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4. That, though they live un. spread of liberal opinions; yet der the despotic government of there is a class of readers, among Austria, yet they enjoy a degree whom I most certainly include of religious liberty which Unitari. myself, who I think might be very ans in Britain are not legally en. materially benefited by having va. titled to!
luable publications made more To these probable conclusions I accessible to us. It must be evibeg leave to add the following dent to every one that the purquestions.
chase of the best writers on Unita1. Have any of your learned rian subjects, for these last 40 correspondents seen the Latin co- years, is beyond the ability of py of Professor Markos's work many who from education are before mentioned ?
equal to obtaining much benefit 2. Is there any English trans- from the perusal of them; and lation of tha! work?
gentlemen who have libraries, are 3. If any of your learred cor- not always willing to lend books, respondents are acquainted with from the consequent injury they the Latin copy, and there be no they must sustain irom being free English translation extant, would quently read. What I would proit not be of real service to the pose is, that some bookseller Unitarian cause in the British should collect all the books, for Islands and America to translate these last 40 years, on Unitarian the work into English?
subjects, and let them out by the 4. May not some method be volume for hire, as in circulating devised (perhaps through a mer- Jibraries, I
I should hope, far from cantile medium) of opening a cor- such a plan being injurious to Tespondence with Professor Mar- the sale of books, it would prove
kos, or some other respectable advantageous, as it would increase · Unitarian in Transylvania, where readers and probably induce inost by we may know more of the cir. to make some purchases : judging cumstances of our Christian bre. by my own feelings, I know nothing thren in that remote country? but the inability to purchase would I am Sir, yours,
. satisfy me with an occasional read. SENEX. ing.
If this or any similar plan Proposal of an Unitarian Circu- should be adopted in consequence lating Library.
of my writing, I shall feel plea. Hampstead, Jan. 5, sure in the hope that I may have
1812. rendered some small service 10 a I am among the number of cause in which I am deeply inof those who look forward with terested. pleasure to the beginning of the
A Friend to Inquiry. month, when the pages of the Monthly Repository will give the information of the great exertions Practical evil of the doctrine of the friends of truth are making.
Original Depravity. The book societies, in London and SIR, Jan. 10, 1812. many parts of the kingdom, have, When Anti-Calvinists object to I doubt not, done much for the the iminoral tendency of the Cal
86 A Collection of Facts relating to Criminal Law.
And how mischievous is a nation.
Criminal Law. for vice!
(Continued from p. 30.] But I wish merely to point out « The Criminal Law is in every to your readers a case in which country of Europe more rude and imperthe wretched principle of original fect than the civil.”. and universal depravity formed a
Blackstone. Comm. B. iv. ch. ).
" To shed the blood of our fellow covering into which atrocious creature is a matter that requires the guilt retreated from public igno. greatest deliberaiion, and the fullest miny. You remember, I dare say, conviction of our own authority : for the name of Hodge, the West in life is the immediate gift of God to
man; which neither he can resign, nor dia Planter, who though not old, can it be taken from him; unless by the. had gone through a long catalogue command or permission of him who of cruelties and passed a busy life gave it; either expressly revealed, or of murders. This ruffian was at
collected from the laws of nature or so· length arrested in his career of stration."
ciery, by clear and indisputable demon.
Ib. blood and tried for his life, which
“ We may even hope, that when the was afterwards demanded in sacri. benevolent and more enlightened eye of fice to justice. To the jury who philosophy shall have inspected that imsat upon his case, he is represent. tion of punishments, this will become
portant part of legislation, the distribued in the Morning Chronicle of less and less destructive, without being July 8th 1811, as saying that less efficacious, and be gradually con“ Bad as he had been represented,
verted into correction of offenders." and bad as they nright think him, v. iii. p. 496. 8vo.
