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Junius's Letter to the D. of G,

June drugs and operations, so that, if they forms of parliament, never enter heardid not allift nature, neither did tily into a debate, until they have di. they obstruct her; and if they did vided. not cure, neither did they kill, Relinquishing, therefore, all idle their patients, The Guaranis had like- views of amendment to your grace, wise their conjurers, who boasted a or of benefit to the public, let me be power of killing whoever they thought permitted to consider your character proper; and had, in fact, lo far be. and conduct merely as a subject of cuwitched numbers as to make them be. rious speculation. There is sometbing lieve, that several had been carried off in both, which distinguishes you act by the secret power of their incanta. only from all other ministers, but all tions; so that it was sometimes enough other men. It is not that you do for a man to have an enemy, to be wrong by.design, but that you should seized with a panic, and even die of never do right by mistake. It is not it, if he had not wherewith to bribe that your indolence and your activity these impostors."

have been equally misapplied, but

that the first uniform principle, T, N occasional writer in the Public if I may so call it, the genius of nius, and who has already been intro through every possible change and duced in our Magazine, having closed contradiction of conduct, without the his attack upon the first m- -r for momentary imputation or colour of a the present political campaign, with virtue; and that the wildeft fpirit of a letter uncommonly severe, the uni; inconsistency should never once hare versal attention it has excited would betrayed you into a wise or honourable render us inexcusable, if we did not action. This, I own, gives an air of present it to our readers.

singularity to your fortune, as well To bis Grace the Dof

as to your disposition. Let us look My Lord,

back together to a scene, in which IF the measures in which you have a mind like your's will find nothing been most successful, had been sup- to repent of. Let us try, my lord, ported by any tolerable appearance of how well you have supported the argument, I should have thought my various relations in which you stood, cine nor ill employed, in continuing to your sovereign, your country, your to examine your conduct as a mini- friends, and yourself. Give us, if it Iter, and lating it fairly to the public : be possible, some excuse to pofterity But when I see questions of the highest and to ourselves for submitting to your national importance carried as they administration. If not the abilities of have been, and the first principles of a great ininister, if not the integrity the conftitution openly violated, with, of a patriot, or the fidelity of a friend, out argument or decency, I confess, I new us, at least, the firmness of a man. give up the cause in despair. The For the sake of your mistress, the menneit of your predecessors had abilover shall be spared. I will not lead lities sufficient to give a colour to her into public as you have done, nor their measures. If they invaded the will I insult the memory of departed rights of the people, they did not beauty. Her sex, which alone made dare to offer a direct insult to their her amiable in your eyes, makes her understanding; and, in former times, respectable in mine. the most venal parliaments made it a The character of the reputed an, condition, in their bargain with the cestors of some men has made it poliminifter, that he should furnilh them ble for their descendants to be vicious with lone plausible pretences for sells in the extreme, without being dege. ing their country and themselves. You

Those of your grace, for in. Jiave had themeritof introducing a more stance, left no diftreffing examples of compendious sytter of government and virtue even to their legitimate pofte. logic. You neither address yourself to rity, and you may look back with The pasions nor to the understanding, pleasure to an illustrious pedigree, in but limply to the couch. You apply which heraldry has not left a fingle yourle!f immediately to the feelings good quality upon record to infult or of your friends, who, contrary to the upbisit you. You have better proots

nerate.

3

769. Junius's Letter to the D. of G.

317 your descent, my lord, than the in the closet for your former friendship egister of a marriage, or any trou. with him. Your gracious master unlerome inheritance of reputation, derstands your character, and makes There are some hereditary ftrokes of you a persecutor, because you have Character, by which a family may be been a friend. es clearly diftinguished as by the black- Lord Chatham formed his last admi. It features of the human face. Charles niftration upon principles which you the First lived and died a hypocrite. certainly concurred in, or you could Charles the Second was a hypocrite of never have been placed at the head of another sort, and should have died the Treasury. By deserting those upon the same scaffold, At the distance principles, and by acting in direct of a century, we see their different contradiction to them, in which he characters happily revived and blended found you were secretly supported in in your grace. Sullen and severe the closet, you foon forced him to without religion, profligate without leave you to yourself, and to withdraw gaiety, you live like Charles the Se- his name from an administration, cond, without being an amiable com- which had been formed on the credit panion, and, for aught I know, may of it. You had then a prospect of die as his father did, without the re. friendships better suited to your geputation of a martyr,

