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1969: . Of the Elasticity and Gravity of the Air.

353 the noxious and peftilential qualities mountains, where the air is very rare, of damps and sufficating exhalations, the senses of tafting, smelling, and So fatally experienced in mines and hearing, are very languid. On the other jubterranean places. .

tops of mountains also the blood-ves. That the different velocities, with fels are very subject to burst, whence which heavy and light bodies descend frequent hæmorrhages happen to those in the air, is owing to the air's relil. who travel on their lummits. tance only, is manifest from the equal If we consider the air in all ito velocity or swiftnels with which all lights, we shall find, that every altebodies descend in an exhausted receivers ration it under goes must induce fome as is thewn in the experiment of a great change on the animal machine. guinea and a feather.

Thus when it is very heavy, it muft That fermentation and putrefaction press upon the surface of our bodies, depend on the air, and are promoted and the internal part of the lungs, by it, is Mewn by preserving fruit in with a greater force than when it is their natural bloom and perfection light. It has been proved by curinus through the winter in an exhausted obfervations, that the difference of glass.

weight with which our bodies are The spring of the air is most evie presied by the atmosphere, in the dently concerned in that chirurgical greareft degree of its natural graviry operation called cupping : for which. from that which we sustain, when it a vacuum is made by a lyringe in the is highest, amounts to 1982 troy cupping glass applied to that part, woere' weight ; now as this difference is very the spring of the air in the Acth under confiderable, the effects must be con. the glass does strongly act, . and by liderable also. that means caufes the flesh to diftend The different degrees of heat and and swell into the glass ; while the elasticity in the air must have effects pressure of the air, on the parts with proportionable to the causes upon the out the glass, accelerates the motion bodies of animals. The various conof the blood and Auids towards the tents muft of course induce great part, where it is diminihed, or taken changes, as it some way or other off by the glass.

finds means to communicate the qua. But not to ennumerate instances, lities it borrows from them to the ve may, from what has been al.. blood and juices of animals. Hence it ready taid, underland many curious becomes the vehicle of contagion, and appearances and properties of this the propagator of diseases, both epidegreat element.

mical and endemical, which admit of Firft, air, as a fluid body, is the ve- infinite variety ; because the alterations hicle of the effluvia of all odorous bo. of the air, with respect to its properdies to the organs of smelling; and ties, and to the innumerable combin as a ponderous fluid, it preses them nations of bodies contained in it, ale on the nerves of those organs with infinite. However, we may venture to a force sufficient to make them sensie · conclude that the most healthful, ble. It also impresses fapid substances which is serene and dry, and conieupon the organs of taste, and renders quently ponderous and replete with them observable by the senses. It is the acid vital fpirit. also the instrument of sound : for the undulations, caused in it by bodies To the AUTHOR of the LONDON mored by various directions, Atrike

MAGAZINE, upon the external ear, which, by a SIR, this notice to the nerves, expanded HAVE NG read in several of your upoa the internal air. "This weight opinions about the ascension body of of the air also, by pressing upon the for. Christ, I beg leave, through the same face of animals and vegetables, pre- channel, to convey a few thoughts on vents a rupture of their vefels, from the fubje&. the force nece dary to circulate their That Mesh and blood cannot inherit juices, to which it is, as it were, a the kingdom of Gord; is the language 'counter. balance. All thefe things of scripture. That Christ ajended are evident, because on the tops of into braven with a buily of frib, ond

July, 1769.

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bonis is

354 Further Confiderations on the Ascension Body of Christ. July bones; the country curate tells me is tity. This evidence was wbat be the language of a church article. By the chose to give them; for wben they former, I understand that the human imagined they saw a spirit, to pre. body, in its present modification, is vent their resting in such conclusion, absolutely excluded that state into he proposes the tangibility of his body, which we expect to pass, on quitting A fpirit bath not fejbs and boxes as ge jus thefe scenes. And by the latter, it me bave : or, as ye may be convinced, fhould seem that Christ did carry into I have by touch; handle me and fees, as that state a body thus modified. if he had said, " A spirit actuating

Two contradictory propositions are an ethereal body; though it may be here presented, on which I humbly rendered visible to the human eye ; as apprehend, we have only to consider were the bodies of Moses and Elias; the weight of the two authorities; cannot, as I do, submit to the grasp and thereupon to admit and reject. of the human hand."

