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154
True State of the Squabbles

March must be abhorrent and shocking to a of the address to read, and told him pofTenor of the throne upon the ait of he might fign the address then on the settlement !-However, hear a dying table if he thought proper. Mr. patriot.

Lovel having read it, answered, That “ God will not suffer this land, he did not approve of the address ; where the gospel has flourished more that he would wait till the body of than in any part of the world, to be. merchants were met, and hear their come enslaved : be will not suffer it to debate, whether it was adviseable to be made a land of graven images : he address bis majesty or not, agreeable will ftir up witnefes of the truth, and, to their advertiseinent in the pasers ; in his own ringe, spirit his people to for Mr. Lovel could not be supposed hand up for his cau'e, and deliver to believe that Mr. Peter Moilman them." So said the glorious ALGER. and Mr. Dingley, and a few orders, NON SIDNEY -and he added, “I had actually taken upon themselves lo lived in this belief, and am now about become dicators to the merchants of to die in it." -Glorious man! So London ; or that they had resolved may it ever be, says

opon, and framed an address, which SIDNEY'S ADMIRER. was to be humbly Subscribed without

enquiry or debate: but such was the HEREAS many attempts have politeness which prevailed at this transactions at the King's Arins on Mr. Muilman ordered Mr. Lovel to Wednesday and Friday lait, the fol. leave the room if he would not fign the lowing authentic narration is submit. address. Mr. Lovel replied, He bad ed to the public; and the gentlenen paid his milling at the door; that he who were present at either of those apprehended he had a right to be there, meetings, especially those whose names and would tay ; and that he thought are mentioned, are appealed to for the their attempting to smuggle an adtruth of this account.

dress was an aifront to the body of Many days, previous to Wednesday, merchants. March 8, the following advertisement About this time Mr. Reynolds came was published: The merchants, tra. in, and Mr. Charles Dingley, on ders, and principal inhabitants of his entering the room,. came up to London, are defired to meet on Wed- him and said, “Mr. Reynolds, you nesday the 8th of March, at the King's have no business here ; you are a Arms, to consider whether any mea.

marked man;

we do not like sures are adviseable to be taken by your complexion ;- no man is inthem in the present lituation of pub- vited who will not sign the address." lic affairs, in order to testify their Mr. Reynolds replied, I have paid the loyalty and zeal for his majelty, his toll at the door, and come here as an illustrious family, and our happy inhabitant of London, in consequence conttitution.”

of the public notice given in the On the very day of the appointed papers for many days past." meeting, the addresler's adveriileil, Mr. Samuel Vaughan having also “ That being apprised fome ill dil paid his Milling for the use of the puled perions had forined a plan to room, caine up to the table, and was create confusion at the meeting (in going to read the addrels, but Mr. which it was proposed to consider Peter Muilman interrupted him, and whether it was adviseable to address faid, “ Sir, Sir, you are not to read his majefty) they, that is several mer

you may sign it if you please, chants, had reflved upon, and formed or withdraw.” Mr. Vaughan replied, an addrels, which was lodged at:le as a merchant of London, « I have a King's Arms tavern to be subfcribed, right to read it, and I will read it: &c. &c."

if I approve of it, I will fign it ; if When Mr. Lovel went into the not, I will mention my objections at room, having paid bis Billing as ufual the proper time.” Mr. Muilman givfor the use of it, he found Mr. Muil. ing him a copy to read, taid, that the m 1, Mr. Dingley, and a few others. addreis was not to be debated..." Your me. Peter Muiiman gave bim a copy only option is to fign, or withdraw."