nius, and more likely to fix your dilo You had already taken your degrees position. Marriage is the point, on with credit in those schools in which which every rake is stationary at last the English nobility are formed to vir- truly, my Lord, you may well be fue, when you were introduced to Lord weary of the circuit you have taken, Chatham's protection. From New. for you have now fairly travelled thro market, White's, and the opposition, every sign in the political zodiac, from he gave you to the world with an air the Scorpion, in which you itung of popularity, which young men usu. Lord Catham, to the hopes of a Viroally set out with, and seldom preserve; gin in the house of Bly. grave and plausible enough to be one would think that you had hårt thought fit for business, too young for sufficient experience of the frailty of treachery, and, in Mort, a patriot of nuptial engagements, or, at least, that no unpromising expectations. Lord such a friendship as the duke of B-'s Chatham was the earliest object of might have been secured to you by your political wonder and attachment: the auspicious marriage of your late yet you deserted him, upon the first dass with his nephew. But bopes that offered of an equal share of ties of this tender nature cannot be power with Lord Rockingham. When drawn too close ; and it inay pollibly the duke of Cumberland's firft negotia. be a part of the of Bf-d's tion failed, and when the favourite ambition, after making ber an lionelt was pulhed to the last extremity, you woman, to work a miracle of the laved him, by joining with an admini. same fort upon your G. This Aration, in which Lord Chatham had worthy nobleman has long dealt in tefused to engage. Still, however, he virtue. There has been a large conwas your friend, and you are yet to fumption of it in his own family, and explain to the world why you consent in the way of traflick, I dare lay, he ed to act without him, or why, after has bought and sold more than half uniting with Lord Rockingham, you the representative integrity of tlie nadeserted and betrayed him. "You com- tion. plained that no measures were taken In a political view, this union is not to faisfy your patron, and that your imprudent. The tavour of princes is friend, Mr. Wilkes, who had suffered a perishabie commodity. You have so much for the party, had been aban. now a strength sufficient to command doned to his fate. They have since the closet; and if it be neceflary to contributed, not a little, to your pre. betray one friendlip more, you inay fent plenitude of power yet, I think, set even Lord Bute at defiance. Mr. Lord Chatham has less reason than Stuart Mackenzie may pollibly reever to be satisfied, and, as for Mr. member what ule the d– 'of Baf-od Wilkes

, it is, perhaps, the greatest usually makes of his power, and our misfortune of his life, that you should gracious sovereign I doubt not rejoices bave fo many compensations to make it this will appearance of union a.

nions

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Junius's Letter to the D. of G. Jun mong his servants. His late majesty, know, my lord, that Corsica voul. 1 under the happy influence of a family never have been invaded. The French connection between his ministers, was saw the weakness of a distracted minirelieved from the cares of government. ftry, and were justified in treating A more active prince may perhaps you with contempt: they wouli observe with suspicion, by what de. probably have yielded in the first ingrees an artful servant grows upon stance, rather than hazard a rupture his master from the first unlimited with this country ; but being once enprofessions of duty and attachment to gaged, they cannot retreat without the painful representation of the ne. dishonour. Common sense forefees celfity of the royal service, and soon, consequences which have escaped your in regular progression, to the humble grace's penetration. Either we luffer insolence of dictating in all the obse. the French to make an acquisition, the quious forms of pereinptory fubmis. importance of which you have probafion. The interval is carefully em- bly no conception of, or we oppole ployed in forming connections, crea- them by an underhand management, ting interefts, collecting a party, and which only disgraces us in the eyes of laying the foundation of double mar. Europe, without answering any purriages, until the deluded prince, who pole of policy or prudence. From fethought he had found a creature proí- cret, indiicreet affiltance, a transition tituted to his service, and insignišcant to some more open decitive measures enough to be always dependent upon becomes unavoidable, till at latt we his pleasure, finds him at last too find ourselves principals in the war, strong to be commanded, and too fore and are obliged to hazard every thing midable to be removed,

