Imatges de pÓgina

fence. Origen and Eusebius, we are of Jesus Christ. He is, indeed, called told, argue froin the omission of the the Word of God in the Revelation; article in the clause Jeos ñ aoyes, but only in such a way as he receives that the doyos was not one and the various other titles, such as King of saine, čv nai Tavlov, with the Father, kings, Emmanuel, the Lord our righte. the Supreme God. It must be grant- ousness, and others ; but none of these ed that they consider this circumstance are received and distinguishing appelas indicating some inferiority or sub- lations, nor would any writer use them ordination in the nature of the Logos, as such who wished to be understood. but it by no means follows, that had But if, by the Word, we understand they understood English, they would with Lardner and Priestley, that prinhave approved such a rendering as ciple of light and life which, though the present, which represents the essentially inherent in the Deity, emaWord as a separate, distinct God. In nated from him in due time, and being common with the other Fathers they infused into the person of Jesus, dwelt regarded the Acyos as existing in the among us in the form of human naessence of the Father, and partaking ture ; this idea, mysterious indeed, of his undivided Deity.

but neither unintelligible nor absurd, It is further urged, and we readily gives due significance to all the lanconcede, that an inferior use of the guage of the Evangelist, harmonizes name God occurs several times in the with the theological style of the age Old Testament, and in quotations from when the gospel was written, and it in the New : as for instance, “ It corresponds in the main with the sense is written in the laro, I said ye are

which all the early fathers gave to the Gorls," speaking of rulers : or, again, passage. These are surely no mean

Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor arguments in its favour. curse the ruler of thy people,” in a

But I think the rock of offence for like sense. I answer, that such ex- the Socinian interpretation is yet to pressions are no more than ancient come. O koduos do'autz eyeveto. The Hebraisms, occurring only in passages world was inade by him ; so read the found in or quoted from the Old Tes- orthodox, and so does Socinus ; but tament, and never forming a part of the Improved Version, iinputing to the current style of the New. It is the text a most astonishing ellipsis, most improbable that a passage of makes bold to render it, The world such dignity and gravity as that before was enlightened by hiin. Socinus is us should be couched in such obsolete obliged to propound that, by the world and fantastic language. It is doing being made, we must understand that very little in such cases to shew that the world was reformed, or that the in some extraordinary instances a word world means the new creation, which has been used in this or that sense : was, no doubt, the work of Christ. the question is, what is that ordinary Then the difficulty takes a new form, and sover sense in which it was proper for the question occurs how it could to use it in the passage under exami. be said that the new creation knew uation.

not Christ? The figure ellipsis allows It appears to me not a little strange a writer to omit what the sense of a to take the phrase, the Word, merely passage already sufficiently suggests. as a synonymn for the name of Jesus If this is the case with the world en, Christ. If the writer merely intended lightened, as here inserted, the reader to say that Jesus Christ was in the may omit this word, but will still perbeginning, and was with God, whyceive that it is implied in those which docs he designate him thus abruptly remain. Impartial reader, do you find: by this singular name, by which he this to be so? It is as plain a matter never calls him afterwards ? What in English as in Greek, although I proof have we that those to whom he have most satisfaction in referring you wrote were prepared to understand to the original. It has been said, that, him in this way of speaking? There the word syeveto cannot signify was is not a single instance in the New made. I answer, that the word

γίγνεσ Testament where this phrase, the las signifies to be brought into exWord, passcs as a known and distin. istence in any form or manner, and is guishing appellation, or proper name, applied in this sense to all sorts of



things, as the following quotations

SIR, will manifest : CELOMOS SYEVETO, Matt.

I ; viii. 24; pura fyEVETO, Mark i. ll; to be informed, that a substantial το σαββατον δια τον ανθρωπον εγενετο, tomb has just been erected in Bunhill Mark ii. 27; ay panes ka' duowory Fields, to the memory of the late Oci yeyovoras, James iï. 9; as to Mary Rev. and excellent Theophilus Lindεκ φαινομενων τα βλεπομενα γεγονέναι, sey. The expense was borne by the Heb. xi. 3. To these phrases, that Rev. Mr. Belsham and a committee of before us, the ó Koo MOS syeveTo, the gentlemen, consisting chiefly of his world was made or came into existence, old friends, who justly admire bis is perfectly analagous, and this ren, truly excellent character and exemdering appears to me, in a critical plary virtues. point of view, entirely unobjectionable. The following are the inscriptions

But not such is the Socinian ren- on the tomb: dering of a subsequent verse. Kai

On the side, Λογος σαρξ εγενετο. .

