paul had written the letter Inoes Xpaços is correctly rendered “our himself; for it is nowhere upon reLord and Saviour Jesus Christ,” why cord that he had before this time allshould not ο Θεος ημων και σωτηρ Ιησες dressed any instructions to the GalaXp15os be rendered “our God and Sa- tians in writing. But even if he had, viour Jesus Christ”? I believe that and they were well acquainted with no man, living at the time when the the hand-writing, why call their attensecond epistle which goes under the tion to the size of the characters in name of Peter was written, (whether which this letter was written? Why Peter was himself the author of it, or not merely state that it had been writany other person,) could intentionally ten by himself? Would not this have have used such a phrase as “our God answered every purpose ?—The probability is, that Paul had, according to London Unitarian Book Society. his usual custom, dictated to an ama
January 20, 1825. forens het substance of the epistle; Imone Unitarian public
, that this but that he was so anxious to call the Society has for some years past been attention of the Galatians to the few in rather a declining condition, and remarks which he had yet to add, and doing much less for the benefit of the which were only, in fact, a recapitu- general cause than such an Institution lation of what he had before advanced, in the Metropolis might be thought that this part was written in a different capable of effecting. This is not to character, and with his own hand, in be attributed to any defect in its oriorder that it might leave the deeper ginal constitution, or to the want of impression upon the minds of the Ga- intelligence and zeal in those who, at latian converts : as if he had said, successive periods, have taken an ac
The sum of the whole matter is this, tive part in the management of its and, that what I now subjoin may at- affairs. The evil probably originated tract the more attention, and come in the success of the Institution, and with greater effect, you will observe, has been increasing by almost imperthat it is not only written in a larger ceptible degrees from circumstances character, to distinguish it froin what which it was perhaps impossible to goes before, but that I have deviated controul. The worthy and venerable from my usual practice, and written founders of the Society, in the year it with my own hand.
1791, thought and felt that “rational
Christians had been too cautions of Loughborough,
publicly acknowledging their prix.ciSir,
ples;" they deemed it " high time for January 17, 1825.
the friends of genuine Christianity to N the Rev. C. Wellbeloved's trans- stand forth and avow themselves; "
describing papyrus as a plant pecu- as to « freedom of inquiry, liberal liar to the banks of the Nile.” Exod. discussion, and the fearless profession ü, 3.
of principles embraced after due exaPliny says it grew in Syria, in the mination, which can be formidable to Jordan. Bruce, before he went into nothing but to error and vice,”* from Egypt, saw it there, between the situ- the establishment of the association ation of the ancient city of Paneas and they projected, for the distribution of the Lake of Tiberias. Guilandinus such books as were adapted to "protells us it grew at the confluence of mote Christian knowledge and the the Tigris and Euphrates.* Strabo practice of virtue.” The event proved describes the papyrus as inhabiting that they had not miscalculated upon Egypt and India.
the consequences of their proceedings. There is a species in Sicily and The spirit which actuated them was Calabria unfit for the manufacture of instantly communicated to other parts paper, and differing from the famous of the country, and in the following one of Egypt. M. Poivre speaks of year a society upon the same plan, a still different one growing in Mada- and contemplating similar objects, was gascar.t
formed in the West of England. SubSetting aside all consideration of the sequently to that period, numerous species found in Calabria, Sicily and other societies, having the same geneMadagascar, we have the authority of ral design, have been established in Strabo, Pliny, Guilandinus and Bruce, every division of Great Britain. that the papyrus of Egypt grew in When the London Society was inSyria and India, as well as in the river stituted, few books were to be obtainNile.
ed suited to its purpose, and it was W. PARKINSON. under the necessity of printing what
it wanted for its own circulation; and Bruce's Travels.
its funds were therefore applied to the † Encyclopædia Britannica, art. Papy.
* Preamble to the Rules of the Unita. rian Society.