There See his Afclogy on the day of bis death, p. 198. Edit. 1763.

it ;

1769.
At the King's-Arms.

155 There were at this time many peo. moved and agreed to, that a comple in the room, and on Mr. Charles mittee should be appointed to prepare Pole's coming in, they called out, an address, and that the meeting " Mr. Pole in the chair ;” but the should be adjourned to the Friday addressers, who pretended to be so following, March the roth. very apprehensive that ill-difpored Pursuant to this adjournment, there persons would create confusion, de was a very large and refpectable meet. termined to prevent this by violently ing. The harmony and good manners opposing all order : they cried, “No which prevailed on this lecond day, chair, No chair,” with the utmott is at least a strong presumption that fury, and threatened to turn down there were more gentlemen at the second fairs all who called for any chairman. meeting than at the first. If any per. Mr. Peter Muilman in particular caine sons think it worth while to ascertain' up to Mr. Vaughan, and in a threat the numbers, Mr. Holelworth, at the ening, insulting manner, such as is King's Arms tavern, can inform them, only used by the lower class of people that on Friday, when the question on when they want to breed a riot, the resolutions was put, the meeting cried out, " No chair, No chair." was more numerous by at lealt fitty or cight or ten times. Many of the ad. lixty than at any one time on the dreliers, animated by the example of preceding meeting on Wednesday this their leader, acted the same he. ihe 8th. roic part, and the confusion became The resolutions which were report. general.

ed from the committee at this lecond The chair was the object of the meeting were iwice read by David batde ..some secured the frame. · Evans, Esq; and on the question beothers the feat, and for a Mort time ing put, Whether the refolutions tbeje abborrers of disorder triumphed in should be agreed to or not, it palled having created a compleat scene of so far unanimously, that on the ne. confution. Another chair was soon gative being put the first ti'ne one obtained.-- several gentlemen were re- hand only was held up, througit misquefted to take it, but they refused; take (as the gentleman himielf acat lalt Mr. Vaughan accepted of it in knowledged), but on it's being put a compliance with many repeated solici, second tine not one hand was held tations, and was put in the chair ac- up again it it. cordingly. Mr. Reynolds was near Mi. Cooper, of Token-House Yard, him, when Mr. Charles Dingley came made some very just observations on up and ftruck Mr. Reynolds a violent the impropriety of any address, and blow in his face with bis filt, politely concluded with a motion that the relaying, you are a d-nd 'Scoun- solutions thould be signed by the gene drei; and on this provocation Mr. einen who had so unanimously agreed Reynolds knocked him down.--- Many to them ; but this Motion was loon were the attempts to disposefs Mr. withdrawn, it having been very proVaughan of the chair--- several ttrokes perly urged, that as it was unprecewere made at him with sticks and denied, it was for that reason alone canes, but the blows were warded off improper. It was then moved, and by his friends.---The chairman for unanimously agreed to, that the retosome time attempted in vain to com- lutio.is Thould be ligned by the chair. pose the tumult,' for the addreffers man, and publithed in all the papers, endeavoured by stamping, clapping, which was accordingly cone. The &c. &c. to prevent any persons being whole was conducted with good manheard.

ners. Every person who attempted But as these disgraceful measures to speak, was heard; and as no per. could not long find a party to lup- fons made any objections to the reso. port them, many of the principal ad. lutions, they were signed by the chair. drefers thought proper to recire with man, and the gentleinen departed,

giving a full prout, by the thortness The causes of the tumult being re- of the time engaged, that the ineatures moved, peace, good order, and good they had taken were so evidently right, manners immediately ensued. -- li was as to be instantly approved.

We,

their address.

U %

156 Impartial Review of New Publications. March

We, whose names are underwritten, gave himself to the treasury on Weddeclare the zhove relation, to be strict. nesday the 8th instant. ly and literally true ; and Mr. Dingley

SAMUEL VAUGHAN. in particular is requested to compare

MICHAEL LOVELL, the above account with that which he

JOHN REYNOLDS.

An I MPARTIAL REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS,

ARTICLE 1.

adopted On tbis account, a view of the

causes and events which contributed to esta. THE Hicry of tbe Reign of ebe Emperem bị th a plan of policy more falutary and ex

Cbarles V. witb a View of the Progress of tenlive ihan any that has taken place in the Society in Europe. From obe subversion of ibe conduct of human affairs, is not only a ne• Roman Empire, to the beginning of tho fixteenth ceffary introduction to the following work, Century. In 3 vols. 410. By William Ro

1

but is a capital object in the hiftory of Eu. bertson, D. D. Principal of ibe University at

rope. Edinburgh, and Historiograpber 10 bis Mojefty

The first event that occafioned any confifor Scotland, 21. 12 s. 6 d. Strahan.