And the word

In this vault reposes the Rev. Theo. was flesh. The word syeveto is thus

PHILUS LINDSEY, M. A., late of St. John's taken as merely equivalent to shy, or, College in the University of Cambridge, as the logicians term it, it is used and some time Vicar of Catterick, in Yorksimply as the copula of the proposi- shire. Having resigned his preferment tion. 'Now I call on those who favour in the Church for the sake of Truth and this translation to produce a single a good Conscience, he became the Foundinstance in which this word yevso bat er of the Chapel in Essex Street. This is used in such a manner. It is alto- venerable Confessor ended his blameless gether foreign to its meaning. It al- and exemplary life, 3rd day of November, ways signifies either to come into ex. MDCCCVIII. Aged LXXXVI. istence, or to pass from one condition

On one end, to another. A transition, or change Mrs. HANNAH LINDSEY, relict of the of state, is always implied by this late Rer. Theophilus Lindsey, survived word. Socinus, indeed, flourishes fine- her venerable Consort little more than ly, and says,

“ Nemo qui Græcas three years, and, full of hope and of good literas vel a limine salutaverit, ignorat works, expired 18th January, MDCCCXII. hæc verba non ininus, Et verbum aged LXXH. caro fuit, quam Et verbum curo fac

On the other end, tum est, et bene et proprie verti

Mrs. ELIZABETH RAYNER, nearly allied posse." And to prove this, out of in blood to the illustrious house of Percy, numberless examples, he says, he will esteemed it a still greater honour to be only, produce one, but I must say I the friend and fellow-worshiper of Mr. think him not very happy in his choice. and Mrs. Lindsey, and by her own desire It is this, 'Os eyeyeto amp or podnins, was deposited in the same grave. Mrs. δυνατος εργο και λογω. Now, certainly Rayner died aged LΧΧΧΙν. if it were necessary that this passage It is in contemplation to place a should be rendered, “Who was a marble tablet with a longer inscription prophet,” his inference might stand; to his memory, in the Chapel in Essex but as it is just as proper to translate Street, by the same gentlemen. it, “ Which man became a prophet,

E. D. mighty in word and deed,” it falls to the ground. I repeat my challenge ; SIR,

August 25, 1825. let a single instance be produced in which syivero is a mere copula, equi. I AM very much at a loss to know

how to answer the modest demand valent only to hr. Till that is done I of your correspondent I., (p. 403,) and shall regard the translation,“ the Word to endeavour to set bis mind at rest was flesh," as false and inadmissible, on the somewhat curious point, of a and as involving the whole of this real Christian indulging great doubts Socinian interpretation in the same of a miraculous agency in many of predicament. With your permission, those facts, which the idiom of the Mr. Editor, I shall shortly add some Hebrew language, or rather that style further observations on the same sub- of language which the writer adopted, ject.

T. F. B. has delirered to us in the character of

miracle. I have been told that some of your very serious and judicious ledged between them and the books readers have thought the piece signed of the New Testament; which, in w. intended for å burlesque upon point of fact, are of infinitely greater Schiller, and not a serious allusion to value than they, and which might the facts of the Old Testament: and, stand their ground, although the writin my turn, I am labouring under the ings of Moses and the prophets had suspicion, that your correspondent I. been trampled in the dust. is some infidel in disguise, who has I fain would know whether your thrown out a bait to catch another, correspondent I., or whether any Uniby provoking him to farther remarks, tarian Christian, is prepared to avow, when it is not in his power to call out that all the events of the Old Testathe more able Schiller himself into ment which are related in language the field. For it surely is now too that implies miracle, were really sulate to use such language seriously, pernatural events? If he does, let as your correspondent has employed him read Josephus's History of the on the subject of the historical parts Jews, and he will find that an orthoof the Old Testament. What can he dox Jew shews the natural agent that mean by these words, “ I am at a loss brought many of them about, and has to understand how those who call not the most distant reference to mithemselves Christians can justify such racle in them; nay, the Scriptures sceptical sentiments,” &c.; and again, themselves, which in one place de“inconsistent scepticism'? This is seribe a transaction as the immediate the common cant of ignorance-every work of God, in another describe the thing is sceptical which is without the instrument to be a man or one of the “ exiguum curriculum” of our creed. powers of nature. I should fear afI did not expect to see such a sentence fronting your biblical readers did I in the Repository of General Litera. attempt to point them out. ture. He must be dreaming when he And if I am disposed to assigo na talks of " striking at the very root of tural causes for some other of those Christianity itself, and denying the events which Christians have been divine authority of Moses and the pro- pleased to regard as miraculous, am phets." In every step upwards, from 1 to be called a sceptic and be bethe bare acknowledgment of Jesus as spattered with obloquy, and pointed an extraordinary personage, to the beat as an infidel and no Christian? lief in him as the everlasting God, the The bigoted Catholic for that--who feeble child of dust talks of “the scep- reproaches the man of " little faith," ticism” of him who is moving one because he gives a false turn to the step below him, and “he cannot un declaration of his Lord, “ This is my derstand how he can call himself à body." The honest Trinitarian does Christian.” I pity him from my heart! the same, who denies the character of Serious as he may be, he will doubtless Christian to him who cannot believe join in the exclamation of the witty in the personal divinity of the Son and author of the Sentimental Journey, the Spirit. And, if you please, the “How I love the man, who will give half-way Arian, who is angry with his up the reins into his author's hands, younger brother, because he has taken be pleased he knows not why, and one step beyond him, and denied the cares not wherefore !!"

