Imatges de pÓgina


Cases and Charaflers.

Jan. alas ! here, as is but too often the great dearness, the disagreable idea at. case among medical writers, is a plain tending the preparation and use of contradiction.

them, with the strong aversion of swalFor if Musa used them, who lived lowing serpents, I think are reasons before Galen, who says it happened in sufficient for us honestly to underva. his own time, Galen must be mittaken, lue such unnatural drugs, and to preand the more fo, as Areteus, a prede- vail for the ancient and ugly use of ceffor to Galen, with but little varia- vipers, to be wholly laid afide. tion, mentions the same fory, and

Your's, J. COOK. moreover says of it, “ that it was a tale not very certain, although not alto. Cafes and Characters.

From Lewis's gether incredible." Cellus seems like. Patriot King displayed ; in the Life wise to allude to the same story, as the of Henry VIII. King of England : learned Dr. Heberden, in his note on A performance of great Merit. his brother's account of the cure of UT the throne, though filled the leprosy in Madeira, informs us, in article II. of the New Medical Transac. fole fountain of jurifdi&tion, in whate. tions.

ver concerns religion." But after all, it seems a mere fable, And why not? Is not an English as there are but too many such at- wonian, of sease and spirit, as likely tached to our art, unless they were to rule with discretion, as an old wofar superior to those of our own days man at Rome, past her senses, and in wisdom and virtue ; besides, it is twice a child ? A matter of mighty much more likely a serpent would triumph this to senseless bigots, who fhun, than be allured to such strong make not truth their search. The Jiquor as wine, to which most animals case is this: Whether disputes about have a natural averfion.

tithes, offerings, marriages, wills, In short, whether we consider the &c. may not as well be determined in history, or mystery, of the serpent, as England, by English judges, and esta. the inftrumental introducer of fin, fick blished laws, in courts held by the ness, and death, in these sublunary re- king's authority, as at Rome, by Itagions, it seems most unnatural, and lians, in courts held by authority of repugnant to all fense and reason, to the pope ? Is an Englisman less juft, fly to him for health and long life, who knowing, or equitable, than an Italian? was the original cause of death, and it is not justice as likely to be had upon looks as if the devil himself herein im- the spot, as at nine hundred miles posed upon our forefathers, and had a distance: To carry witnesses, attend great hand in the invention.

courts, and fee council at Rome, is The volatile falt of vipers, which I this a privilege worth dying for ? A have paid two guineas an ounce for, legate, even in popith times, was is reckoned, because so costly, very thought Itill more oppressive. Cardi. choice, when, in my humble opinion, nal Wolsey, the last pope's legate but there is no material difference between Pole this nation was plagued with, falt of vipers, and any other volatile took five per cent. for probate of wilis; fal: extracted by chemistry; for that, had he taken fisty, no possible redreis as it is a mere creature of the fire in was there, but by an appeal to Rome, that form, it retains no more virtue from whence the remaining fifty than what is common to all salts of would not have brought them back that sort. And as to viper broth, so again. much recommended, plain veal and Should we not justly laugh at Ita. cock brotn are cheaper, pleasanter, lians, were they, for conscience sake, more nourishing, and natural, by far. to put themselves under the jurisdic.

Wherefore, as whim introduced vi- tion of Canterbury? Have they less pers, among the Latios, first into prac. 'reason to laugh at the English, who tice, credulity continued their use, cannot die in peace, if not subject to and craft made a trade of them, no de- their assuming usurper 1... Against ference at all is due to the authority superior force there is no remedy, but of ancient writers thereon.

to be voluntary flaves to a foreign To conclude. The frequent disap- power, indicates a foul unnaturally pointment of cure theretrom, their debased, by an artful, but inoit flagi


Character of Bishop Fisher.

33 tous education. But God had given ror, even after the maid herself, and Henry a wise, intrepid, and under. Other accomplices, had confeffed tanding heart; he saw the cheat, their guilt, and were hanged for it.' harled the pope from his usurped fu- The views of this holy maid's visions premacy, and resumed it to himself, and prophecies were to have Henry as. whose right it was, and where the du- faffinated. Now if this precept or would ty of bis ftation, his people's welfare, gladly have murdered his royal pupil, and his own honour, obliged bim to by other hands; and this royal pupil fx it.

fúffered his il designing preceptor to The supremacy thus settled by par- die, as the law required; say, thou liament, all the members swore to ob- candid world, on which Tide lies in. ferve it ; the subjects were required to gratitude and guilt? Fisher's not contake the same oath : Fisher and More felling his fault, after the villainy was refused it, and were therefore sent to detected, though he knew the king the Tower, and in the following fef- justly expected luch a confeffion, exhon were condemned, by parliament, hibits no small appearance of malice to perpetual imprisonment. Faction prepense, and that he continued silent running high, the king was advised and sullen, in hopes his reputation to put the laws in execution. To re- might keep up the credit of that lewd press the spirit of rebellion by such an nun, till" some inflamed enthusiast example