At leaft, so would the matter de. Once more; that bis was yet a fefly cide itself with me; were it not, that body, he gives them ftill farther conthe article, though disproved by the viction of, by eating before them. text above quoted, seems to have These, I should suppose, are the ismuch support from another text, Luke fallible proofs of his being alive efter xxiv. 39. a spirit bath not flesh and bones bis passion, to which St. Luke refers, as ye see me have : this latter being an Acts i. 3. appeal made by Jesus to the senses of Upon the whole then, I cannot rehis disciples, after his resurrection ; gard the resurrection of Jesus, but when his body is supposed to have un. upon the same principle with that of dergone the change needful to his ad. Lazarus and the widow's fon; and with million into heaven : i. e. the corrup. that of those faints who are said to tible had put on incorruption, the mor- have arisen with him ; even a miracutal immortality.

lous revival of the natural body, a body Now, if it was in this body, fo-mo- that did in its nature exclude them dified, that Christ ascended into hea- from the kingdom of heaven. That ven; then certainly, he did ascend was yet, upon a mortal conftru&tion, in a body of flesh and bones, by his flep and blood; and must be thrown off; own testimony ; to the justification of else, pass under some capital change the article : but at the same time or refinement, in order to its entering putting a downright negative upon that kingdom. the aflertion of St. Paul, ibat flesh and This only difference, in the refur. blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God. rection of Jesus, that his was effected

Here then arises a contradiction by a power invested in bimself. I upon the face of the scriptures them- bave power to lay it dowx, and I bave felves ; which in my humble opinion power to take it again. By the way; cannot be removed, but by supposing what did he lay down? The animal a modal change to take place on the life, the freshly body. And what did be body of Chrilt, after the appeal, pre. takeagain, but that which he lay down? vious to his entrance into heaven : Should any be enquiring into the and I apprehend we are under an how of this operation, on a body that equal necessity of discarding the no- had been pierced through the feat of tion of any change, previous to ibe ap- animal life, let him be referred to the peal; which notion appears to me to raised body of Lazarus, after he had be a prejudice that has thrown much been dead your days; and to other mi. obscurity upon the subject. Let us racles performed by Jesus. Such as do consider it. Had the body of Christ, not credit these, have no part in this in the instant of resurrection, under controversy. gone the immortalizing change; it Again. Does we city minifter infer could not, I thould suppose, have the ipirituality of Christ's body from been fitted for farther converse with his entrance with his disciples when this system of groffer matter. At least, the doors were fhut? I am obliged to not admitting the human touch, it differ from him in this particular; could not have held up, to the lenses fince the history does not appear to of beings yet clothed'in fless, the me to warrant such inference. It is plainelt pollible evidence of his iden: true, St. John tells us, that it was when


1769: Furtber Confiderations on the Ascension Body of Christ. 355 the disciples were allembled, the doors Magazine, to reconcile the church arbeing put, that Jesus came and Atood ticle with St. Paul, by reading him in the midst. But it is possible thus : “ Flesh and blood (having the he might be there before the Mutting qualities and properties they now have) of the doors. His coming and fiand. cannot inherit the kingdom of God, iz ebe midt, I could suppose to express which appears to me extremely abhis putting himself forward, in a furd; for flesh and blood surely explace most favourable to the address press the mode, not the matter of our he was going to make them, Or if he bodies. Divest the matter of its quadid come after the doors were fut, lities, and properties, and it is no might be not open, or cause them to longer fresh and blood. Let T. G. but be opened? The circumstance of the give the subject a second thought, and jbut doors, may only be to express, I am of opinion he will not pronounce that he chose to visit his disciples in the afrenhon body of Christ, to confift their private assembly, and not in the of Aeth and blood; as (he says) was Itreets of the city. And their conster. evident to the senses of his disciples. nation is very naturally excited at Thongh by the way, T. G. is to be bis appearance, who they knew had been convinced of error; only as we maincrucified ; and of whom it is said, tain the modal distinction between the ibey knew not the fçriptures, that be afjenfion and resurrection body, which muf rise from the dead.

distinction, I humbly apprehend, is But tould we suppose, that the warranted by the scriptures ; nay, is doors being shut, did confirm their ap- even necessary to preserve their conprehension that they saw a spirit : our listence. In Mort, it appears to me to Lord certainly takes the most effe&tual give precision to our ideas, which withmethod to convince them, that it out it are confused and unsatisfactory, was not so: and the power he had ex. But I must own, it leaves the church ercised over his own body, and over article in a very defenceless state. We nature, before his crucifiction, was can only allow the numerical lameness, enough to reconcile them to the pre- which is all that Bilhop Burnet seems fent miracle, without concluding a to do, in what is offered as a confpiritual body,