derable alıeration in the arrangement of af.. It is with the greatest pleasure we congra- fairs in Europe, was the annexation of the tulate the public on this very valuible acqui.. extensive territories, which England polSition to the world of letters--no penoj w:S

Selled on the continent, to the crown of perhaps ever more important than the pe

France, While the English were masters of iiod of which the history before us treats, the most fertile and opulent provinces in anu it is barely justice to the truly ingen France, and a great part of its most martial nicus author to acknowle.ige that he has inbabitants were bound to fo'low their starnot only executed his arduous uuderiaking dard, their monarchs considered themselves with accuracy but with elegance, and not rather as the rivals, than as the vafsals of only opened an ample field of knowledge the lovereign of whom they held, The but of in eitaiument to his readers in rea- Kings of France, circumscribed and thwarility we do not know a work of the historie ed in their schemes and operations by an adcal kind wbere the heart is so likely to be versary no less jealous than formidable, durft interested, while the understanding is im- not venture upon any enterprize of impore, p.oved, as the article which we are now tance or of difficulty. The English were speaking of -ard as from this character the always at hand, ready to ppose them. purchalers of the London Magazine wi I na- They disputed even their right to their crown, turally be desirous oi extr.(t , ne hare filect. and being able to penetrate, with ease, in. ed several for ile gratification of their cu. to the heart of the kingdom, could aim riolty-ihe fo lowing account of the origin against them those very hands which ought of ftanding armies in Europe, mu? be para to have been employed in their defence. Titicolarly acceptable to an Engl min, who mid counsels, and feeble efforts were natural loves to examine the progies of dilpo i'm in to monarchs in such a hluation. France, Other counties, to guard against the fatal dilmembred and over awed, could not attain effrels of it in his own.

irs proper fiation in the lystem of Europe. " During the course of the fifleenth con- But the death of Henry of England, happily tury, various events happened, whic, by for Fance, and not unfortunately for his giving princes more entire commani ot own country, delivered the French from the the forces, in their respective dominions, calamity of having a foreign malier fested rendered their operations more vigorous and on chuir throne. The weakness, of a long extensive. In consequence of this, the affalls minority, the diffentions in the Englih court, ci difterent kingdoms becoming more lie. t.gether with the unsteady and languid conquently as well as m-re intimately connect- duet which these occafioned, afforded the ed, they were gradually accustomed to act French a favourable opportunity of recoverin concert and confederacy, and were iníen. ing the territories which they had loft. The finly preparing and forming a syfiem of policy, native valour of the nobility of France, in order to establish or to preserve luch a ba heightened to an enthufiaftick con o sence, Jance of pow's as was most confistent with by a fuppo ed interposition of heaven in their the general sec rity. It wip during the behalf; conducted in the field by skilful leaseign of Charles the Fiłth, that the ideas, ders; and directed in the cabinet by a pru. on which his system is founded, first came dent monarch; was exerted with such vito be understood. It was then, ihat the gour and success, during this tavo rable maxims by which it has been unitorinly juncture, as not only wiefted from the EngDamta'ned lunce that æra were uniyertally hoth their new conquells, but ftripe ihem of

their

of

1769. Origin of handing Armies.

157 their ancient poffeffions, and reduced them the nobles, that during several centuries no within the narrow precincts of Calais, and monarch was either so bold, or so powerful, is pet:y territory.

as to venture on any step towards introducing As loon as so many confiderable provinces i. At last, Charles VII. availing himself were re-united to their dominions, the kings of the reputation which he had acquired by of France, conscious of this acquifition of his fuccelles against the English, and taking frength, began to form bolder schemes of advantage of the impressions of terror which interior policy, as well as of foreign operan such a formidable enemy had left upon the tions. They immediately became formidable minds of his subje&ls, executed that which to their neighbours, who began to fix their his predecellor, durit not attempt. Under attention on measures and motions, the im- pretence of keeping always on loot a force porta ce of which they fully perceived. sufficient to defend the kingdom against any Ficm this zra, France, pofleflid of the ad. sudden invalion of the English, he, at the Tanta es which is derives from the situation time when he disbanded his other troops, and contiguity of its territories, as well as retained under arms a body' of nine thousand frue the number, and valour of its people, cavalry, and of sixteen thousand infantry., tole to new influence in Europe, and was the He appropriated funds for the regular pay. fif power in a condition to give alarm to ment of these ; he stationed them in different the jealou'y or fears of the Nates around it. places of the kingdom, according to his Nor was frauce indebted for this increase plea'ure; and appointed the officers, who