Pistorius's Notes to Hartley. Hartley. he felt support in his affliction from “In free governments, the very act religion. As all men are subject of enquiring into the grounds and effects to wrong, he could not but say that of laws is a direct proof of incrcasing
knowledge. It constitutes a presumpTHAT PRINCIPLE was likewise
tive proof of such improvements in the IN HERENT in him. He acknow- actual state of society as render the forledged himself guilty in regard to mer code inconvenient or oppressive; many of his slaves." - What a prin- and when the expedients proposed by inciple must that be which places such wishes of the community, it becomes an abuser of humanity upon a level the duty of every wise and honcst legis with the majority of mankind; or lature to supply what is defective, and rather, which drags them down to to correct what is mischievous."
Philopatris Varvicensis. ii. 492.
Proposition III. observed that 200,000 men had Esperience has not shewn that been gorerned for seven years Capital Punishments tend to the without a capital punishment, and diminution of Crimes.
without any increase of crimes. “ The Duke of Tuscany, soon At the close of the Sessions, the after the publication of the Mar- foreman of the Grand Jury deli. quis of Beccaria's excellent trea- vered an address to Sir James from iise, abolished death as a punish- that body, expressing their regret ment for murder. A gentleman at the dins lution of the connecti. who resided five years at Pisa, in- on between them and him, and formed me that only five murders requesting that the learned judge had been perpetrated in his domie would sit for his portrait, which nions in twenty years. The saine they were desirous of placing in gentleman added, that after his the hall where he had so long preresidence in Tuscany, he spent sided with such distinguished abithree months in Rome, where lity. death is still the punishment of
or Sir James in his answer, exof murder; and where executions, pressed his acknowledgements, and according to Dr. Moore, are con. replied, that as soon as he reached ducted with peculiar circum. Great Britain, he would take meastances of public parade. During sures for complying with their de. this short period, there were sixty sire."* murders committed in the precincts Morning Chronicle, Monday, of that city. It is remarkable Feb. 3. 1812. that the manners, principles and Proposition IV. religion of the inhabitants of Tus By the severity of the laws, and cany and Rome are exactly the the discretionary power in judges,
The abolition of death, murders miay sometimes be commitalone, as a punishment for mur. ted under the forms oj law. der, produced this difference in 6 When a member of parliathe moral character of the two ment brings'in a new hanging law, nations.”
he begins with mentioning some Rush's Inquiry into Public Pun- injury that may be done to private ishment. p. 30,
property, for which a man is not “ SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH yet liable to be hanged; and then delivered his last charge to the proposes the gallows as the speciGrand Jury at the Sessions for fic and infallible means of cure Bombay, held on the 13th of July; and prevention. But the bill, in in which he suggested the esta.
* We have quoted the whole of the blishment of a better system of paragraph, not being able to separate the police, and more efficient regula. stateni-nt, referring to our Proposition, tions for the distribution of the so as to make it intelligible. We have, property of insolvent merchants. speedy return to his native country of so
besides, a pleasure in making known the The learned judge also comment- distinguished a man as Sir James Mack. ed upon the effects produced by intosh, who, we fondly trust, will devote desisting from inflicting Capital his extraordinary talents and brilliant Punishments, during the period ous liberty, philanthropy and reform.