pre-existence of his Master. While it is not my design “to ex

On the ground of this “scepticism, plain away all that appears miracu- which requires from your corresponlous," I have been taught by the ex. dent some farther explanation, let ample of Joseph Priestley, Henry me refer I. to Bellamy's Bible, where Moore, and some other bold minds, I think he may be both amused and who made their way of reading the instructed, though he may not go all Bible known to the world first in the lengths with that erudite and ingeniTheological Repository, and after- ous writer. It is well known that the wards in sundry works, to feel an manner in which facts are spoken of anxiety to give an air of probability in the Old Testament, has furnished to all those ancient writings which, a handle against the entire history of for various reasons, I hold in great the Hebrews as a divine interference, esteem, and not the less so because and surely he cannot be a foe to divide there is an important relation acknow. truth who will remove the difficulties

that arise from inodes of expression, tures; they are represented as engaged although the result might be, that by him in an especial manner to train there were not so many miracles up a family for his worship; and a wrought by the Jewish Lawgiver as Jewish historian, when giving an achad been imagined ; any more than count of what befel his people, goes he must be thought to do an injustice back at once to the original cause, to the Christian system, who cannot disregarding the ininor instruments. discover a spiritual sense and a Chris- Here has been the misfortune; betian meaning in the Song of Solomon. cause, although his statement is strictly We have long ceased to believe that true, and cannot be denied by him who those infernal spirits, which Milton “ looks through nature up to nature's speaks of, so much like a poet, and God;" yet they who confine their so little like a believer, were driven views to the act itself, may in many out of the human body into the herd cases think the practice an absurd one, of swine ; and that, in the temptation to ascribe to the Almighty the minuin the Garden of Eden, “Satan squat tiæ of laws, intended for so barbarous like a toad” at the ear of Eve, infusing and wrong-headed a people as was his “ wicked wiles," and indeed we that which left the Egyptian slavery make so free with the opinions of our in search of a better fate in some unfathers as to be satisfied that he had known land. no concern in that woful temptation The letter of W. contains an allaby which our first mother fell. We sion to the pillar of cloud and of fire ; do even more than ibis, for we deny and I suspect the intimation that acaltogether that this drama of the fall companied it terrified and shook the of man, is the relation of a fact. And, tender nerves of I. (if, as I still suswhether or not we discern in it, as pect, he be not as great a freethinker Schiller does, the first necessary ope- as myself). Now this is one of those ration of free-will, and regard it as a historical facts which are as plain as a manifestation of man's independent clear understanding can make thein ; state, and the almost unavoidable re- and the very circumstance of such a sult of the condition in which he was phraseology being employed to de. placed, and therefore, in a strictly phi- scribe what a profane author would losophical sense, no evil: by denying give us in a simpler style affords a a fact which is so plainly declared, strong reason for us to carry a similar we certainly prepare the inind for a mode of interpretation into other parts liberal interpretation of those relations of the Scripture history. For, as it is which afterwards present themselves evident the persons for whom the to our notice in the succeeding pages. Gospels were written did not believe I might as well believe that a serpent that devils were driven out of the lutalked with Eve, as, that the wind natics, but that the expression “posbreathed through the ram's horns, sessed of demons," was the description knocked down the walls of Jericho, of a certain disorder, as St. Vitus's dance when I can give a more reasonable and St. Anthony's fire are now among account of both; I should have as little us, so the Jews in the time of Moses, difficulty in admitting, that the Omni- or that in which the Pentateuch was present Governor walked in the garden written, whenever it might be, were and met Adam, as one man may meet not themselves deceived by the lan. another, as, that Moses talked face to guage of their sacred writers—it was face with God, as a man inay talk left for Christians in the nineteenth with his friend. But while I see in century to add to the Mosaic history both a beautiful allusion to the agency miracle upon miracle, and to spirituof God, I adınit no personal presence. alize the plainest facts; until the anThere is a truth, Sir, in all these de- gles of a box cannot be determined on, clarations ; but I shall never believe nor the trimmings of a curtain, withGod to be “ altogether such an one out an express authority from Him as myself,” and, therefore, interpret who sways the sceptre of the universe, literally all those metaphorical expres- and gives laws to ten thousand worlds; sions which are found in the Bible. and even the cherubims, the figures of All the powers of nature, and all the two calves, and the space between skill of man, are instruments in his them, a foot and a half, become the hands of good and of eril to his crea- type of that boundless benevolence