importance meerly to the reunion of the commanded and disciplired them. The provinc:s which had been corn from it. A prime nobility courted this service, in which circamitance attended the recovery of these, they were caught to depend on their sovereign, vbich, though less considerable, and less to execu'e bis orders, and to look up to him observed, contributed not a little to give ad- as the judge and rewarder of their merit. ditional vigour and decifion to all the efforts the feudal muita, composed of the vaffals of that monarchy. During the obfinate whom the nobles could call out to follow ir ggles bei ween France and England, all their fandard, as it was in no degree com. the defects of the military system, under the parable to a body of soldiers regularly trained feudal government were sendibly felt. A to war, funk gradually in reputation. The war of long continuance languished, when ft:eosth of armies came to be efimated only carried on by :roops bount and accustomed by the number of disciplined men which to keep the field only for a few weeks. Are they contained. In less than a century the mies, composed chiefly of heavy armed ca- nobles and their military tenants, though valry, were unfit either for the attack or sometimes summoned to the field, according the defence of the many towns and cagl-s, 10 ancient form, were considered as an inwhich it became necellary to guard or 10, cumbrance upon the croops with which they reduce. In order to obtain such permanent acted; and were viewed with contempt by and effective force as became requifi'e dur- soldiers accufomed to the vigorous and steady ing the e lengthen d conrests, the Kings of operations of regilar service. France took into their pay considerable bands Thus the regulations of Charles the Seof mercenary soldiers,' levied sometimes venih, by eltablishing the first ftanding army adong their own subjects, and sometimes in known in Europe, occafioned an important foreign countries. But as the feudal policy revolution in its affairs and policy. By deprovided no sufficient fund for such extraor- priving the nobles of that direction of the dinary service, these adventurers were cif- military torce or the state, wbich bad raised missed at the close of every campaign, or them to such bigh authority and importance, apon any pro pe&t of accommodation; and it gave a deep wound to the feudal aristocraa having been liitie accustomed to the restraints cy, in that part where its power seemed to be of discipline, they frequently turned their most complere. arms against the country which they had VOL. 3. That our readers may relish the been hired to defend, and desolated it with extracts from this very entertaining perforno less cruelty than jis foreign enemies. mance with greater gult, it will be necessary

A body of troops kept cofftantly on foot, to inform them that Charles the Fifth was and regular y trained to subordination, would the granolon. by the mother's fide, of Ferdihave supplied what was wanting in the feu- nand and Isabella, King and Queen of Arradal conftitution, and have furnilhed prioces gon and Caftile, and by his father's side the with the means of executing enterprizes, to gra'idion of Maximilian emperor of Ger. which they were then unequal. Such an many-his father Philip died, at the age of establishment, however, was so repugnant to twenty eighi, and his mother Joanna, who the genius o feudal policy, and so incompa. lourd'hilip with a moft passionate extravatible with the privileges and pretentions of gance *, becoming in conlequence of her lofs,

wholly " During all tbe time of Pbilip's sicknesi, no intreaty could prevail on ber, sbough in ibe fiero eromeb of bor pregnancy, co leove bim for a moment. Wber be expired, bowever, fpe did

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158

Base Behaviour of Charles V.