, it was judged expedient to could perpetrate the horrid deed. I bring them both to the block; and judge of a tree by its fruit; of men as they were really men of some figure, by their deeds. God only knows the and the block and halter feldom fail to heart. I therefore propose this not raise compaffion, they are looked upon as a certainty, but as a probable sufas a fort of Catholic Saints, and afford picion. Which suspicion lies equally ample matter for declamation.

heavy upon Sir Thomas More, who, By the laws of his country was Filher after the clearest conviction, would condemned. lle lived some time af- not blast the credit of their prophetic terward by the king's grace and fa. prostitute any further, than to believe vour. In these circumstances did the her under the influence of an evil spirit, pope create him a cardinal : Thus im- Now, an evil spirit was as likely to podently afferring that supremacy to know as a good one, if there was bimself, which the laws had juftly really a project in band to take off the transferred to the king. So that to king: But let the impartial judge, let Fifher live, thus circumstanced, whether any such project had the coun. would bave been an evidence of weak. tenance and benediétion of these two Dess, or fear, or conscious guilt, in holy, persecuting, popith martyrs. the English government ; would have Going to execution, Fifter opened been, in effect, to repeal its own law; the New Testament, and prayed such to deprive the king of his title and au- a place might turn up, as might comthority, and the kingdom of its inde. fort himn in his last moments. The pendence; in a word, to own the words that occurred were, “ This is pope supreme. In such a case, a prince life eternal, to know thee the only lela resolute than Henry would have true God, and Jesus Christ whom fuffered the law to take its course. It thou haft sent.” He shut the book, cid fo. And Cardinal Fisher lost his and continued meditating, upon these head. He died for the pope, and at words to the last. And do they not ebe pope's dcor lies the blood of that exhibit a strong reproof? As much as martyr; a martyr for the very quin- to say, “What is the pope to thee, tellence of slavery, stupidity, and or thou to the pope ? Why doft thou

murder thyself for what thou hast no Fisher was Henry's preceptor. He concern in ? Would it thou obtain eterhad learning, was devout, a persecu- nal life, know the only true God, and tor, fuperftitious allo, or knave enough that Jesus is his mesenger." to favour, if not to be an accomplice For the same filly caule died Sir Tbo. with the holy maid of Kent, a pre- mas More. “A man (faith that tended prophetess, in her impious and faithful and laborious martyr Tindal, Treasonable machinations; and was who lived at that time) notling in. tog obftinate to acknowledge bis er ferior to Wolsey, for lying, feigning,



Jan. 1769



Real CharaEter of Sir Thomas More. Jan. and bearing two faces in one hood." tion of others." That is the case. That happy expression, Two faces in Murder the fincere, the pious creature, one bood, exhibits a more lively picture and send him to the dovil, out of pure of the man, than any of those left us charity, and to do God service. by his friend Hans Holbein.

So honourable, in his estimation, More was chancellor, his father a was the office of a persecutor, that be judge. His custom was, in a morning, would have it inscribed upon his tomb, in Westminster-hall, to aik a blessing that he was a plague to thieves, murfrom his father on the King's-Bench, derers, and heretics, “ furibus, bomiand then to enter the court of Chan- cidis, hæreticis molefius," - Surely, in cery. Was this humility or vanity? the net that thou spreadeft, in the Did not the father exult in having his fame walt thou taken. And badst thou son chancellor ? Was not the chancel- known one of the firft principles of nalor pleased in having a judge for his ture and of grace, instead of cutting father? Was it not an illaudable often. filly jokes upon the scaffold, thou tation of filial piety? A blowing the wouldnt, with that better instructed trumpet before alms ? A fasting with Canaanite, have cried out, with deep a dirty face, to be seen of men ? contrition of foul, “ As I have done,

