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They that know the history of Charles II. only as a man of pleasure, may be surprised at learning, as is stated by Pepys, that he was an early riser, in which character, the Diarist adds, he tired all the people about him. I. 72.
The "old clergy," that is, those that were before the Civil War, and did not conform to the Commonwealth, are mightily praised by common-place writers: let Pepys relate a contemporary opinion of thein :— Aug. 21st. I met Mr. Crewe and dined with him, where there dined one Mr. Hickeman, an Oxford man, who spoke very much against the height of the now old clergy, for putting out many of the religious fellows of colleges, and inveighing against them" (the old clergy) “for being drunk."
The following entry justifies some of the papers of the Spectator that appear to be badinage :-" Aug. 30th. This the first day that ever I saw my wife wear black patches since we were married." I. 73.
We sometimes find Pepys in company that we did not expect, and see him and his companions oddly engaged. For example, Sept. 18th, he was at the Mitre Tavern in Wood-street, (a house of the greatest note in London,) where he met " Mr. White, formerly chaplain to the Lady Protectress and still so." Jere. White was the author of one of the first English books on Universal Restoration, a learned and liberal divine. Pepys goes on to say that report stated that White was "likely to get my Lady Francesse" (the daughter of the Protector) his wife." This is at variance with a story told by Noble, (Memoirs of the Cromwell Family, I. 148, &c.,) from Oldmixon, of White's paying his addresses to this lady, and on being discovered by the Protector in her apartments, pretending that he was entreating her intercession on his behalf with her waiting-maid; whereupon Oliver had him immediately, and on the spot, married to the astonished girl. The story is, that the couple so strangely brought together lived in comfort for fifty years. Lady Frances was married first to Robt. Rich, of the Warwick family, and afterwards to Sir John Russell, whom she survived
52 years, dying 1721, 2.-Some of Pepys's party, of whom Jere. White was one,"fell to handy-cappe, a sport that" he "never knew before." I. 75.
How far back we seem to be thrown when we read, Sept. 25th, I did send for a cup of tee, (a China drink,) of which I never had drank before"! I. 76.
Pepys was, Oct. 4th, at Westminster Abbey, and saw Dr. Frewen translated to the Archbishoprick of York." There were besides 5 bishops, all in their habits." "But, Lord!" exclaims this Church-of-England man, "at their going out, how people did most of them look upon them as strange creatures, and few with any kind of love or respect." This is one of unnumbered proofs that the English people were well-nigh weaned of superstition by the popular government of the last twelve years, and that the Restoration carried them back to mental childhood.
The curiosity of Pepys led him to witness the execution of some of the Regicides, brought
He does not exult in these butcheries, but, on the contrary, does justice to the victims of Monk's treachery. The mob, probably under some excitement from the creatures of the Court, shewed themselves on these occasions "right royal" and sanguinary.
13th. I went out to Charing Cross, to see Major-General Harrison hanged, drawn and quartered; which was done there, he looking as cheerful as any man could do in that condition. He was presently cut down, and his head and heart shewn to the people, at which there was great shouts of joy. It is said, that he said that he was sure to come shortly at the right hand of Christ to judge them that now had judged him; and that his wife do expect his coming again. Thus it was my chance to see the King belieaded at White Hall, and to see the first blood shed in revenge for the King at Charing Cross." I. 78, 79.
It was probably on the recollection of some such passage as this that a patriot-poet threw off the following indignant lines:
during divine service: "14th. To White Hall chappell, where one Dr. Crofts made an indifferent sermon, and after it an anthem, ill sung, which made the King laugh.-Here I also observed, how the Duke of York and Mrs. Palmer did talk to one another very wantonly through the hangings that parts the King's closet, and the closet where the ladies sit." I. 79.