March wholly unable to manage the moft trifling four hundred kept in a body, and escaped to concerns, Chailes entered into a prodigious Wirtemberg, together with the electoral extent of dominion at a very early period, and prince, who had likewise been wounded in on the death or Maximil am getting himself the action. After resting two days on the elected emperor in his room his power was field of battle, partly to retref his army, so greatly encreased that he artected to give and partly to receive the deputies of the ad. law to all Europe~The King of France, jacent towns, which were imparient to le. the pope, the elector of Sixony, and the cure his protection by submiuing to his la dgrave of Hels: were succeslively his pri. will, the emperor began to move towards soners and he was universally considered the Wittemberg, that he might terminate the first character of the age - but he was info- war at once, by the reduction of that city, lent, cruel, and perfidious, and the following The unfortunate elector was carried along in account of his behaviour to the elector of a sort of triumph, and exposed every wbere, Saxony on his being taken piisoner, must as a cap:ive to his own subject“, a sp:e.de fink him in every mind tinctured witn the extremely afflicting to them who bosh ko. Smalleit generosity- When the elector was noured and loved him; though the infult taken, “ He was conducted immediarely was so far from subduing his firm pirit, towards the emperor, whom he found just that it did not even ruffle the wonted trage returned from the pursuit, standing on the quillity and composure of his mind. field of battle in the full exultation of success, As Wittemberg, the residence, in that and receiving the congratulations of his of. age, of the electoral branch of the Saxon ficers, upon this compleat vict ry obtained family, was one of the Arongest cirles in by his valour and conduct. Even in such an Germany, and would not be taken, il prounfortunate and humbling fituation, the perly defended, without great cifficulty, the elector's behaviour was equally magnanimous emperor marched thither with the umcft and decent. Sensible of his condition he dispatch, hoping that while the confterna. approached his conqueror without any of the tion occalioned by his victory was still refullenness or pride, which would have been cent, the inhabitants might imitate the eximproper in a captive; and conscious of his ample of their countrymen, and submit 10 own dignity, he descended to no mean sub- his power, as soon as he appeared before the mission, unbecoming the high ftation which walls. But Sybilla of Cleves the elector's he held among the German princes, « The wife a woman no less didinguished by her fortune of war, said he, has made me your abilities than her virtue, inttead of abandonprisiner, most gracious emperor, and I hope ing herself to tears and lamentation upon to be treated"-Here Charles barshly inter het husband's misfortune, endeavoured, by supred him.

«s. And am I then at last ac- her example as well as exhortations, to aniknowledged to be emperor ; Charles of Ghent mate the citizens; and the inspired them was the only title you lately allowed me. with such resolution, that, when summoned You Mall be treated as you deserve. A: to surrender, they returned a vigorous an. these words, he turned from him abruptly, swer, warning the emperor to behave towith an haughty air.

wards their lovereign with the relpect due To this cruel repulse, the King of the to his rank, as they were derermined to treat Romans added reproaches in his own name, Albert of Brandersbourg, who was fill a pri. using expressions it more ungenerous and foner, precisely in the same manner that he insulting. The elector made no reply; but, created him. The spirit of the inhabitants with an unaliered countenance, which disco- no le's than the Arengih of ite city seem-d vered neither aftonishment nor dejection, ac- now to render a liege in form necellary. Ale companied the Spanish soldiers appointed to ter such a lignal vi&ory it would have been

disgraceful not to hire un tertaken it, though This decisive vi&tory cost the imperialists at the same time the emperor was destitute only fifty men. Twelve hundred of the of every thing nerelliry for carrying it on. S 12ons were killed, chiefly in the pursuit, " Bur Maurice (an Ally of the empero:'s and a greater number taken prisoners. About though a near relacion of the elector's) re. 201 fyed one tear, or utter a lingle groan. Her grief was filent and sereled. Sbe continued 19 waicb ene d:ad body witb ibe jame tenderness and attention as if i: bad been alive, ard 'bough at laß jhe allowed i' to be isied, she foon rem ved ie from ibe comb to her own aparent. Tèere it was laid apun a bed of fase, in a splendid dress; and boving beard from some monk a legendary cale of a king, wbs revived after be bad bren dead fourteen y:ars, pe krpi ber gyes almost ccafanily fixed on ibe body, waiting for the bippy moment of its return io life. Nur was ibis cae pricious affection for lor dead busband less tinerured w:1h jealousy, iban roue woich she bad bara to bim while alive. Sbe did not permir any of ber female a:terdints to approach obe bed or abieb bis comple was laid ; she would noe suffer any woman wb? did nol bulong in her family to enter, the apariment; and raiber ib.in grane ibat privilege to a midwife, thougb a very aged swe bas. been cbfer un purpose, jbe bore ide princess Carberine wiibous any aber ajance ibas tbai of ber cwn domeftics."

moved

guard him,

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