Facetious he was, and a joker to so God hath requited me."-Though such a degree of affectation as not to a man of parts and learning, he had refrain even upon the scaffold; yet so an opinion of the Kentish prophetess, gloomy a bigot, as, in defence of as was just before observed ; and when monks and monasteries, to write a sup- the cheat was detected, owned, and plication in behalf of the souls in pur- punished, he believed her under the gatory. His friend Erasmus, who calls influence of an evil spirit. He either him another Democritus, says, "he had had not sense to see, or honesty to a perpetual grin upon his face, and af. confess, that it was a politic and para fečtedly walked with one shoulder ty piece of roguery.--Seeing Henry's higher than the other." And, “a book against Luther in manuscript, he man's attire, excessive laughter, and advised him to put out what he had gait, llew what he is,” saith the wise Said of the pope's power, lest, upon a fon of Sirach.-When lord chancellor, future quarrel, it Mould be turned he was caught in the quire in a sur. against him; yet himself died for the plice, amongst the singing men, by pope's power. So that there seems to Norfolk. « God's body, quoth the be two faces in one hood throughout. duke, what! A parith clerk! You But the punishing of poor heretics dishonour the king and his officer."- by the scourge and fire, did not satisfy And what had an old fellow past fifty, More's zeal, or rather his thirft after enjoying a spirited second wife, to do the applause of men ; but he must also with a hair shirt, and a whip with turn scribbler against them. Behold a knotted cords to flog himself withall ? specimen. Did he understand the use of that dif- Mayfter Martin Luther, himself cipline? had he read the lives of the beying specially borne agayne, and laints? was all fair ? That flogging af. new created of the Spirit, whom God, fair so tickled the fancy of that proud in many places of holy scripture, hath and Jurly, Jesuit, Petavius, that he commanded to keep his vowe made was sometimes obliged to send for a of chastity.--So far contrary thereunfurgeon. Whether More went to that to, toke out of religion a spouse of extremity, son Roper doth not say. Christ, wedded her himself, in re

More, in his Utopia, au imaginary proach of wedlock called her his wife, kingdom of his own creating, allows and made her his harlot; and in double liberty of conscience : But in England, despite of marriage and religion, both he was a fierce and bloody perfecutor. lived with her openly, and Iyeth with Which thews, he knew what was right, her nightly, in shameful incest, and and approved it, but acted the con- abominable bitchery."-Such the de. trary. “ If men cannot pull that ma- licacy of a courtier...-And in his La. licious folly (heresy) out of his poi. tin answer to Luther, he has thrown foined obstinate heart, I would rather out the greatest heap of nasty lanbe content, that he were gone in time, guage, that perhaps ever was put totkan over long to tarry to the deltruc gether. The book throughout is no.


Of the Old Law Latin.

35 thing but downright ribaldry, without was accordingly so ordered by statute a grain of reason to support it. Yet so 4 Geo. II. c. 26. This was done, in highly pleased were the clergy, to have order that the common people might theis mumpfimusdefended in any man- have knowledge and understanding of Der, that in their convocation they what was alledged or done for and made a collection for him, of four or against them in the process and pleadfive thousand pounds; which at this ings, the judgment and entries in a day would be worth forty thousand. cause. Which purpose I know not But More was too juft, or two proud, how well it was answered; but am apo to accept of a farthing.

to suspect that the people are now, In a visit to More, did Erasmus, in after many years experience, altogefeven days, write his celebrated Mo- ther as ignorant in matters of law as riz Encomium, or, Praise of Folly. before. On the other hand, these in. Wbich he also in cribed to More. in conveniencies have already arisen from which performance, Folly justifies her. the alteration ; that now many clerks felf with much wit and learning, by and attorneys are hardly able to read, hewing, in how great repute ihe is much less to understand, a record with all ranks and orders of men. But even of so modern a date as the reign triumphs indeed, and indicates un. of George the First. And it has much common pleasure, at her conformity enhanced the expence of all legal prowith the catbolic church, and in the ceedings : For fince practisers are connumber and variety of fooleries to be fined for the sake of the stamp dumet with in popery. Now Erasmus ties, which are thereby confiderably was too good natured, and too well increased) to write only a stated numbred a man, to have made so free with ber of words in a Meet ; and as the tbose holy fooleries, in a book dedi. English language, through the multicated to More, and wrote under his tude of its particles, is much more roof, had he not known, that More verbose than the Latin, it follows that had the fame contempe for them, that the number of sheets must be very he himself had. Which yields farther much augmented by the change. The grounds for suspicion, that he really translation also of technical phrases, bore two faces in one hood: and that and the names of writs and other prohe wrote, and persecuted, and died, cess, were found to be so very ridicuto gain the praise of men, rather than lous (a writ of nifi prius, quare impedit, from any motive of religion. And if fieri facias, babeas corpus, and the rest, fucb was really the cale, let others not being capable of an Englith dress determine which was most predomi- with any degree of seriousness) that nant in him, the kpave or the fool.” in two years time a new act was oblig

ed to be made, 6 Geo. II. c. 14. which Refleétions on the Old Law Latin, introduce allows all technical words to continue