The sight of parts of the dismembered patriots, Oct. 20th, would seem to have affected Pepys properly: "This afternoon going through London, and calling at Crowe's the Upholsterer's, in Saint Bartholomew's, I saw limbs of some of our new traitors set upon Aldersgate, which was a sad sight to
last have been, there being ten hanged, and a bloody week this and the drawn and quartered." I. 80. The next passage shews that this observer was not overcome by his humanitythe last words are a singular instance of sang froid: "21st. George Vines carried nie up to the top of his turret, where there is Cook's head set up for a traytor, and Harrison's set up on the other side of Westminster Hall. Here I could see them plainly, as also a very fair prospect about London." Ib.
Pepys relates that, Nov. 1st, he paid a visit with Sir W. Penn (father of the celebrated Quaker) to Sir W. Batten's, at whose table he met an old friend who reminded him of his carly anti-royal predilections. "Here dined with us two or three more country gentlemen; among the rest Mr. Christmas, my old school-fellow, with whom I had much talk. He did remember that I was a great roundhead when I was a boy, and I was much afraid that he would have remembered the words that I said the day the King was beheaded, (that were I to preach upon The mehim, my text should be, mory of the wicked shall rot,") but I found afterwards that he did go away from school before that time." I. 82.
This shrewd observer relates the arrival next day of the Queen Dowager, widow of Charles I., and remarks, I observed this night very few bonfires in the city, not above three in all London, for the Queen's coming; before) her coming do please but very whereby I guess that (as I believed
few." I. 83.
Under the same date is an entry which might have lessened Lord Bray
brooke's surprise (Memoir, passim) at Pepys being suspected of Popery: "In Paul's church-yard" (Paul's betrays the "Roundhead") "I called at Kirton's, and there they had got a masse-book for me, which I bought, and cost me 12s.; and, when I come home, sat up late and read in it with great pleasure to my wife, to hear that she was long ago acquainted with it." I. 83.
The following passage under Nov. 4, discovers how slowly the people returned to Church-of-Englandism. The concluding sentence shews Mr. Pepys a little uxorious. We cannot stay to inquire into the consistency of this minute relating to the "black patch," with that already quoted on the same subject.
from constitutional carelessness, than from humanity.
"19th. I went with the Treasurer in his coach to White Hall, and in our way, in discourse, do find him a very good-natured man; and talking of those men, who now stand condemned for murdering the King, he says that he believes, that if the law would give leave, the King is a man of so great compassion that he would wholly acquit them." 1. 85.
4th. Lord's Day. In the morning to our own church when Mr. Mills did begin to nibble at the Common Prayer, by saying, Glory be to the Father,' &c, after he had read the two Psalms; but the people had been so little used to it, that they could not tell what to answer. This declaration of the King's do give the Presbyterians some satisfaction, and a pretence to read the Common Prayer which they would not do before, because of their former preaching against it. After dinner to Westminster, where I went to my Lord's, and, hav. ing spoke with him, I went to the Abbey, where the first time that I ever heard the organs in a cathedral. My wife seemed very pretty to-day, it being the first time I had given her leave to weare a black patch." Ib.
The tragedies that were now acting at Charing Cross were less of the King's devising than of the Parliament's, in which were many apostates who were afraid of their former comrades, should any turn of affairs give them power, and apprehensive that if they lived they might tell inconvenient tales. Charles would probably, as the following passage intimates, have let the King's Judges alone, but more
"Daniel Mills, D. D., thirty-two years rector of St. Olave's, Hart Street, and buried there October 1689, aged sixty-three. In 1667, Sir Robert Brooks presented him to the rectory of Wanstead, which he also enjoyed till his death."
Pepys cannot record the brutal decree of the Parliament with regard to the bodies of Cromwell, &c., without disapprobation.