cloquence to the cause of civil and religi. he had presided in that court, and
86 A Collection of Pacts relating to Criminal Law. progress of time, makes crimes ca- proved her mind to be in a dis. pital, that scarce deserve whip- tracted and desponding state: and ping. For instance, the shop.lift- the child was sucking at her ing act was to prevent bankers' and breast when she set out for Tysilversmiths', and other shops, burn. Let us reflect a little on where there are commonly goods this woman's fate. of great value, froin being robbed; “ The poet says, 'An hopest but it goes so far as to make it man's the noblest work of God.' He death to lift any thing off a coun- might have said with equal truth, ter with intent to steal. Under that a.beauteous womau's the nothis act, one Mary Jones was exe- blest work of God. cuted, whose case I shall just men. 6 But for what cause was God's tion; it was at the time when press. creation robbed of this its noblest warrants were issued, on the alarm work? It was for no injury; but about Falkland's Islands. The for a mere attempt to clothe two woman's husband
was pressed, naked children by unlawful means. their goods seized for some debt Compare this with what the State of his, and she, with two small did, and what the Law did. The children, turned into the streets State bereaved the woman of her a begging. It is a circumstance husband, and the children of a father, not to be forgotten, that she was who was all their support: the Law very young (under nineteen) and deprived the woman of her life, most remarkably handsome. She and the children of their remaining went to a linen draper's shop, took parent, exposing them to every dansome coarse linen off the counter, ger, insult and merciless treat. and slipped it under her cloak; the ment, that destitute and helpless shopman saw her, and she laid it orphans suffer. Take all the cir. down: for this she was hanged. cumstances together, I do not be. Her defence was (I have the trial lieve that a fouler murder was ever in my pocket)' that she had lived committed against law, than the in credit, and wanted for nothing, murder of this woman by law. till a press-gang came and stole Some who hear me are perhaps her husband from her; but since blaming the judges, the jury, the then, she had no bed to lie on; hangman; but neither judge, jury, nothing to give her childrer. to eat; norhangman, are to blame; they are and they were almost naked; and ministerial agents ; the true hang. perhaps she might have done some. man is the member of parliament : thing wrong, for she hardly knew he who frames the bloody law is what she did.' The parish offi. answerable for the blood that is cers testified the truth of this story; shed under it.” but it seems, there had been a Sir W. Meredith's Speech in good deal of shop-lifting about the House of Commons. Quoted Ludgate: an example was thought in Montagu's Opinions. ii. 393necessary; and this woman was 400. hanged, for the comfort and satis. Proposition V. faction of some shopkeepers in The punishment of death for ofLudgate Street. When brought fences less than murder, often into receive sentence, she behaved cites offenders to commit murder; in such a frantic manner, as hoping thereby to escape, and
knowing that if they be detected the course of the week:
He they cannot suffer more than death. stated that the preceding day, at a
I was once present” (says Mr. hookseller's, a person came in and Gilbert Wakefield,) at the exe- inquired for “ Plato on the Imcution of a man of undaunted mortality of the Soul," and adding firmness, and (saving this action "it was for a person in Newgate of robbing a traveller of a few who was shortly to suffer death.” shiìlings, without insult or ill. This led to some further conversa. usage, under the seduction of an tion, and excited a wish on the hardened accomplice,) of an un- part of my friend to have some exceptionable character. He died, conversation with the convict al. without bravado, and without ob- luded to. In the midst of our duracy, under a due sense of his conference, Mr. Kirby, the then goawful situation, with the magnani. vernor of Newgate (whose memory mity of an hero; despising that will be ever respecied for his wise merciless and unequal sentence dom, kindness and humanity, in which had brought him to this sad the execution of his important condition, Had I known', says office,) came in, and I informed he, that I should have suffered him of what had passed, on which thus for that offence, I would not he at once said he should be glad have so easily been taken.' He if we would converse with the was a man of Herculean strength, poor man, as he could not preand capable of destroying half a vail with him to hold any interdozen constables before he could course with the ordinary of New. have been secured."
gate, or to join in any religious Life of Wakefield. i. 313–315. service; offering, at the same time,
to introduce us to him immediately, Mr. B. Flower's Account of a as the following day was appointed man executed for Forgery.
for his execution. We accordHarlow, Jan, 12, 1812. ingly went into the yard, where SIR,
we found the prisoner walking. Amongst other bad effects result. Mr. Kirby, who in the kindest ing from our penal code, the impres- manner took him, as well as the sions thereby inade on the mind of other prisoners by the hand, inquir. the sufferer have not been duly con- ing if they wanted any thing their sidered. Of this I had a remarka, situation would admit, left us to. ble instance when I was in New. gether. We entered into such con. gate in the year 1799, in conse. versation with the convict as we quence of a sentence of the House thought most suitable on the sad of Lords, for a pretended libel on occasion. After some time he the Bishop of Llandaff, in defence addressed us nearly as follows: of which I had nothing to allege “ I did not wish for the conversabut its TRUTH!
tion of any Christians to disturb An acquaintance, a respectable me in my last hours; but I thank dissenting minister, one day called you for your kindness, and will be on me to make some inquiry con. very frank with you. I have not, cerning a man under sentence of I confess, thought much about death for forgery, and who was to Christianity, but I have seen suffer the sentence of the law in enough of it in the lives of its pro