ment, but which appears to me more In short, I humbly apprehend, we properly a refutation. (See city miniare obliged to suppose the body of Jefus iter's letter in the Mag. for Nov.) at unchanged in its modiñcation at the least his philofophical remarks upon time of this interview : unless the spi- the varied modification, bas enabled ine, ritual body be a body of flesh and bones, more easily, to give up the article. which I own would confound all my To conclude all, the question, in ideas : for by flesh and bones I can under what body did Chrilt alcend? I cankand no other than this gross, decaying not but conlider, as in itself improstructure of'the human body; the matter per, the bodily change being, with me, of which may, or may not, compose the ibe afcenfion; and the ascension, prospiritual or incorruptible. But when. perly speaking, nothing more than a ever it does; there must of necessity be refinement of body, to a degree, that that change of the natural into the fpi- excludes all the unchanged from any ritual, the mortal into the immorial; farther communion with it. which St. Paul has thewn us, shall take Should this paper afford any satisplace on that generation of men, who faction to the country curate; it is of. Thall be found on this earth at the fered him in return for the pleasure finishing period, even, in a moment, he has given me, by his motive of in. in tbe iwinkling of an eye, &c. 1 Cor. quiry. Though the subject be in itXY. 52.

self of little importance, yet, as a regard From the view taken, I apprehend to conscience, particularly engaging ; we are brought to the necesfiey of when appearing under an esi ablishment, concluding, that a modal change did whose imposition of articles must be pass on the body of Christ, at the in- more generally considered, as shutting Itant in which he was parted from bis the door against the honest, and opening disciples, and a cloud received bim out it to the unprincipled of mankind. of their fagbt.

The foregoing remarks are also Allow nie to notice very briefly, fubmitted to the consideration of the the attempt of T. G. in jour last city minister. If the peculiar sentiment

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Of the Preservation of Honey and Bees. July bas not been delivered with that mo. up the doors of the hive on a bad day 1 difty bich becomes inferior charakter, but this degree of care can scarcely it is hoped the candour of the learned be expected from servants and garwill supply it.

deners, who have many other things June 26, 1769. A Lay-Citizen. to attend to.

I intend to have four hives put up An Experimont for preventing the Wafle this reason, in the coldest dark place

of Honey, air! preserving ibe lives of I can find; and as an ice-house is Bees during 101 Winier.

the steadiest and greatest cold we have, I

prefirving the lives of bees during ice houses, have promised to put a the winter, and though, in general, hive upon the ice. By all accounts with little success, yet I think I have the cold in Siberia does not kill the reason to continue, and to advise bees there, and in Ruflia, where the others to follow what I practised last winters are extremely severe, bees winter: the method is very finple, produce much honey : fo I think and not expensive: for it is no other there is not any danger to be feared than keeping the bees in a cold and from any degree of cold we can exdark place.

pose the bees to. My reason for trying this experi- Il success continues to attend this ment was, my having observed that a experiment of keeping the bees adeep certain degree of cold brought upon all the winter and spring, without con. the bees a Itupor; and that the same suming their honey, a great point will degree of cold continued, kept thein be gained : especially as Mr. Wild. in the same state till they were brought man has taught as to take the honey into a warmer fituarion, which im- without killing the bees: for by what inediately restored their life and vi. I have oblerved in this country,

our bees are lost chiefly by being With this view I kept two hives tempted to go out by a clear fun in Thut up in a dark cold out-house, from the spring; Though, perhaps, a frosty the middle of September last, io the wind blows and chills them, so as to middle of April; without ever letting prevent their being able to return to them see light : upon their being let the hive; or an early warmth indu. out in the warmer air, they recovered ces the queen to lay eggs, and a num. jinmediately, and the wed an appear. ber of young bees are bred, which ance of more strength, than the hives consume the little provision left, be. did which had been kept out in the fore the fields can afford any lupply. usual way. This appearance of trength continued during the tuinier, and To the AUTHOR of the LONDON they multiplied filter than I had

MAGAZINE. ever obierved them to do before. SIR,

following this year, than in some former ruinmers, but this was the case with many brothers, to give them some proper hives in this neighbourhooit; and notions of air, wind, vapours, &c. even though this Thould always hap. Thele, like many other young people, pen, yet I think other advantages will are glad to gain just ideas of these do more trian over. balance it. Could things, but without the trouble of I into the country early in the much reading and thinking; and infpring, to look after the bees myself, deed it must be confefied, we lave I would bring them into the open air very few books of this dature fit for fome werks sooner, carefully atiend 10 ruch, they generally run out to tedi. the changes of the weather, and thutous lengths, and are laid down far

Mr. White fays, is confirmation of Gedde's obfervation, that bees wbich fans on the north file of a building, whoje beight intercepis the sun's beams all tbe wise ter, will wafie less of their provisions, almost by balf, lan others which fand is the fun; for seldom coming forib, they sat little, and yet in the spring are as forward ts work and fwarm, as those which had twice as mucb boney in the autumn before." ce tbe Rev. Mr. White's Method of preserving Bees, abird edition, price 15.


They were rather later in tiwarning T con berlation was written for my


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