ed by Edward III. From Blackstone. in the usual language, and bas thereby "T

HIS technical Latin continued almost defeated every beneficial pur

in use from the time of its first pose of the former statute. introduction, till the subversion of our What is said of the alteration of antient conftitution under Cromwell; language by the statute 4 Geo. II. c. when, among many other innovations 26. will hold equally strong with rein the law, Tome for the better and spect to the prohibition of using the fome for the worse, the language of antient immutable court band in writ. our records was altered and turned ing the records or other legal proceedinto Englifh. But, at the restoration ings; whereby the reading of any reof King Charles, this novelty was no cord that is forty years old is now longer countenanced ; the practisers become the object of science, and calls finding it very difficult to express for the help of an antiquarian : But that themselves so concisely and fignificantly branch of it, which forbids the use of in any other language but the Latin. abbreviations, seenis to be of more And thus it continued without any solid advantage, in delivering such sensible inconvenience till about the proceeding from obscurity": Accorde year 1730, when it was again thought ing to the precept of Justinian; “ ne proper that the proceedings at law per scripturam aliqua fiat in pofterum duthould be done into English, and it bitario, jubemus non por Jigilorum captiones



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Imports and Exports from the Welt-Indies, &c. Jan et compendiosa aenigmata ejufdem codicis Imports, 3,422,264 9 textum confcribi, fed per literarum conse- Exports, 1,047,060 3 quentiam explanari concedimus." View of our Commerce zvith the West

for 2,375,204 5 11 Balance Indian Sugar Islands. (Sue p. 670.)

against Great Britain.

But out of this balance must be struck IMPORTS from the Englith West India what the sugar planters pay the Iritha Illands.

for provifions, and the British merIn 1761 1,762,409 18

chants for flaves. As to the Irish pro. 1762

visions, the islands take but a small 2,2 54,235 18 5 1763

part of their consumption from them ; 2,391,155 17 1764 2,195,626 18

they being chiefly supplied from North 1765 2,804,119 11

America. And as to what they pay

the British merchants for laves, it is £. 11,407,548

almost impoflible to fix with precision ;

3 which is 2,281,509 l. 125. 8 d. per ann.

but to allow that the annual cost of on a medium of said five years.

negroes is equal to the whole annual

export from Great Britain to Africa, EXPORTs to the English West India we shall not be impeached for being Ilands.

under the mark at least, when it is In 1761 936,892 10

considered that part of the produce *1762 1,106,533 3


of that export is returned in gold duft, 1763 902,320 18

dying woods, and elephants teeth, to 1764 995,272 14 5

Great Britain ; part of it goes to sup1765 1,003,246 5 ୨

ply foreign plantations, with negroes,

and part of it goes in llaves to the .3,944,265 11

continent colonies from Pennsylvania which is 785,5451. 25. 4d. per annum

to Florida, where a stock of 70,000 ne, on a medium of laid five years. groes is to be kept up in proportion

Upon the face of these custom house to that of 250,000 in the lugar coloaccounts it appears that there is a ba. nies. Now the whole export to Africa lance againit Gr. Britain of 1,495,9541. per ann. upon a medium of the above 10 s. 4d. per annum, and by the lame five years, is 433,5291, 175. 8 d. which accounts that the balance against her being deducted from the above ba. annually increases. But to reduce this lance of 2,375,204 1. 5 s. 11 d. leaves balance, which appears upon this com. ftill an annual balance against Great parative view of direct exports and im- Britain of 1,941,674 1. 8 s. 3 d. while ports, let us suppose, as we did in the the poor northern colonies have a bacase of the northern colonies, that the lance in favour of Great Britain of errors of entry and of valuation will 1,000,000 l. which all their other trade adınit of one third more to the amount cannot pay, they being constantly in of the export, though by no means just sieht to Great Britain; when there even for a comparative view of the va- sugar illands would be worth little to lue of the two sets of colonies to Great their owners, in comparison of what Britain : For not above one fourth of they are now, if it was not for cheap the exports to the Northern colonies is and ready fupplies from the northern in foreign goods, whereas to the West colonies, of lumber for the building India illands two thirds of the amount their houses, sugar-mills, calks to con of exports are in foreign goods; there- tain their produce, hories, provisions fore there is not that latitude for erro- of the cheapest kind for feeding their neous entries as there is to the conti- Naves in particular, and thips to bring nent, it being impossible to make wrong home their produce at the cheapeit rate entries for goods entitled to a drawback, known. as all those of foreigners are. Then with the additional value to Translation of a Letter from M, Paoli

, the imports mentioned under the ac

the Brave Corsican Chief. count thereof, and the additional va

SIR, lue to the exports just itated, the OU are, without doubt, acaccount will stand thus :


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