for an object which might have origiYour grace's public conduct, as a naliy been obtained without expence minister, is but a counter-part of your or danger. I am not versed in ihe private history, the same inconsistency, politics of the North ; but this I be. the same contradictions. In America lieve is certain, that half the money we trace you, from the first opposition you have distributed to carry the exto the stamp.act, on principles of con. pulfion of Mr. Wilkes, or even your venience, to Mr. Pitt's surrender of secretary's share in the last subscripthe right; then forward to Lord Rock. tion, would have kept the Turks at ingham's surrender of the fact ; thien your devotion. Was it ceconomy, my back again to Lord Rockingham's de. lord? Or did the coy relistance you claration of the right; then forward have constantly met with in the British to taxation with Mr. Townshend ; female make you despair of corrupting and in the last instance, from the gentle the divan? Your friends indeed have Conway's undeterinined discretion, to the first claiin upon your bounty, but blood and compulsion with the dif five hundred pounds a year can be of B-fd: yet, if we may believe {pared in pension to Sir John Moore, the fimplicity of Lord North's elo. it would not have disgraced you to quence,' at the opening of next feßions have allowed soinething to the secret you are once more to be the patron of service of the public. America. Is this the wisdom of a You will say, perhaps, that the fitogreat minister! Or is it the vibration ation of affairs at home demanded and of a pendulum ? Had you no opinion engrofied the whole of your attention. of your own, my Lord? Or was it Here, I confess, you have been active. the gratification of betraying every An amiable, accomplished prince al. party with which you had been united, cends the throne under the happiest of and of deserting every political prin- all auspices, the acclamations and uni. ciple in which you had concurred? ted affettions of his subjects. The first

Your enemies may turn their eyes measures of his reign, and even the without regret from this admirable lyf. odium of a favourite, were not able to tem of provincial government: they thake their attachment. Your services, will find gratification enough in the my lord, have been more successful. furvey of your domestic and foreign Since you were permitted to take the policy.

lead, we brave seen the natural effe&s If, instead of disowning Lord Shei. of a system of government at once burne, the British court had inter- both odious and contemptible. We pored with dignity and firmness, you have seen the laws sometimes scanda.

Joully

1769 The Cultivation, &c. of Surgar.

319 Joully relaxed, sometimes violently it shoots into leaves, of a vivid greens Aretched beyond their tone. We have the coat is pretty hard, and within seen the sacred person of the sovereign contains a spongy subltance full of insulted ; and in profound peace, and juice, the most iively, elegant, and with an indisputed title, the fidelity of lealt cloying sweet in nature, and his subjects brought by his own ler- which, Tucked raw, has proved ex. vants into public question. Without tremely nutritive and wholesome. abilities, resolution, or interest, you In the month of August, that is, in have done more than Lord Bute could the rainy part of the year, after the accomplich with all Scotland at his ground is cleared and well hoed, they heels.

lay a piece of six or seven joints of Your grace, little anxious either for the cane flat, in a. channel made for it, present or future reputation, will not above half a foot deep; this they codefire to be handed down in these co- ver with the earth, and so plant the lours to posterity. You have reason whole field in lines, regularly disposed, zo Hatter yourself that the memory of and at proper distances. your administration will survive even Jo a short time a young cane Toots the forms of a constitution, which our out from every joint of the stock which ancestors vainly hoped would be im- was interred, and grows in twelve mortal; and as for your personal cha- days to be a pretty tall and vigorous racter, I will not, for the honour of plant: but it is not until after lixteen human nature, fuppose that you can inonths, or thereabouts, that the with to have it remembered. The canes are fit to answer the purposes of condition of the present times is def- the planter, tho'they may remain a few perate indeed; but there is a debt due months after without any considerable to those who come after us, and it is prejudice to him. The longer they conthe biftorian's office to punish, though iinue in the ground when come to mahe cannot correct. I do not give you turity, the less juice they afford; but to pofterity as a pattern to imitate, that deficiency is somewhat compensa. but as an example to deter ; and as ted by its superior richinels. your conduct comprehends every thing That no time may be loft, they gethat a wise or honeft ininister should nerally divide their cane grounds into avoid, I mean to make you a negative three parts : one is of Itanding canes, infruction to your successors for ever. and to be cut that season; the second

JUNIUS. is of new planted canes; and the Ibę Cultivation and Manufa&uring of supply. In some places they make se

third is fallow ready to receive a fresh Sugar in America.

cond and third cuttings from the UGAR is a commodity unknown fame root. The tops of the canes,

to the Greeks and Romans, though and the leaves which grow upon the it was made in China in very early joints, make good provender for their times, from whence we had first the cattle, and the refuse of the cane, after knowledge of it ; but the Portugueze grinding, ferves for fire, so that no part were the firft who cultivated it in Ame of this excellent plant is without its use. rica, and brought it into request as The canes are cut with a billet, and one of the materials of a very univer- carried in bundles to the mill, which sal luxury in Europe.