Plots now begin to thicken, sham plots and plots real. One was never wanting when the object was to take up or to take off an old friend or a suspected enemy. There was an insurrection of the 5th monarchy men, but there was probably some Castles or Oliver at the bottom. Pepys thus relates this mad attempt-we give his narrative mixed up with his other
"1660, 61. Jan. 7. This morning, news was brought to me to my bedside, that there had been a great stir in the city this night by the Fanatiques, who had been up and killed six or seven men, but all are fled. My Lord Mayor, and the whole city had been in arms, above forty thousand. Tom and I and my wife to the theatre, and there saw The Silent Woman. Among other things here, Kinaston the boy had the good turn to appear in three shapes: first as a poor woman in ordinary clothes to please Morose; then in fine clothes, as a gallant, and in them was clearly the prettiest woman in the whole house : and lastly as a man; and then likewise did appear the handsomest man in the house. In our way home we were in many places strictly examined, more than in the worst of times, there being great fears of these Fanatiques rising again: for the present I do not hear that any of them are taken.
8th. Some talk to-day of a head of Fanatiques that do appear about, but I do not believe it. However, my Lord Mayor, Sir Richard Browne, hath carried himself very honourably, and hath caused one of their meetinghouses in London to be pulled down.
"9th. Waked in the morning about six o'clock, by people running up and
down in Mr. Davis's house, talking that the Fanatiques were up in armes in the city. And so I rose and went forth; where in the street I found every body in armes at the doors. So I returned and got my sword and pistol, which however I had no powder to charge, and went to the door where I found Sir R. Ford, and with him I walked up and down as far as the Exchange, and there I left him. In our way the streets full of train bands and great stir. What mischief these rogues have done! and I think near a dozen had been killed this inorning on both sides. The shops shut and all things in trouble.
"10th. After dinner Will comes to tell me that he had presented my piece of plate to Mr. Coventry, who takes it very kindly, and sends me a very kind letter and the plate back again, of which my heart is very glad. Mr. Davis told us the particular examinations of these Fanatiques that are taken; and in short it is this-these Fanatiques that have routed all the train bands that they met with, put the King's life-guards to the run, killed about twenty men, broke through the city gates twice, and all this in the day time, when all the city was in armes, are not in all above thirty-one. Whereas we did believe them, because they were seen up and down in every place almost in the city, and had been in Highgate two or three days and in several other places, to be at least 500. A thing that never was heard of that so few men should dare and do so much mischief. Their word was, "The King Jesus and their heads upon the gates." Few of them would receive any quarter, but such as were taken by force and kept alive, expecting Jesus to come here and reign in the world presently, and will not believe yet. The King this day come to towne." I. 90, 91.
We have, I. 93, a notice of the first 30th of January service; following which is a record of Mrs. Pepys's employment of this day, not altogether agreeable to feminine usage:
"30th, Fast-day. The first time that this day hath been yet observed: and Mr. Mills made a most excellent sermon upon Lord, forgive us our former iniquities; speaking excel lently of the justice of God in punishing men for the sins of their ances
tors. To my Lady Batten's; where my wife and she are lately come back from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw, hanged and buried at Tyburne."
The turn of the election in the city of London, 1660, 1, shews that the Nonconformists were yet the prevailing and in one sense popular party.
March 20th. The great talk of the towne is the strange election that the city of London made yesterday for Parliament-men; viz. Fowke, Love, Jones, and that, so far from being episcopall, are thought to be Anabaptists, and chosen with a great deal of zeale, in spite of the other party that thought themselves so strong, calling out in the Hall, No Bishops! No Lord Bishops! It do make people to fear it may come to worse by being an example to the country to do the same. And indeed the Bishops are so high, that very few do love them." I. 98.
The next extract relates to a Presbyterian minister, well known by his writings, Zach. Crofton, ejected from St. Botolph's, Aldgate. He had been zealous for the King's Restoration, but falling into controversy with Bishop Gauden upon the obligation of the Solemn League and Covenant, he gave such high displeasure to the ruling party, that he was sent to the Tower. Here he lay a long time, afraid to sue his Habeas Corpus, lest his life, which was threatened, should be taken away. With difficulty he at length obtained his liberty, and with a wife and seven children removed into Cheshire, where he was again imprisoned. Once more procuring his release, he set up a grocer's shop; then took a farm at Little Barford, Beds.; and finally kept a large school in the parish of Aldgate.