and compassion, with which it is our Pastoral Letter of Dr. Doyle's on delight to see our heavenly King in- Public Bible Discussions. vested. They who can delight in such puny thoughts are welcome to them;

GY IN CARLOW AND ITS VICINITY, WHO it will give me no concern to be charged by such persons with “inconsistent scepticism," though I think the adjunct might be taken away from this charge; for they only can be consis

Reverend and dear Brethren, tent who, while they believe the Su


HAVE only heard of a challenge preme Being to be infinitely exalted to dispute being published in The above all blessing and praise, yet will Dublin Evening Post, wherein cerassiga him such paltry offices as many tain members of the Bible Society, in of those to which his agency is attain, Dublin, propose to meet some indivi. ed in a style of language chosen to duals of our clergy, in the presence of suit the low conceptions of that small a select portion of the public, in order race of beings whose whole conduct, to discuss some question or questions from the time they borrowed the jew- previously agreed upon, and which are els from their masters, to their divid- to relate, I suppose, to the religious ing between them the rich land of belief of the parties to be thus en. Canaan, is a compound of ignorance, gaged. perverseness and rebellion. Yet they I need not remind you, dearest were not ignorant of what liad been Brethren, of what is ruled by the Sudone for them, as many now seem to preme Authority of the Church, (see be, with all the aids of learning, and Ben. xiv. de Syn. Dioc.,) with regard the lights which, in these latter days, to individuals, unauthorized thereto by have been thrown on the history of their Bishop, not entering into public ancient times.

disputations with persons maintaining It is generally admitted among our heretical opinions ; your own good biblical scholars, and it is a sentiment sense, and the very nature of divine carried by some of them to a great truth, as deposited by Christ with his length, that quotations from the Old Apostles and their successors, shew Testament are made in the New, in to you, that whatever relates to faith, order to shew a similarity of circum- morals or discipline, should be regustances, and not a necessary connexion lated by those whom the Holy Ghost between the things spoken of. The has appointed to govern the Church. respect in which the Christian writers I, therefore, hearing of the above held the Scriptures made them desir- challenge, wishing to inform you, and ous of connecting the days of Christ all those concerned with you, that, with those of the earlier prophets; and having given to this matter, what conwhere there they saw a similarity, or sideration it deserves, it is my wish imagined a likeness, it was natural for that no such disputation as is above them to point it out: and I suppose mentioned be had by you, or by any your correspondents are not ignorant of you, with the gentlemen alluded that one highly respectable branch of to!!! the Unitarian public in England are As the obedience you owe to me is not willing to admit even that many a reasonable one, it is just that I of those passages in the Old Testa- should state the grounds upon which ment, which have been generally I require of you to exercise it in this thought to point to the Messiah, have matter, and they are–First, because any reference whatever to that great the character of the Christian religion personage; they refuse to admit what is peace; and the end of it, to estaio most are palpable prophetic decla- blish peace and good-will upon earth, rations. And, will your correspondent as the means of fitting men for hea. I. refuse them the character of Chris- ven ; this end of our calling was antians ? But I must conclude.

nounced by the Angels at Bethlehem, when the humanity and benignity of our Saviour God first appeared ; and it was repeated by himself when he was about to leave us and return to

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