is now generally a windmill. It turns It is not settled, whether the cane, three great cylinders, or rollers, plated from which this substance is extracted, with iron, fet perpendicularly, aod cogbe a native of America, or brought this ged so as to be all moved by the midther by the Portuguese from India and dle roller. the coast of Africa. But, however Between these the canes are bruised the matter may be, in the beginning, to pieces, and the juice runs through they made the most, as they Hill do a hole into a vat, which is placed unthe bett sugars which come to market der the rollers to receive it: from in this part of the world.

hence it is carried through a pipe into The fugar cane grows to the height a great reservoir, in wbich however, of between six and eight fact, full of for rear of turning lour, it is not sufjoints, about four or five inches aíun- fered to rest long; but is conveyed der. The colour of the body of the out of that, by other pipes, into the Cage is yellowish, and the top, where boiling house, where it is received by

a large

A fubinecument, whichandaporeis

320
On the Properties of Air.

June a large cauldron. Here it remains Confiderations on the Properties of tbe until the scum, which constantly arises

Air. during the boiling, is all taken off : IR being an and from this it is palled successively into five or fix more boilers,gradually dimi. constantly employing in all her works, nishing in their size, and treated in the the knowledge of its active properties, fame manner. In the last of these it so highly necessary, not only to the tecomes of a very thick clammy confil. chymist and physician, but to the tence ; but mere boiling is incapable philosopher and divine, cannot be an of carrying it farther : to advance the unentertaining study to any sendible operation, they pour in a small quanti. mind. ty of lime-water; the immediate effect First then, Auidity, which is one of of this alien mixture, is to raise up the most obvious and essential of its the liquor in a very vehement fermen. properties, seems to be owing to the tation : but to prevent it from run. tenuity of its parts. That air is a fluid, ning over, a bit of butter, no larger appears from the easy passage it affords than a nur, is thrown in, upon which to all bodies moving in it; however, the fury of fermentation immediately, air differs from all other fluids, in besubsides; a vessel of two or three hun.' ing compressible, in its differing in dendred gallons requires no greater force fity according to its height from the to quiet it. It is now taken out and earth's surface, and in being incapable placed in a cooler, where it dries, of fixation, at least by itself. It is of granulates, and becomes fit to be put a different density in every part, deinto the pots, which is the last part creasing from the earth's surface upof its operation.

wards; whereas other fluids are of an In these pots the fugar purges it. uniform density throughout. self of its remaining impurities. The air is therefore a fluid fui generis. molasses, or treacly pari, disentangles Secondly, gravity, another confide. itself from the reit, precipitates, and rable property of the air, may be runs out of the aperture at the bot- proved from various experiments uptom. It is now in the condition call. on the air-pump; the principal of ed Muscavado sugar, of a yellowish which are as follow. brown colour; and thus it is generally 1. By actually weighing it in a nice put into the hogshead and thipped off. ballance, where we shall see that one

But when they have a mind to re- gallon of air will weigh a dram very fine it further, and leave no remains nearly. at all of the molafles, they cover the 2. By filling a glass tube with mer. pots, just mentioned, with a sort of cury, and inverting it in a bason of white clay, like that used for tobacco the same fluid, where it will appear pipes, diluted with water ; this pene. that a column will be supported in the frates the sugar, unites with the mo. tube, by the fole weight or pressure lasies, and with them runs off, leaving of the air, to upwards of the height the sugar of a whitish colour, but of twenty-eight inches. whiteit at top:

3. By taking the air off the surface This is called Clay sugar : the ope- of the quickúlver, in the gage of the ration is sometimes repeated once or air-pump, which then immediately twice more, and the lugar every time rises by the pressure of the external diminishing in quantity, gains confide- air. rably in value, but still is called clay 4. By exhausting a receiver placed fugar. Further than this they do not over the hole of the brass plate on the go in the plantations, because a hea. pump, which will then be kept fait by vy duty of fix thillings per hundred the pressure of the incumbent air; or, weight is laid upon ali sugars refined 5. More demonstratively, by exthere.

hausting a small receiver under one Of the molaffes rum' is made, in larger, and letting in the air at once the same manner that other fpirits are upon it; which will then be faftened distilled.

to the plate as before, though not From the scummings of the sugar a placed over the hole. meaner spirit is procured, both of 6. By placing the hand on the open which find a market in North America, receiver, and exhausting; the weight

of

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