"1660, 1, March 23rd. Met my uncle Wight, and with him Lieutenant Colonel Baron, who told us how Crofton, the great Presbyterian minister that had preached so highly against Bishops, is clapped up this day in the Tower. Which do please some, and displease others exceedingly." I. 99.
Pepys distinguishes between the Presbyterians and the Fanatics, meaning apparently by the latter all the Nonconformists not Presbyterians.
"April 7th. To White Hall, and
there I met with Dr. Fuller, of Twick enham, newly come from Ireland, and took him to my Lord's, where he and I dined; and he did give my Lord and me a good account of the condition of Ireland, and how it came to pass, through the joyning of the Fanatiques and the Presbyterians, that the latter and the former are in their declaration put together under the names of Fanatiques." Ib.
On the 13th of this month Pepys witnessed the notable piece of kingcraft, which he had before attempted in vain to see: he felt but little reverence for the royal miracle-monger.
"Met my Lord with the Duke, and after a little talk with him, I went to the Banquet-house, and there saw the King heale, the first time that ever I saw him do it; which he did with great gravity, and it seemed to me to be an ugly office, and a simple one." I. 100.
Pepys gives a very detailed account of the Coronation of Charles: the spectacle delighted him not a little. He records with satisfaction an accident which befel Serjt. Glynne, one of the legal Proteuses of the day.
"1660, 1, April 23. Thus did the day end with joy every where; and, blessed be God, I have not heard of any mischance to any body through it all, but only to Serjt. Glynne, whose horse fell upon him yesterday, and is like to kill him, which people do please themselves to see how just God is to punish the rogue at such time as this: he being now one of the King's Sergeants, and rode in the cavalcade with Maynard, to whom people wish the same fortune." I. 105.
Another of Pepys's "Lord's-day" entries relates to a popular preacher, and to a Nonconformist, who began to give way, and to use the "Lord'sday" for his pleasure.
"May 12th. At the Savoy heard Dr. Fuller preach upon David's words, I will wait with patience all the days of my appointed time untill my change comes; but methought it was a poor
"He had been Recorder of London;
and during the Protectorate was made Chief Justice of the Upper Bench. Nevertheless he did Charles IIud great service, and was in consequence knighted and appointed King's Serjeant, and his son created a Baronet. Ob. 1666."
dry sermon. And I am afraid my former high esteem of his preaching was more out of opinion than judgment. Met with Mr. Creed, with whom I went and walked in Gray'sInn-walks, and from thence to Isling ton, and there eat and drank at the house my father and we were wont of old to go to; and after that walked homeward, and parted in Smithfield: and so I home, much wondering to see how things are altered with Mr. Creed, who, twelvemonths ago, might have been got to hang himself almost as soon as to go to a drinking-house on a Sunday." I. 106.
It is well-known that the Puritans and their immediate descendants inade conscience of not drinking healths. The scruple it seems actuated one of the most accomplished and polite of the Presbyterian ministers, "the silver-tongued Bates."
'May 23rd. Dinner at my Lord Mayor's with a great deal of honourable company, and great entertainment. At table I had very good discourse with Mr. Ashmole, wherein he did assure me that frogs and many insects do often fall from the sky, ready formed. Dr. Bates's singularity in not rising up nor drinking the King's nor other healths at the table, was very much observed." I. 108.
From another minute, relating to the same period, we learn that other religious scruples were yet somewhat respected:
'May 26th. Sir W. Batten told me how Mr. Prin (among the two or three that did refuse to-day to receive the sacrament upon their knees) was offered by a mistake the drinke afterwards, which he did receive, being denied the drink by Dr. Gunning, unless he would take it on his knees; and after that by another the bread was brought him, and he did take it sitting, which is thought very prepos terous." Ib.
Mr. Prynn, whose singularity is described in the last extract, was yet a thorn in the sides of the bishops:
"May 30th. This day, I hear the Parliament have ordered a bill to be brought in for restoring the bishops to the House of Lords; which they had not done so soon but to spite Mr. Prin, who is every day so bitter against them in his discourse in the House." I. 109.